Table 1: Multistrata silvopastoral systems evaluated in the Sinu River Valley, Colombia.

SystemCompositionPlant speciesDistance (m)*No. of trees per haTree height (m)DBH (cm)**

A0PastureD. aristatum
P. maximum

A1Pasture and treesD. aristatum
P. maximum
G. ulmifolia 11
C. grandis 11
A. saman

A2Pasture, trees, and shrubsD. aristatum
P. maximum
G. ulmifolia for trees11
C. grandis 11
A. saman 11
C. cujete for shrubs 300
L. leucocephala

A3Pasture, trees, shrubs, and timber treesD. aristatum
P. maximum
G. ulmifolia for trees11
C. grandis 11
A. saman 11
C. cujete for shrubs300
L. leucocephala 300
P. quinata for timber trees11
S. macrophylla

At planting, the initial distance among trees was  m; four years later, the trees were thinned to  m.
DBH: diameter at breast height ± standard deviation.