- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Recently Accepted Articles ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents

Advances in Mechanical Engineering

Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 893723, 8 pages

http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/893723

## Numerical and Experimental Study on Working Mechanics of Pear-Shaped Casing Swage

^{1}State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610500, China^{2}CNPC Key Lab for Tubular Goods Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610500, China^{3}School of Material Science and Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610500, China

Received 18 August 2013; Revised 10 October 2013; Accepted 18 October 2013

Academic Editor: Magd Abdel Wahab

Copyright © 2013 Yuanhua Lin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

#### Abstract

Pear-shaped casing swage (PCS) repair technology is highly efficient in repairing deformed casing and the value of repairing force is a very important parameter for designing and optimizing the casing swage and structure parameters. A new three-dimensional simulation analysis of casing swage in the well and the finite element analysis (FEA) model of 7′′ API deformed casing and PCS are established based on the elastic-plastic mechanics, the finite element theory, and application of numerical simulation analysis for the actual process of repairing deformed casing. According to the model, the repairing force required to repair the deformed casing is obtained; furthermore, the correlation between the repairing force and confining pressure is obtained. Meanwhile, the repairing test of deformed casing was performed by using PCS in the lab. Experimental results are consistent with simulation results. It indicated that the mechanical model can provide theoretical guidance for design and optimization of the structure of tool and reshaping technological parameters.

#### 1. Introduction

Casings of many oil and gas wells at home have been in deformation [1] due to the creep of mudstone, shale [2], water injection [3], and corrosion factors after the production for a long period of time, which restricts the application of stimulation and perforation. For example, the casings in Long-gang 001-1, Long-gang 001-2, Long-gang 39, Long-gang 13, Pu-guang 204-2H wells in Sichuan and Chongqing gas fields, the Yingshen 1 well in Tarim oilfield, and the TK1127 well in Tahe oilfield in Xinjiang were destroyed by creep and plastic flow of salt rock. Those failures pose a serious threat to the safety of oil and gas field.

In order to restore the normal production of oil and gas field, many repair technologies [4] have been proposed at home and aboard. Among them, the PCS repair technology (it belongs to impact truing technology) is often utilized to repair the deformed casing of oil and water wells, and the repair technology reaches the purpose of expanding casing by exerting impact load on deformed casing based on the impact theory.

However, the current PCS repair technology sometimes leads to many problems [5–7] (e.g., the smaller repairing force cannot reach the purpose of repairing and the larger repairing force causes great damage of cement sheath and continuing damage to casing, or the sticking accidents) because the size of repairing force cannot be known or controlled accurately. At present, scholars at home and abroad have done many studies in the field of casing failure, which mainly includes the studies about the mechanism of casing failure [8, 9], casing failure detection technology [10], repair technologies [11–15] (such as grind press plastic technology, PCS technology, casing patch technology, and solid expandable tubular technology), and preventive measures [16].

Besides, the researches about the expandable technology for casing repair have been done in detail by many scholars. For example, Binggui et al. [17] established a solid expandable tubular (SET) finite element model to analyze the stress, strain, and residual stress of SET and to analyze the internal tube changes. Mack and Shell Intl [18] designed a laboratory program to study the effects of tubular expansion and method of tubular expansion upon the mechanical properties of casing. Al-Abri [19] employed the analytical model and numerical solution to predict the force required for expansion and the length and thickness variations induced in the tubular due to the expansion process under different expansion ratio. Experiments have also been conducted for tubular expansion to validate analytical and numerical solutions.

It is known that many researches about mechanism of casing failure and solid expandable tubular technologies have been done. However, the study about PCS technology is not enough or cannot solve problems completely, especially the research about the working mechanics. Hence, in this paper, a new three-dimensional simulation analysis of casing swage in the well and the finite element analysis (FEA) model of 7′′ API deformed casing and PCS are established based on the elastic-plastic mechanics, finite element theory, and application of numerical simulation analysis for the actual process of repairing deformed casing. With the aim of validating the accuracy and reliability of this model, the repairing test of deformed casing by PCS was performed. The test results and simulation results provided powerful guidance for the determination of designing and construction parameters of this tool.

