Advances in Multimedia The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Deblurring by Solving a TVp-Regularized Optimization Problem Using Split Bregman Method Tue, 16 Dec 2014 09:19:50 +0000 Image deblurring is formulated as an unconstrained minimization problem, and its penalty function is the sum of the error term and TVp-regularizers with . Although TVp-regularizer is a powerful tool that can significantly promote the sparseness of image gradients, it is neither convex nor smooth, thus making the presented optimization problem more difficult to deal with. To solve this minimization problem efficiently, such problem is first reformulated as an equivalent constrained minimization problem by introducing new variables and new constraints. Thereafter, the split Bregman method, as a solver, splits the new constrained minimization problem into subproblems. For each subproblem, the corresponding efficient method is applied to ensure the existence of closed-form solutions. In simulated experiments, the proposed algorithm and some state-of-the-art algorithms are applied to restore three types of blurred-noisy images. The restored results show that the proposed algorithm is valid for image deblurring and is found to outperform other algorithms in experiments. Su Xiao Copyright © 2014 Su Xiao. All rights reserved. No-Reference Video Quality Assessment Model for Distortion Caused by Packet Loss in the Real-Time Mobile Video Services Thu, 11 Dec 2014 06:35:54 +0000 Packet loss will make severe errors due to the corruption of related video data. For most video streams, because the predictive coding structures are employed, the transmission errors in one frame will not only cause decoding failure of itself at the receiver side, but also propagate to its subsequent frames along the motion prediction path, which will bring a significant degradation of end-to-end video quality. To quantify the effects of packet loss on video quality, a no-reference objective quality assessment model is presented in this paper. Considering the fact that the degradation of video quality significantly relies on the video content, the temporal complexity is estimated to reflect the varying characteristic of video content, using the macroblocks with different motion activities in each frame. Then, the quality of the frame affected by the reference frame loss, by error propagation, or by both of them is evaluated, respectively. Utilizing a two-level temporal pooling scheme, the video quality is finally obtained. Extensive experimental results show that the video quality estimated by the proposed method matches well with the subjective quality. Jiarun Song and Fuzheng Yang Copyright © 2014 Jiarun Song and Fuzheng Yang. All rights reserved. Reliability Model Construction for Complex System Based on Common Cause Failure Network Wed, 10 Dec 2014 11:21:10 +0000 A new construction method of system reliability was proposed in this paper based on network and relevant failure. Taking the component units as the nodes and the interaction relationships between the nodes as the side lines, a new directional network reliability model with certain network topology characteristics was constructed. It can indicate the complex topology relationship, interaction mechanism, and the transmission mechanism of failure affect between mechanical integration and electrical integration of system components. Compared with the traditional research methods, the relevant failure was considered during this process. Through the application of the fault data in the bogie system of high-speed train, it was shown that a new network reliability model which considered the relevant failure can be constructed by the method proposed in this paper and the result can be more accurate, especially for the complex mechanical and electrical integration systems. Lijie Li, Limin Jia, and Yanhui Wang Copyright © 2014 Lijie Li et al. All rights reserved. Augmented Reality Experience: From High-Resolution Acquisition to Real Time Augmented Contents Wed, 10 Dec 2014 08:02:04 +0000 This paper presents results of a research project “dUcale” that experiments ICT solutions for the museum of Palazzo Ducale (Urbino). In this project, the famed painting the “Città Ideale” becomes a case to exemplify a specific approach to the digital mediation of cultural heritage. An augmented reality (AR) mobile application, able to enhance the museum visit experience, is presented. The computing technologies involved in the project (websites, desktop and social applications, mobile software, and AR) constitute a persuasive environment for the artwork knowledge. The overall goal of our research is to provide to cultural institutions best practices efficiently