Table 1: Statistical results of the ratings of valence, arousal, and approachability.

Rating scaleANOVAEffect size Pairwise comparisons

Valence (2, 38) = 30.60, = .54Negative < neutral (19) = 5.99,
Negative < positive (19) = 5.67,
Neutral < positive (19) = 4.44,

Arousal (2, 38) = 13.57, = .19Negative > neutral (19) = 4.59,
Negative > positive (19) = 4.30,
Neutral versus positive (19) = 0.76, ns

Approachability (1, 23) = 29.30, = .48Negative < neutral (19) = 7.94,
Negative < positive (19) = 5.67,
Neutral < positive (19) = 2.64,