#### 2. An Overview of Pear-Shaped Casing Swage

##### 2.1. The Basic Structure

In Figure 1, the outer layer is stratum, the middle layer is cement sheath, the inner layer is deformed casing, the PCS is in the center of deformed casing, the cone angle of casing swage is , is the tangential force, is the lateral component, and is the repairing force.

##### 2.2. Working Principle

When the repairing force is exerted on the pear-shaped casing swage, the lateral component is generated between the work face of PCS and the part of deformed casing as in Figure 1. The lateral component expands the deformed area of casing. The casing swage is placed to the deformed area of casing by using PCS to repair the deformed casing. Next, the PCS impacts and expands the deformed casing by relying on the repairing force applied on the casing swage. Finally, the purpose of repair is achieved by the reciprocating motion of PCS in the center of deformed casing.

#### 3. Repairing Test of Deformed Casing

In order to validate the accuracy and reliability of this finite element model in this paper, the repairing test of deformed casing by PCS was performed under zero confining pressure. The structure parameters of PCS are the same as parameters of the PCS used in finite element model established in this paper. Geometrical and mechanical parameters of the deformed casing are shown in Table 1.

##### 3.1. The Main Experimental Equipment and Methods

The reshaping test system mainly consisted of YE-2533 static strain indicator, YS32-500 universal hydraulic machines, upper fixture, bottom fixture, and the crossover sub with a strain gage, as shown in Figure 2. The upper and bottom fixtures were used to fix the PCS and deformed casing, respectively. The universal hydraulic testing machine was used to impose repairing force which pushed the PCS reciprocating movement in the middle of deformed casing. Static strain indicator was used to measure the compressive strain on the crossover sub and the deformation rule of deformed casing during the repairing process. Therefore, the repairing effect can be obtained in the repairing process according to the deformation rule of deformed casing. Based on Hooke’s law, the compressive strain, and the geometry dimension of the crossover sub, the repairing force of PCS can be given:
where is Young’s modulus of casing (MPa), is the compressive stress (MPa), and is the cross-sectional area of crossover sub (m^{2}).

##### 3.2. Test Results and Analysis

The deformation rule of deformed casing has been tested according to the measured strain in the repairing process, as shown in Figure 3. Figure 3 shows that the larger plastic deformation of deformed casing occurred and the residual microstrain was equal to 9540 (microstrain) in the repairing process, as indicated in Table 2. Therefore, it indicated that a good effect has been achieved in the repairing process. In addition, the maximum compressive strain () on the crossover sub was measured in the repairing process, as shown in Table 2. The expanding radial displacement (residual deformation) of deformed casing measured by micrometer is equal to 3.36 mm after being repaired. The repairing force ( t) has been obtained according to (1), and the parameters are listed in Table 2.

#### 4. Finite Element Model

##### 4.1. The Geometric and Mechanical Parameters of Material

(1)The PCS mainly includes guide cone and working face. The maximum diameter of PCS is 125 mm; its cone angle is 12 degree, as shown in Figure 4. The PCS is regarded as rigid body and its deformation is not considered in the process of simulation.(2)The cross section of repaired C110 casing is oval; its short axis diameter and long axis diameter are 120 mm and 185 mm, respectively. Its wall thickness and axial length are 12.65 mm and 500 mm. Its elasticity modulus and Poisson’s ratio are 210 Gpa and 0.3, respectively. Based on the stress-strain curve of tensile test, as shown in Figure 5, the mean yield strength (830 MPa) of deformed casing can be obtained, as shown in Table 1. The coefficient of friction between deformed casing and PCS is 0.1.

##### 4.2. Establishment of Finite Element Model

Parametric geometry model of PCS and deformed casing was established by using the finite element analysis software (ABAQUS 6.9). So, the repairing process of deformed casing can be studied by changing the geometric and mechanical parameters of this finite element model. The 8-node linear reduced integration hexahedral solid element (C3D8R) was adopted to divide the finite element model because the type of element has three main advantages: first, it is suitable for the 3D solid model; second, it has precise calculation result of displacement; last but not the least, it could save a large amount of computing time. The axial length of deformed casing is divided into 100 equal parts, the radial thickness is separated into 6 equal parts, and the circumferential length is divided into 39 equal parts as shown in Figure 6(b). The mesh size which increases gradually from inner wall and outer wall of deformed casing is different. The finite element model of deformed casing presented in Figure 6 incorporated 23,400 elements.