on low budgets. Therefore, we present a low cost method for high-resolution acquisition of paintings; the image is used as a base in AR approach. The proposed methodology consists of an improved SIFT extractor for real time image. The other novelty of this work is the multipoint probabilistic layer. Experimental results demonstrated the robustness of the proposed approach with extensive use of the AR application in front of the “Città Ideale” painting. To prove the usability of the application and to ensure a good user experience, we also carried out several users tests in the real scenario. Paolo Clini, Emanuele Frontoni, Ramona Quattrini, and Roberto Pierdicca Copyright © 2014 Paolo Clini et al. All rights reserved. Top-Down and Bottom-Up Cues Based Moving Object Detection for Varied Background Video Sequences Sun, 16 Nov 2014 11:48:45 +0000 Moving object detection is a crucial and critical task for any surveillance system. Conventionally, a moving object detection task is performed on the basis of consecutive frame difference or background models which are based on some mathematical aspects or probabilistic approaches. But, these approaches are based on some initial conditions and short amount of time is needed to learn all these models. Also, the bottleneck in all these previous approaches is that they require neat and clean background or need to create a background first by using some approaches and that it is essential to update them regularly to cope with the illuminating changes. In this paper, moving object detection is executed using visual attention where there is no need for background formulation and updates as it is background independent. Many bottom-up approaches and one combination of bottom-up and top-down approaches are proposed in the present paper. The proposed approaches seem more efficient due to inessential requirement of learning background model and due to being independent of previous video frames. Results indicate that the proposed approach works even against slight movements in the background and in various outdoor conditions. Chirag I. Patel, Sanjay Garg, Tanish Zaveri, and Asim Banerjee Copyright © 2014 Chirag I. Patel et al. All rights reserved. Chaos Based Joint Compression and Encryption Framework for End-to-End Communication Systems Sun, 09 Nov 2014 07:19:22 +0000 Augmentation in communication and coding technology has made encryption an integral part of secure multimedia communication systems. Security solution for end-to-end image transmission requires content adaptation at intermediate nodes, which consumes significant resources to decrypt, process, and reencrypt the secured data. To save the computational resources, this paper proposes a network-friendly encryption technique, which can be implemented in transparency to content adaptation techniques. The proposed encryption technique maintains the compression efficiency of underlying entropy coder, and enables the processing of encrypted data. Thorough analysis of the technique, as regards various standard evaluation parameters and attack scenarios, demonstrates its ability to withstand known-plaintext, ciphertext-only, and approximation attacks. This justifies its implementation for secure image transmission for end-to-end communication systems. Nidhi Goel, Balasubramanian Raman, and Indra Gupta Copyright © 2014 Nidhi Goel et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Approach for Optimal Multimedia Data Distribution in Mobile Cloud Computing Thu, 23 Oct 2014 11:21:33 +0000 With the integration of mobile computing and cloud computing, more diverse services can be provided to the users, supporting the mobility feature of mobile computing along with the power of cloud computing. This new paradigm still faces challenges, especially in terms of performance. When it comes to multimedia data communication, thin clients (such as smart phones and tablets) suffer because of performance and power constraints. Previously done studies have trivially addressed this problem. Therefore, in our paper, we present a framework in which thick clients (laptop or desktop computers) are incorporated into mobile cloud paradigm with attention paid to user mobility. Its objective is to optimize the distribution of multimedia content between the cloud and the thin clients. Our work comes up with both numerical analysis and simulation to justify the validity and the effectiveness of the proposal approach. Pham Phuoc Hung, Mohammad Aazam, Tien-Dung Nguyen, and Eui-Nam Huh Copyright © 2014 Pham Phuoc Hung et al. All rights reserved. Execution Behavior Modeling Methodology for Large Scale Surveillance System Design and Evaluation Tue, 14 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 