About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 389523, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/389523
Research Article

Interactive Language Learning through Speech-Enabled Virtual Scenarios

Centre for Communication Interface Research, School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JL, UK

Received 30 May 2012; Accepted 5 September 2012

Academic Editor: M. Carmen Juan

Copyright © 2012 Hazel Morton et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. Firth and J. Wagner, “On discourse, communication, and (some) fundamental concepts in SLA research,” The Modern Language Journal, vol. 81, no. 3, pp. 285–300, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. L. van Lier, “From input to affordance: social-interactive learning from an ecological perspective,” in Sociocultural Theory and Second Language Learning, J. P. Lantolf, Ed., pp. 245–259, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 2000.
  3. M. Warschauer and D. Healey, “Computers and language learning: an overview,” Language Teaching, vol. 31, pp. 57–71, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. B. H. Sørensen and B. Meyer, “Serious games in language learning and teaching—a theoretical perspective,” in Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of the Digital Games Research Association, pp. 559–566, Tokyo, Japan, 2007.
  5. J. C. Richards and T. S. Rogers, Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1986.
  6. R. Scarcella and D. Crookall, “Simulation/gaming and language acquisition,” in Simulation, Gaming and Language Learning, D. Crookall and R. L. Oxford, Eds., pp. 223–230, Newbury House, New York, NY, USA, 1990.
  7. L. van Lier, “An ecological-semiotic perspective on language and linguistics,” in Language Acquisition and Language Socialization: Ecological Perspectives, C. Kramsch, Ed., pp. 140–164, Continuum, London, UK, 2002.
  8. K. Facer, “Computer games and learning,” NESTA Futurlab Discussion Paper, pp. 1–11, 2005, http://www.nestafuturelab.org/research/discuss/02discuss01.htm.
  9. M. H. Long, “The role of the linguistic environment in second language acquisition,” in Handbook of Second Language Acquisition, W. C. Ritchie and T. K. Bhatia, Eds., pp. 413–468, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1996.
  10. M. Swain, “Three functions of output in second language learning,” in Principle and Practice in Applied Linguistics: Studies in Honour of H. G. Widdowson, G. Cook and B. Seidlhofer, Eds., pp. 125–144, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 1995.
  11. C. A. Chapelle, “Multimedia CALL: lessons to be learned from research on instructed SLA,” Language Learning & Technology, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 22–34, 1998.
  12. H. Morton, N. Davidson, and M. A. Jack, “Evaluation of a speech interactive CALL system,” in Handbook of Research on Computer-Enhanced Language Acquisition and Learning, F. Zhang and B. Barber, Eds., 2008.
  13. H. Morton and M. Jack, “Speech interactive computer-assisted language learning: a cross-cultural evaluation,” Computer Assisted Language Learning, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 295–319, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. H. Morton, N. Gunson, and M. Jack, “Attitudes to subtitle duration and the effect on user responses in speech interactive foreign language learning,” Journal of Multimedia, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 436–446, 2011.
  15. J. Cassell, “Nudge, nudge, wink, wink: elements of face-to-face conversation for embodied conversational agents,” in Embodied Conversational Agents, J. Cassell, J. Sullivan, S. Prevost, and E. Churchill, Eds., pp. 1–27, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass, USA, 2000.
  16. W. L. Johnson, S. Choi, S. Marsella, N. Mote, S. Narayanan, and H. Vilhjálmsson, “Tactical language training system: supporting the rapid acquisition of foreign language and cultural skills,” in Proceedings of the InSTIL/ICALL Symposium on Computer Assisted Language Learning, pp. 21–24, Venice, Italy, 2004.
  17. W. L. Johnson and E. Shaw, “Using agents to overcome difficulties in web-based courseware,” in Workshop on Intelligent Educational Systems on the World Wide Web (AI-ED '97), pp. 1–8, Kobe, Japan, 1997.
  18. W. L. Johnson, J. W. Rickel, and J. C. Lester, “Animated pedagogical agents: face-to-face interaction in interactive learning environments,” International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, vol. 11, pp. 47–78, 2000.
  19. W. L. Johnson and A. Valente, “Tactical language and culture training systems: Using artificial intelligence to teach foreign languages and cultures,” in Proceedings of the 23rd AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence and the 20th Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence Conference (AAAI '08/IAAI '08), pp. 1632–1639, Chicago, Ill, USA, July 2008. View at Scopus
  20. J. C. Lester, S. A. Converse, S. E. Kahler, S. T. Barlow, B. A. Stone, and R. S. Bhogal, “Animated pedagogical agents and problem-solving effectiveness: a large-scale empirical evaluation,” in Proceedings of the 8th World Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, pp. 23–30, 1997.
  21. R. Moreno, R. E. Mayer, and J. C. Lester, “Life-like pedagogical agents in constructivist multimedia environments: Cognitive consequences of their interaction,” in Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications, pp. 741–746, AACE Press, Charlottesville, VA, USA, 2000.
  22. W. L. Johnson, J. W. Rickel, and J. C. Lester, “Animated pedagogical agents: face-to-face interaction in interactive learning environments,” International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, vol. 11, pp. 47–78, 2000.
  23. M. Heim, The Metaphysics of Virtual Reality, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 1994.
  24. M. Slater, M. Usoh, and A. Steed, “Depth of presence in virtual environments,” Presence, Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, vol. 3, pp. 130–144, 1994.
