Asian Journal of Neuroscience The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. The Effect of Sleep Deprivation on Ocular Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials Using Air Conducted Sound Tue, 21 Jan 2014 07:38:38 +0000 Vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) in response to a loud air conducted sound (ACS) recorded from extraocular muscles, the so-called ocular VEMP (oVEMP), has been confirmed to be able to evaluate utricular function. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of sleep deprivation (SD) on oVEMP parameters. oVEMPs were recorded in 20 male healthy subjects once after an ordinary sleep and once after 26–29 h of SD. The latencies of peak N1 and P1, N1-P1 amplitude, N1-P1 interval, and asymmetry ratio (AR) of oVEMP recorded from both eyes under normal sleep and SD conditions were 10.04 ± 0.59 ms versus 10.56 ± 0.69 ms (left eye), 14.95 ± 0.92 ms versus 15.64 ± 1.05 ms (left eye), and 7.44 ± 2.86 µV versus 5.26 ± 2.15 µV (left eye); 10.08 ± 0.66 ms versus 10.64 ± 0.73 ms (right eye), 14.88 ± 0.89 ms versus 15.59 ± 1.02 ms (right eye), and 7.16 ± 2.88 µV versus 5.04 ± 2.05 µV(right eye); 10.40 ± 5.81% versus 11.43 ± 6.37%, respectively. After SD, the latencies of oVEMP were delayed and N1-P1 amplitude was lower, whereas N1-P1 interval and AR remained unchanged. The present study showed that oVEMP test could be used to evaluate the fatigue induced by SD. Su-Jiang Xie, Hong-Zhe Bi, and Qin Yao Copyright © 2014 Su-Jiang Xie et al. All rights reserved. Impact of Obesity and Underweight on Surgical Outcome of Lumbar Disc Herniation Sun, 12 Jan 2014 14:27:33 +0000 Background. The relationship between underweight and lumbar spine surgery is still unknown. Aim. To evaluate the effect of underweight versus obesity based on surgical outcome of lumbar disc herniation. Material and Method. In this retrospective study, we evaluated 206 patients (112 male and 94 female) with a mean age of years old (ranged 20–72) who have been surgically treated due to the refractory simple primary L4-L5 disc herniation. We followed them up for a mean period of months (ranged 24–57). We used Body Mass Index (BMI), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for categorization, disability, and pain assessment, respectively. We used Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests for statistics. Results. Surgical discectomy in all weight groups was associated with significant improvement in pain and disability, but intergroup comparison showed these improvements in both underweight and obese groups and they were significantly lower than in normal weight group. Excellent and good satisfaction rate was also somewhat lower in both these ends of weight spectrum, but statistically insignificant. Conclusion. Both obesity and underweight may have adverse prognostic influences on the surgical outcome of lumbar disc herniation, although their impact on subjective satisfaction rate seems to be insignificant. Farzad Omidi-Kashani, Ebrahim Ghayem Hasankhani, Ehsan Rafeemanesh, Parham Seyf, Hassan Attarchi, Mohammad Dawood Rahimi, and Reza Khanzadeh Copyright © 2014 Farzad Omidi-Kashani et al. All rights reserved. Assessment of Nerve Injuries after Surgical Removal of Mandibular Third Molar: A Prospective Study Sun, 17 Nov 2013 09:50:39 +0000 Although third molar extraction is a routinely carried out procedure in a dental set-up, yet it is feared both by the patient and the dentist due to an invariable set of complications associated with it, especially in the form of nerve injuries. Hence, prior to performing such procedures, it would be wise if the clinician thoroughly evaluates the case for any anticipated complications so that adequate preventive measures can be taken to minimize the traumatic outcomes of the procedure and provide maximum patient care, which would further save the clinician from any sort of litigation. Vikas Sukhadeo Meshram, Priyatama Vikas Meshram, and Pravin Lambade Copyright © 2013 Vikas Sukhadeo Meshram et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Meditation on Temporal Processing and Speech Perceptual Skills in Younger and Older Adults Tue, 01 Oct 2013 10:50:08 +0000 The purpose of this study was to assess the temporal processing and speech perception abilities in older adults who were practicing meditation for more than five years. Participants were comprised