This paper presents a performance and evaluation environment for complex surveillance system design. The system consists of environment model, execution model, and application and evaluation model. The environment model interprets the script and creates objects in a surveillance environment so that various situations can be evaluated. The execution model modifies generated data with the perspective of each sensor and reflects algorithm execution behavior. The application model allows building large scale collaborative operations. The system behavior is parameterized for simple representations. The feasibility of the proposed method is illustrated through the case studies for improving the prototype surveillance system. Jung-Min Oh, Kyung Hoon Kim, Sangjin Hong, and Nammee Moon Copyright © 2014 Jung-Min Oh et al. All rights reserved. Text Extraction from Historical Document Images by the Combination of Several Thresholding Techniques Mon, 29 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 This paper presents a new technique for the binarization of historical document images characterized by deteriorations and damages making their automatic processing difficult at several levels. The proposed method is based on hybrid thresholding combining the advantages of global and local methods and on the mixture of several binarization techniques. Two stages have been included. In the first stage, global thresholding is applied on the entire image and two different thresholds are determined from which the most of image pixels are classified into foreground or background. In the second stage, the remaining pixels are assigned to foreground or background classes based on local analysis. In this stage, several local thresholding methods are combined and the final binary value of each remaining pixel is chosen as the most probable one. The proposed technique has been tested on a large collection of standard and synthetic documents and compared with well-known methods using standard measures and was shown to be more powerful. Toufik Sari, Abderrahmane Kefali, and Halima Bahi Copyright © 2014 Toufik Sari et al. All rights reserved. Object Tracking with Adaptive Multicue Incremental Visual Tracker Tue, 23 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Generally, subspace learning based methods such as the Incremental Visual Tracker (IVT) have been shown to be quite effective for visual tracking problem. However, it may fail to follow the target when it undergoes drastic pose or illumination changes. In this work, we present a novel tracker to enhance the IVT algorithm by employing a multicue based adaptive appearance model. First, we carry out the integration of cues both in feature space and in geometric space. Second, the integration directly depends on the dynamically-changing reliabilities of visual cues. These two aspects of our method allow the tracker to easily adapt itself to the changes in the context and accordingly improve the tracking accuracy by resolving the ambiguities. Experimental results demonstrate that subspace-based tracking is strongly improved by exploiting the multiple cues through the proposed algorithm. Jiang-tao Wang, De-bao Chen, Jing-ai Zhang, Su-wen Li, and Xing-jun Wang Copyright © 2014 Jiang-tao Wang et al. All rights reserved. Adaptive Media Streaming to Mobile Devices: Challenges, Enhancements, and Recommendations Wed, 10 Sep 2014 09:52:36 +0000 Video streaming is predicted to become the dominating traffic in mobile broadband networks. At the same time, adaptive HTTP streaming is developing into the preferred way of streaming media over the Internet. In this paper, we evaluate how different components of a streaming system can be optimized when serving content to mobile devices in particular. We first analyze the media traffic from a Norwegian network and media provider. Based on our findings, we outline benefits and challenges for HTTP streaming, on the sender and the receiver side, and we investigate how HTTP-based streaming affects server performance. Furthermore, we discuss various aspects of efficient coding of the video segments from both performance and user perception point of view. The final part of the paper studies efficient adaptation and delivery to mobile devices over wireless networks. We experimentally evaluate and improve adaptation strategies, multilink solutions, and bandwidth prediction techniques. Based on the results from our evaluations, we make recommendations for how an adaptive streaming system should handle mobile devices. Small changes, or simple awareness of how users perceive quality, can often have large effects. Kristian Evensen, Tomas Kupka, Haakon Riiser, Pengpeng Ni, Ragnhild Eg, Carsten