Advances in Molecular Biology http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Metabolic and Physiological Roles of Branched-Chain Amino Acids Tue, 19 Aug 2014 05:45:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amb/2014/364976/ Branch chain amino acids (BCAAs) have unique properties with diverse physiological and metabolic roles. They have functions other than simple nutrition. Different diseases including metabolic disease lead to protein loss, especially muscle protein. Supplementation of BCAAs promotes protein synthesis and reduces break down, as well as improving disease conditions. They are important regulators of mTOR signaling pathway and regulate protein synthesis as well as protein turnover. BCAAs facilitate glucose uptake by liver and SK muscle and also enhance glycogen synthesis. Oxidation of BCAAs seems to be beneficial for metabolic health as their catabolism increases fatty acid oxidation and reduces risk of obesity. BCAAs are also important in immunity, brain function, and other physiological aspects of well-being. All three BCAAs are absolutely required for lymphocyte growth and proliferation. They are also important for proper immune cell function. BCAAs may influence brain protein synthesis, and production of energy and may influence synthesis of different neurotransmitters. BCAAs can be used therapeutically and future studies may be directed to investigating the diverse effects of BCAAs in different tissues and their signaling pathways. Md. Monirujjaman and Afroza Ferdouse Copyright © 2014 Md. Monirujjaman and Afroza Ferdouse. All rights reserved.