Table 2: Event categories for the user dimension.

User-related event

LearningThe user figures out how to perform an action that was unclear before (learn to play), or when the user is actively engaging in consuming content (learn content).
ReflectingThe user pauses or wonders what to do next. Unlike when the user is confused and does not know what to do, reflecting events indicate pause to create action plans within the game space.
Satisfied/excitedThe user displays a remarkably positive reaction.
Pleasantly frustratedThe user expresses frustration in a positive manner. A pleasantly frustrating moment urges the user to try to overcome the obstacle again.
FrustratedThe user voices or displays negative feelings at not being able to complete the game or not knowing how to do something. A frustrating moment urges the player to stop playing.
ConfusedThe user does not know how to perform an action, misinterprets instructions, and/or does not know what he/she is supposed to do.
AnnoyedThe user performs properly a task in the game (knows how to do it), but feels negatively about having to do it.
Unable to continue (fatal)This is usually the consequence of one or more of the above, or of a fatal technical error. An event is related to when the user becomes definitely stuck and/or cannot continue without the help of the researcher. Such events are highlighted because the origin of these events must always be resolved.
NonapplicableAn event is not related to the user (e.g., it is a remark by the researcher, or a glitch appeared but the user did not notice it).
Suggestion/commentThe user verbalizes a comment or a suggestion that is not related to a specific interaction or event.
OtherAn event is related to the user, but does not match any of the above (this suggests that a new category is needed).