Griwodz, and Pål Halvorsen Copyright © 2014 Kristian Evensen et al. All rights reserved. An Adaptive Image Denoising Model Based on Tikhonov and TV Regularizations Mon, 04 Aug 2014 07:24:06 +0000 To avoid the staircase artifacts, an adaptive image denoising model is proposed by the weighted combination of Tikhonov regularization and total variation regularization. In our model, Tikhonov regularization and total variation regularization can be adaptively selected based on the gradient information of the image. When the pixels belong to the smooth regions, Tikhonov regularization is adopted, which can eliminate the staircase artifacts. When the pixels locate at the edges, total variation regularization is selected, which can preserve the edges. We employ the split Bregman method to solve our model. Experimental results demonstrate that our model can obtain better performance than those of other models. Kui Liu, Jieqing Tan, and Benyue Su Copyright © 2014 Kui Liu et al. All rights reserved. Novel Intermode Prediction Algorithm for High Efficiency Video Coding Encoder Mon, 30 Jun 2014 08:18:57 +0000 The joint collaborative team on video coding (JCT-VC) is developing the next-generation video coding standard which is called high efficiency video coding (HEVC). In the HEVC, there are three units in block structure: coding unit (CU), prediction unit (PU), and transform unit (TU). The CU is the basic unit of region splitting like macroblock (MB). Each CU performs recursive splitting into four blocks with equal size, starting from the tree block. In this paper, we propose a fast CU depth decision algorithm for HEVC technology to reduce its computational complexity. In  PU, the proposed method compares the rate-distortion (RD) cost and determines the depth using the compared information. Moreover, in order to speed up the encoding time, the efficient merge SKIP detection method is developed additionally based on the contextual mode information of neighboring CUs. Experimental result shows that the proposed algorithm achieves the average time-saving factor of 44.84% in the random access (RA) at Main profile configuration with the HEVC test model (HM) 10.0 reference software. Compared to HM 10.0 encoder, a small BD-bitrate loss of 0.17% is also observed without significant loss of image quality. Chan-seob Park, Gwang-Soo Hong, and Byung-Gyu Kim Copyright © 2014 Chan-seob Park et al. All rights reserved. A New One-Dimensional Chaotic Map and Its Use in a Novel Real-Time Image Encryption Scheme Mon, 02 Jun 2014 07:29:03 +0000 We present a new one-dimensional chaotic map, suitable for real-time image encryption. Its theoretical analysis, performed using some specific tools from the chaos theory, shows that the proposed map has a chaotic regime and proves its ergodicity, for a large space of values of the control parameter. In addition, to argue for the good cryptographic properties of the proposed map, we have tested the randomness of the values generated by its orbit using NIST statistical suite. Moreover, we present a new image encryption scheme with a classic bimodular architecture, in which the confusion and the diffusion are assured by means of two maps of the previously proposed type. The very good cryptographic performances of the proposed scheme are proved by an extensive analysis, which was performed regarding the latest methodology in this field. Radu Boriga, Ana Cristina Dăscălescu, and Adrian-Viorel Diaconu Copyright © 2014 Radu Boriga et al. All rights reserved. An Improved Fast Mode Decision Method for H.264/AVC Intracoding Tue, 20 May 2014 08:54:43 +0000 An improved fast and efficient mode decision method for H.264/AVC intracoding is proposed, which is based on the analysis of the gravity center method and more efficient mode selection. In contrast to the fast mode decision method where the intramodes are determined by the gravity center of the block, the mass center vector is computed for the block and the subblocks formed by the proposed subsampling techniques. This method is able to determine all correlation directions of the block that correspond to the intraprediction mode directions of the H.264/AVC. On this basis, only a small number of intraprediction modes are chosen as the best modes for rate-distortion optimization (RDO) calculation. Different video sequences are used to test the performance of the proposed method. Experimental results reveal the significant computational savings achieved with slight peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) degradation and bit-rate increase. Abderrahmane Elyousfi Copyright © 2014 Abderrahmane Elyousfi. All rights reserved. A IEEE 802.11e HCCA Scheduler with a Reclaiming Mechanism for Multimedia