  25. C. D. Morris, J. D. Bransford, and J. J. Franks, “Levels of processing versus transfer appropriate processing,” Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 519–533, 1977. View at Scopus
  26. W. Menzel, D. Herron, R. Morton, D. Pezzotta, P. Bonaventura, and P. Howarth, “Interactive pronunciation training,” ReCALL, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 67–78, 2001.
  27. J. Dalby and D. Kewley-Port, “Explicit pronunciation training using automatic speech recognition technology,” CALICO Journal, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 425–445, 1999.
  28. M. Eskenazi, “Using a computer in foreign language pronunciation training: what advantages?” CALICO Journal, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 447–469, 1999.
  29. J. Murray, “Lessons learned from the Athena language learning project,” in Intelligent Language Tutors: Theory Shaping Technology, V. Holland M, J. D. Kaplan, and M. R. Sams, Eds., pp. 243–256, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ, USA, 1995.
  30. J. Bernstein, A. Najmi, and F. Ehsani, “Subarashii: encounters in Japanese spoken language education,” CALICO Journal, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 361–384, 1999.
  31. W. G. Harless, M. A. Zier, and R. C. Duncan, “Virtual dialogues with native speakers: the evaluation of an interactive multimedia method,” CALICO Journal, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 313–337, 1999.
  32. M. Holland, J. D. Kaplan, and M. Sabol, “Preliminary tests of language learning in a speech-interactive graphics microworld,” CALICO Journal, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 339–359, 1999.
  33. H. Strik, F. Cornillie, J. Colpært, J. van Doremalen, and C. Cucchiarini, “Developing a CALL system for practicing oral proficiency: how to design for speech technology, pedagogy and learners,” in Proceedings of the SlaTE-2009 Workshop, Warwickshire, UK, 2009.
  34. T. Pica, “Research on negotiation: what does it reveal about second-language learning conditions, processes, and outcomes?” Language Learning, vol. 44, pp. 493–527, 1994.
  35. S. Gass, Input, Interaction, and the Second Language Learner, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ, USA, 1997.
  36. M. Swain, “Communicative competence: some roles of comprehensible input and comprehensible output in its development,” in Input in Second Language Acquisition, S. Gass and C. Madden, Eds., pp. 235–253, Newbury House Press, Rowley, Mass, USA, 1985.
  37. K. Wachowicz and B. Scott, “Software that listens: it’s not a question of whether, it’s a question of how,” CALICO Journal, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 253–276, 1999.
  38. C. Doughty and J. Williams, “Pedagogical choices in focus on form,” in Focus on Form in Classroom Second Language Acquisition, C. Doughty and J. Williams, Eds., pp. 197–261, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1998.
  39. S. M. Gass, “Integrating research areas: a framework for second language studies,” Applied Linguistics, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 198–217, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. H. Strik, A. Neri, and C. Cucchiarini, “Speech technology for language tutoring,” in Proceedings of the Language and Speech Technology Conference (LangTech '08), pp. 73–76, Rome, Italy, 2008.
  41. J. Morgan and S. LaRocca, “Making a speech recognizer tolerate non-native speech through Gaussian mixture merging,” in Proceedings of InSTIL/ICALL Symposium on Computer Assisted Language Learning,, pp. 213–216, Venice, Italy, 2004.
  42. N. Cylwik, A. Wagner, and G. Demenko, “The EURONOUNCE corpus of non-native polish for ASR-based pronunciation tutoring system,” in Proceedings of the SLATE Workshop on Speech and Language Technology in Education, Warwickshire, UK, 2009.
  43. L. Neumeyer, H. Franco, M. Weintraub, and P. Price, “Automatic text-independent pronunciation scoring of foreign language student speech,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (ICSLP '96), pp. 1457–1460, October 1996. View at Scopus
  44. G. Kawai and K. Hirose, “A method for measuring the intelligibility and non-nativeness of phone quality in foreign language pronunciation training,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (ICSLP '98), pp. 1823–1826, Sydney, Australia, 1998.
  45. R. Likert, A Technique for the Measurement of Attitudes, Columbia University Press, New York, NY, USA, 1932.
  46. P. Hubbard, “Interactive participatory dramas for language learning,” Simulation and Gaming, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 210–216, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. A. Mitchell and C. Savill-Smith, “The use of computer and video games for learning. A review of the literature, Ultralab,” 2004, http://gmedia.glos.ac.uk/docs/books/computergames4learning.pdf.
  48. Becta, “Computer games in education,” Project Report, 2001.
  49. C. Bisson and J. Luckner, “Fun in learning: the pedagogical role of fun in adventure education,” Journal of Experimental Education, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 108–112, 1996.
  50. J. P. Gee, “Pleasure, learning, video, games and life: the projective stance,” E-Learning and Digital Media, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 21–223, 2005.
  51. M. Prensky, Digital Game-Based Learning, McGraw Hill, New York, NY, USA, 2001.
  52. K. Salen and E. Zimmerman, Rules of Play: Game Design Fundamentals, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass, USA, 2004.
  53. S. Franciosi, “A comparison of computer game and language learning task design using flow theory,” CALL-EJ, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 1–25, 2011.
  54. R. Sandford and B. Williamson, Games and Learning: A Handbook From Futurlab, 2005, http://www2.futurelab.org.uk/resources/documents/handbooks/games_and_learning2.pdf.