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Advances in Mechanical Engineering
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 139370, 13 pages
Research Article

Numerical Investigation on Mixed Convection in Triangular Cross-Section Ducts with Nanofluids

Dipartimento di Ingegneria Aerospaziale e Meccanica, Seconda Università degli Studi di Napoli, Real Casa dell'Annunziata, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (CE), Italy

Received 5 July 2011; Accepted 21 September 2011

Academic Editor: Kambiz Vafai

Copyright © 2012 Oronzio Manca et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Convective heat transfer can be enhanced passively by changing flow geometry and boundary conditions or by improving the thermal conductivity of the working fluid, for example, introducing suspended small solid nanoparticles. In this paper, a numerical investigation on laminar mixed convection in a water-Al2O3-based nanofluid, flowing in a triangular cross-sectioned duct, is presented. The duct walls are assumed at uniform temperature, and the single-phase model has been employed in order to analyze the nanofluid behaviour. The hydraulic diameter is equal to 0.01 m. A fluid flow with different values of Richardson number and nanoparticle volume fractions has been considered. Results show the increase of average convective heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number for increasing values of Richardson number and particle concentration. However, also wall shear stress and required pumping power profiles grow significantly.