Applications Thu, 20 Mar 2014 17:45:01 +0000 The QoS offered by the IEEE 802.11e reference scheduler is satisfactory in the case of Constant Bit Rate traffic streams, but not yet in the case of Variable Bit Rate traffic streams, whose variations stress its scheduling behavior. Despite the numerous proposed alternative schedulers with QoS, multimedia applications are looking for refined methods suitable to ensure service differentiation and dynamic update of protocol parameters. In this paper a scheduling algorithm, Unused Time Shifting Scheduler (UTSS), is deeply analyzed. It is designed to cooperate with a HCCA centralized real-time scheduler through the integration of a bandwidth reclaiming scheme, suitable to recover nonexhausted transmission time and assign that to the next polled stations. UTSS dynamically computes with an complexity transmission time providing an instantaneous resource overprovisioning. The theoretical analysis and the simulation results highlight that this injection of resources does not affect the admission control nor the centralized scheduler but is suitable to improve the performance of the centralized scheduler in terms of mean access delay, transmission queues length, bursts of traffic management, and packets drop rate. These positive effects are more relevant for highly variable bit rate traffic. Anna Lina Ruscelli and Gabriele Cecchetti Copyright © 2014 Anna Lina Ruscelli and Gabriele Cecchetti. All rights reserved. Salt and Pepper Noise Removal with Noise Detection and a Patch-Based Sparse Representation Thu, 13 Mar 2014 12:33:03 +0000 Images may be corrupted by salt and pepper impulse noise due to noisy sensors or channel transmission errors. A denoising method by detecting noise candidates and enforcing image sparsity with a patch-based sparse representation is proposed. First, noise candidates are detected and an initial guide image is obtained via an adaptive median filtering; second, a patch-based sparse representation is learnt from this guide image; third, a weighted - regularization method is proposed to penalize the noise candidates heavier than the rest of pixels. An alternating direction minimization algorithm is derived to solve the regularization model. Experiments are conducted for 30%∼90% impulse noise levels, and the simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms total variation and Wavelet in terms of preserving edges and structural similarity to the noise-free images. Di Guo, Xiaobo Qu, Xiaofeng Du, Keshou Wu, and Xuhui Chen Copyright © 2014 Di Guo et al. All rights reserved. Macroblock Layer Rate Control Based on Structural Similarity and Mean Absolute Difference for H.264 Tue, 11 Feb 2014 00:00:00 +0000 In the process of the H.264 video coding, special attention should be paid to the subjective quality of the image. This paper applies the structural similarity (SSIM) based subjective evaluation to the rate control in the H.264 coding and proposes to combine the SSIM and the mean absolute difference (MAD) to perform the macroblock layer bit allocation instead of the MAD. Experimental results show that the proposed method is correlating better with the human visual system and thus achieves better subjective image quality. Xiao Chen and Dongjue Gu Copyright © 2014 Xiao Chen and Dongjue Gu. All rights reserved. Heritage Multimedia and Children Edutainment: Assessment and Recommendations Sun, 09 Feb 2014 10:36:30 +0000 Despite the rising commodification of heritage sites and practices, children engagement in their own cultures remains incredibly low, greatly endangering the future preservation of nations’ unique nonrenewable resource. Considering children’s very early engagement with cultural attitudes and identities, it is increasingly critical to develop a deeply rooted culture of responsibility and conservation from the earliest years, ensuring that children naturally feel invested in their surroundings. Unfortunately, heritage education remains largely undervalued, with most efforts relying on in-person experiences in formal cultural institutions. This paper thus aims to explore how heritage education can be redefined, using some of the most innovative virtual imaging and artificial reality technologies to at once expand access and engagement with one’s own history. Though there have been introductory applications of this edutainment multimedia technology, it will require a multidisciplinary team to create heritage programming which is as entertaining as it is intellectually challenging for young children. With the rich resources of 3D imaging and interactive programming already at our disposal, we are well-equipped to do so, given a coordinated effort. Naif A. Haddad Copyright © 2014 Naif