Table 1: Main studies concerning the prognostic value of bFGF and VEGF in adult (A) and childhood (C) ALL.

Authors, journal, and publication year . patientsType of samplesMeasured criteriaPrognostic value

Aguayo et al. Blood, 2000 [14]A : 28BM [20] and Plasma [23] (diagnosis)MVD and plasmatic levels of VEGF and bFGFNot determined.
MVD; no high levels of VEGF in LAL

Koomagi et al., Clin Cancer Res, 2001 [24]C : 53BM (RT-PCR), diagnosis [25], relapse [22]VEGF levels, outcome VEGF correlated to better overall survival

Yetgin et al., Leukemia Lymphoma, 2001 [19]C : 31Serum (VEGF & bFGF) (diagnosis and CR)Correlations with prognosis criteria (HMG, WBC, Hb, platelets, phenotype)Positive correlation, only with platelets

Pulè et al., Br J Hematol, 2002 [18]C : 41BM (diagnosis and CR)MVD & correlations with outcome (relapse) and prognosis criteria (age, sex, cytogenetics, phenotype)No correlation

Schneider et al., Br J Hematol, 2003 [26]C : 39Urine (diagnosis)Levels of urinary bFGF and VEGF levels & outcome bFGF and/or VEGF significantly associated with poor outcome

Wellmann et al., Leukemia, 2004 [27]C : 18
C :  6
BM (diagnosis)
Plasma (relapse)
Expression of VEGF & VEGF-R & HIF-1α by immunostaining; RT-PCR on BM-extracted RNA VEGF and HIF-1α shorter DFS
VEGF if treatment resistance (MRD+)

Faderl et al. Blood, 2005 [17]A : 95Plasma (diagnosis)Relative risk of death (RR) according to VEGF levelsRR of death ×8 if VEGF <19.1 pg/mL

Avramis et al., Clinic Cancer Res, 2006 [28]C :  17Serum (diagnosis, d14, d28)Evolution of VEGF levels during induction; correlation with EFSPositive predictive value of relapse if VEGF

Schneider et al., Leuk Res, 2007 [29]C : 33Urine and plasma (diagnosis, relapse)Levels of endostatin, bFGF, VEGF plasma VEGF at relapse
No prognostic value of endostatin levels

Lyu et al., Yonsei Med J, 2007 [30]C : 33BM Plasma (diagnosis and relapse)Levels of VEGF & bFGF, correlations with WBC and ageHigher bFGF and VEGF levels in relapse. No correlations

Stachel et al., Oncology Reports, 2007 [31]C : 46BM (diagnosis)RT-PCR on BM-extracted RNA; correlations with relapse and survival VEGF correlated to late relapse

BM: bone marrow; MVD: microvessel density; C: children; A: adults; D: at diagnosis; CR: complete remission; RR: relative risk; EFS: event-free survival; bFGF: basic fibroblast growth factor; VEGF: vascular endothelial growth factor; HIF-1α: subunit 1α of hypoxia-induced factor 1; MRD: minimal residual disease.