of three groups, 30 young adults (“YA”) in the age range of 20–30 years, 30 older adults in the age range of 50–65 years who practiced meditation for a period of five years or more (effective meditators “EM”), and 51 age matched older adults who did not have any experience of meditation (non-meditators “NM”). Temporal processing was evaluated using gap detection in noise, duration discrimination, modulation detection, and backward masking and duration pattern tests. Speech perception was measured in presence of a four-talker babble at −5 dB signal to noise ratio and with the vocoded stimuli. Results revealed that EM group performed significantly better than NM group in all psychophysical and speech perception tasks except in gap detection task. In the gap detection task, two groups did not differ significantly. Furthermore, EM group showed significantly better modulation detection thresholds compared to YA. Results of the study demonstrate that the practice of meditation not only offsets the decline in temporal and speech processing abilities due to aging process but also improves the ability to perceive the modulations compared to young adults. Uppunda Ajith Kumar, A. V. Sangamanatha, and Jai Vikas Copyright © 2013 Uppunda Ajith Kumar et al. All rights reserved. Molecular Diagnosis of Friedreich Ataxia Using Analysis of GAA Repeats and FXN Gene Exons in Population from Western India Thu, 19 Sep 2013 11:47:03 +0000 The diagnosis of Friedreich ataxia is based on the clinical symptoms and GAA repeats expansions. In our experience, checking FXN gene exons for mutations along with GAA repeat analysis may give better clue for its diagnosis. In the present study, total 49 suspected Friedreich ataxia patients were analyzed for GAA repeat expansion. Eleven patients have normal number of GAA repeats, thereby termed as FRDA negative patients. Thirty-eight patients showed no amplification using GAA repeat analysis. Since no conclusion was possible based on these results, these patients were designated as uninformative. We have analyzed 5 exons of the FXN gene in FRDA negative and uninformative patients to check for possible mutations. It was observed that there were no mutations found in any of FRDA negative and most uninformative patients. We further used long range PCR to check for deletion of exon 5a. It was found that 18 patients showed expression for exon 5a PCR but none in long range PCR. Five patients showed no expression for exon 5a PCR as well as long range PCR indicating that these 5 patients may be positive FRDA patients. These findings need to be correlated with clinical history of these patients for confirmation. Pravin D. Potdar and Aarthy Raghu Copyright © 2013 Pravin D. Potdar and Aarthy Raghu. All rights reserved. Renin Angiotensin System in Cognitive Function and Dementia Thu, 12 Sep 2013 11:17:37 +0000 Angiotensin II represents a key molecule in hypertension and cerebrovascular pathology. By promoting inflammation and oxidative stress, enhanced Ang II levels accelerate the onset and progression of cell senescence. Sustained activation of RAS promotes end-stage organ injury associated with aging and results in cognitive impairment and dementia. The discovery of the angiotensin-converting enzyme ACE2-angiotensin (1–7)-Mas receptor axis that exerts vasodilator, antiproliferative, and antifibrotic actions opposed to those of the ACE-Ang II-AT1 receptor axis has led to the hypothesis that a decrease in the expression or activity of angiotensin (1–7) renders the systems more susceptible to the pathological actions of Ang II. Given the successful demonstration of beneficial effects of increased expression of ACE2/formation of Ang1–7/Mas receptor binding and modulation of Mas expression in animal models in containing cerebrovascular pathology in hypertensive conditions and aging, one could reasonably hope for analogous effects regarding the prevention of cognitive decline by protecting against hypertension and cerebral microvascular damage. Upregulation of ACE2 and increased balance of Ang 1–7/Ang II, along with positive modulation of Ang II signaling through AT2 receptors and Ang 1–7 signaling through Mas receptors, may be an appropriate strategy for improving cognitive function and treating dementia. Vijaya Lakshmi Bodiga and Sreedhar Bodiga Copyright © 2013 Vijaya Lakshmi Bodiga and Sreedhar Bodiga. All rights reserved.