A. Haddad. All rights reserved. Real-Time QoS-Aware Video Streaming: A Comparative and Experimental Study Thu, 16 Jan 2014 12:49:15 +0000 Due to its flexibility, scalability, real-time, and rich QoS features, Data Distribution Service (DDS) middleware provides seamless integration with high-performance, real-time, and mission-critical networks. Unlike traditional client-server communication models, DDS is based on the publish/subscribe communication model. DDS improves video streaming quality through its efficient and high-performance data delivery mechanism. This paper studies and investigates how DDS is suitable for streaming real-time full-motion video over a communication network. Experimental studies are conducted to compare video streaming using a the VLC player with the DDS overlay. Our results depict the superiority of DDS in provisioning quality video streams at the cost of low network bandwidth. The results also show that DDS is more scalable and flexible and is a promised technology for video distribution over IP networks where it uses much less bandwidth while maintaining high quality video stream delivery. Basem Al-Madani, Anas Al-Roubaiey, and Zubair A. Baig Copyright © 2014 Basem Al-Madani et al. All rights reserved. Video Pulses: User-Based Modeling of Interesting Video Segments Sun, 12 Jan 2014 16:07:47 +0000 We present a user-based method that detects regions of interest within a video in order to provide video skims and video summaries. Previous research in video retrieval has focused on content-based techniques, such as pattern recognition algorithms that attempt to understand the low-level features of a video. We are proposing a pulse modeling method, which makes sense of a web video by analyzing users' Replay interactions with the video player. In particular, we have modeled the user information seeking behavior as a time series and the semantic regions as a discrete pulse of fixed width. Then, we have calculated the correlation coefficient between the dynamically detected pulses at the local maximums of the user activity signal and the pulse of reference. We have found that users' Replay activity significantly matches the important segments in information-rich and visually complex videos, such as lecture, how-to, and documentary. The proposed signal processing of user activity is complementary to previous work in content-based video retrieval and provides an additional user-based dimension for modeling the semantics of a social video on the web. Markos Avlonitis and Konstantinos Chorianopoulos Copyright © 2014 Markos Avlonitis and Konstantinos Chorianopoulos. All rights reserved. Cross-Layer Framework for Multiuser Real Time H.264/AVC Video Encoding and Transmission over Block Fading MIMO Channels Using Outage Probability Thu, 02 Jan 2014 09:47:15 +0000 We present a framework for cross-layer optimized real time multiuser encoding of video using a single layer H.264/AVC and transmission over MIMO wireless channels. In the proposed cross-layer adaptation, the channel of every user is characterized by the probability density function of its channel mutual information and the performance of the H.264/AVC encoder is modeled by a rate distortion model that takes into account the channel errors. These models are used during the resource allocation of the available slots in a TDMA MIMO communication system with capacity achieving channel codes. This framework allows for adaptation to the statistics of the wireless channel and to the available resources in the system and utilization of the multiuser diversity of the transmitted video sequences. We show the effectiveness of the proposed framework for video transmission over Rayleigh MIMO block fading channels, when channel distribution information is available at the transmitter. Slavche Pejoski and Venceslav Kafedziski Copyright © 2014 Slavche Pejoski and Venceslav Kafedziski. All rights reserved. The Safeguard of Audio Collections: A Computer Science Based Approach to Quality Control—The Case of the Sound Archive of the Arena di Verona Sat, 14 Dec 2013 10:10:50 +0000 In the field of multimedia, very little attention is given to the activities involved in the preservation of audio documents. At the same time, more and more archives storing audio and video documents face the problem of obsolescing and degrading media, which could largely benefit from the instruments and the methodologies of research in multimedia. This paper presents the methodology and the results of the Italian project REVIVAL, aimed at the development of a hardware/software platform to support the active preservation of the audio collection of the Fondazione Arena di Verona, one of the finest in Europe for the operatic genre, with a special attention on protocols and tools for quality control. On the scientific side, the most significant objectives achieved by the project are (i) the setup of a working environment inside the archive, (ii) the knowledge transfer to the archival personnel, (iii) the realization of chemical analyses on magnetic tapes in collaboration with experts in the fields of materials science and chemistry, and (iv) the development of original open-source software tools. On the cultural side, the recovery, the safeguard, and the access to unique copies of unpublished live recordings of artists the calibre of Domingo and Pavarotti are of great musicological and economical value. Federica Bressan, Antonio Rodà, Sergio Canazza, Federico Fontana, and Roberta Bertani Copyright © 2013 Federica Bressan et al. All rights reserved. An Integrated New Scheme for Digital Video Stabilization Wed, 04 Dec 2013 14:20:56 +0000 In many digital video applications, video sequences suffer from jerky movements between successive frames. In this paper, an integrated general-purpose stabilization method is proposed, which extracts the information from successive frames and removes the translation and rotation motions that result in undesirable effects. The scheme proposed starts with computation of the optical flow between consecutive video frames and an affine motion model is adopted in conjunction with the optical flow field obtained to estimate objects or camera motions using the Horn-Schunck algorithm. The estimated motion vectors are then used by a model-fitting filter to stabilize and smooth video sequences. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheme is efficient due to its simplicity and provides good visual quality in terms of the global transformation fidelity measured by the peak-signal-noise-ratio. W. Xu, X. Lai, D. Xu, and N. A. Tsoligkas Copyright © 2013 W. Xu et al. All rights reserved. Efficient Region-of-Interest Scalable Video Coding with Adaptive Bit-Rate Control Mon, 04 Nov 2013 19:08:52 +0000 This work relates to the regions-of-interest (ROI) coding that is a desirable feature in future applications based on the scalable video coding, which is an extension of the H.264/MPEG-4 AVC standard. Due to the dramatic technological progress, there is a plurality of heterogeneous devices, which can be used for viewing a variety of video content. Devices such as smartphones and tablets are mostly resource-limited devices, which make it difficult to display high-quality content. Usually, the displayed video content contains one or more ROI(s), which should be adaptively selected from the preencoded scalable video bitstream. Thus, an efficient scalable ROI video coding scheme is proposed in this work, thereby enabling the extraction of the desired regions-of-interest and the adaptive setting of the desirable ROI location, size, and resolution. In addition, an adaptive bit-rate control is provided for the region-of-interest scalable video coding. The performance of the presented techniques is demonstrated and compared with the joint scalable video model reference software (JSVM 9.19), thereby showing significant bit-rate savings as a tradeoff for the relatively low PSNR degradation. Dan Grois and Ofer Hadar Copyright © 2013 Dan Grois and Ofer Hadar. All rights reserved. Video Genre Classification Using Weighted Kernel Logistic Regression Wed, 09 Oct 2013 09:33:37 +0000 Due to the widening semantic gap of videos, computational tools to classify these videos into different genre are highly needed to narrow it. Classifying videos accurately demands good representation of video data and an efficient and effective model to carry out the classification task. Kernel Logistic Regression (KLR), kernel version of logistic regression (LR), proves its efficiency as a classifier, which can naturally provide probabilities and extend to multiclass classification problems. In this paper, Weighted Kernel Logistic Regression (WKLR) algorithm is implemented for video genre classification to obtain significant accuracy, and it shows accurate and faster good results. Ahmed A. M. Hamed, Renfa Li, Zhang Xiaoming, and Cheng Xu Copyright © 2013 Ahmed A. M. Hamed et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Model of Image Segmentation Based on Watershed Algorithm Wed, 04 Sep 2013 14:07:24 +0000 A novel model of image segmentation based on watershed method is proposed in this paper. To prevent the oversegmentation of traditional watershed, our proposed algorithm has five stages. Firstly, the morphological reconstruction is applied to smooth the flat area and preserve the edge of the image. Secondly, multiscale morphological gradient is used to avoid the thickening and merging of the edges. Thirdly, for contrast enhancement, the top/bottom hat transformation is used. Fourthly, the morphological gradient of an image is modified by imposing regional minima at the location of both the internal and the external markers. Finally, a weighted function is used to combine the top/bottom hat transformation algorithm and the markers algorithm to get the new algorithm. The experimental results show the superiority of the new algorithm in terms of suppression over-segmentation. Ali Abdullah Yahya, Jieqing Tan, and Min Hu Copyright © 2013 Ali Abdullah Yahya et al. All rights reserved. Real-Time Audio-Visual Analysis for Multiperson Videoconferencing Mon, 26 Aug 2013 09:53:28 +0000 We describe the design of a system consisting of several state-of-the-art real-time audio and video processing components enabling multimodal stream manipulation (e.g., automatic online editing for multiparty videoconferencing applications) in open, unconstrained environments. The underlying algorithms are designed to allow multiple people to enter, interact, and leave the observable scene with no constraints. They comprise continuous localisation of audio objects and its application for spatial audio object coding, detection, and tracking of faces, estimation of head poses and visual focus of attention, detection and localisation of verbal and paralinguistic events, and the association and fusion of these different events. Combined all together, they represent multimodal streams with audio objects and semantic video objects and provide semantic information for stream manipulation systems (like a virtual director). Various experiments have been performed to evaluate the performance of the system. The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed design, the various algorithms, and the benefit of fusing different modalities in this scenario. Petr Motlicek, Stefan Duffner, Danil Korchagin, Hervé Bourlard, Carl Scheffler, Jean-Marc Odobez, Giovanni Del Galdo, Markus Kallinger, and Oliver Thiergart Copyright © 2013 Petr Motlicek et al. All rights reserved. A Survey on Content Adaptation Systems towards Energy Consumption Awareness Thu, 25 Jul 2013 11:26:30 +0000 The availability of heterogeneous devices has rapidly changed the way people access the World Wide Web that includes rich content applications such as video streaming, 3D games, video conferencing, and mobile TV. However, most of these devices' (i.e., mobile phone, PDA, smartphone, and tablet) capabilities differ in terms of built-in software and library (what they can display), display size (how the content appears), and battery supply (how long the content can be displayed). In order for the digital contents to fit the target device, content adaptation is required. There have been many projects focused on energy-aware-based content adaptation that have been designed with different goals and approaches. This paper reviews some of the representative content adaptation solutions that have been proposed during the last few years, in relation to energy consumption focusing on wireless multimedia streaming in mobile devices. Also, this paper categorizes the research work according to different classifications of multimedia content adaptation requirements. In addition, we discuss some energy-related challenges content adaptation systems. Mohd Norasri Ismail, Rosziati Ibrahim, and Mohd Farhan Md Fudzee Copyright © 2013 Mohd Norasri Ismail et al. All rights reserved. Superwideband Bandwidth Extension Using Normalized MDCT Coefficients for Scalable Speech and Audio Coding Mon, 08 Jul 2013 11:33:06 +0000 A bandwidth extension (BWE) algorithm from wideband to superwideband (SWB) is proposed for a scalable speech/audio codec that uses modified discrete cosine transform (MDCT) coefficients as spectral parameters. The superwideband is first split into several subbands that are represented as gain parameters and normalized MDCT coefficients in the proposed BWE algorithm. We then estimate normalized MDCT coefficients of the wideband to be fetched for the superwideband and quantize the fetch indices. After that, we quantize gain parameters by using relative ratios between adjacent subbands. The proposed BWE algorithm is embedded into a standard superwideband codec, the SWB extension of G.729.1 Annex E, and its bitrate and quality are compared with those of the BWE algorithm already employed in the standard superwideband codec. It is shown from the comparison that the proposed BWE algorithm relatively reduces the bitrate by around 19% with better quality, compared to the BWE algorithm in the SWB extension of G.729.1 Annex E. Young Han Lee and Seung Ho Choi Copyright © 2013 Young Han Lee and Seung Ho Choi. All rights reserved.