Only one-quarter of the deformed casing’s cross section is used to simulate the repairing process of deformed casing while considering the symmetry of the deformed casing as shown in Figure 6(b). To observe the stress and displacement distribution at the deformed casing, three-dimensional hexahedral element was chosen to build the model as shown in Figure 6(b). In addition, the casing swage and deformed casing are regarded as rigid body and deformable body, respectively. According to the above mechanical model and material parameters, 3D solid model is used to simulate the repairing process of deformed casing by PCS and the model consists of PCS and deformed casing, as shown in Figure 6.

Based on this model, the repairing process is simulated by slow reciprocating motion of PCS in the center of deformed casing. The elastic and plastic deformation need to be considered simultaneously because the maximum Von Mises stress will be greater than the yield limit of deformed casing. So, in the process of simulation, the elastic stage is analyzed using Hooke’s law, Von Mises yield criterion is adopted, and the plastic stage is analyzed using the Prandtl-Reuss constitutive equation. Based on that method, the repairing process of deformed casing mainly includes four stages (precontact, initial contact, repairing process, and after being repaired) which will be analyzed one by one in detail.

##### 4.3. Boundary and Constraint Conditions

(1)Symmetry constraint is applied to both sides of deformed casing, as shown in Figure 6(a).(2)A fixed displacement constraint along the axial direction of casing is applied to the bottom of the deformed casing but the casing can expand along the radial direction during the repairing process with the aim of obtaining the repairing force; one reference node is predefined at the bottom of the deformed casing.(3)The uniform confining pressure (0 MPa, 5 MPa, 10 MPa, 20 MPa, and 30 MPa) is applied to the outer wall of deformed casing in sequence; uniform confining pressure is used to simulate the repairing process of deformed casing under different formation pressure.(4)The downward displacement of PCS along the axial direction of casing is equal to 1 meter larger than the axial length of deformed casing, as shown in Figure 6(c).(5)The PCS is also constrained from rotation about its own axis.

The analytical method and model which are used to simulate the repairing process are the same under different confining pressure. In addition, the confining pressure is equal to zero in the physical experiment performed in this paper. Hence, this paper takes simulation of the repairing process under the condition of zero confining pressure as the major study object while only the simulated results are given under the different confining pressure condition for providing theoretical basis for the deformed casing repair in the different formation depth.

#### 5. Simulation Results and Analysis

##### 5.1. Simulation Results and Analysis under the Condition of No Confining Pressure

The radial deformation of deformed casing is shown in Figure 7 in the process of deformed casing repaired by 125 mm PCS. The Von Mises equivalent stress is shown in Figure 8 in the process of deformed casing repaired by 125 mm pear-shaped casing swage. According to the reacting force on the predefined reference node at the bottom of the deformed casing, the repairing force (63.5 t) has been obtained in the repairing process.

From Figures 7 and 8, we can observe that the repairing process of deformed casing mainly includes four stages (precontact, initial contact, repairing process, and after being repaired). The deformation, Von Mises equivalent stress, and the repairing effect of deformed casing can be seen clearly from those four stages.

In the first stage, it can be seen from Figures 7(a) and 8(a) that the Von Mises equivalent stress and radial displacement of deformed casing are equal to zero.

In the second stage, it can be observed from Figures 7(b) and 8(b) that the Von Mises equivalent stress and radial displacement of deformed casing reach maximum when the PCS initially contacts the deformed casing. The maximum (912 MPa) of Von Mises equivalent stress is considerably larger than the yield strength (830 MPa) of deformed casing. It indicates that the plastic deformation of deformed casing occurs and the repairing effect of contact region is good.

In the third stage, it can be noticed from Figure 8(c) that the maximum (892.5 MPa) of Von Mises equivalent stress is also lager than the yield strength (830 MPa) of deformed casing. Similarly, it is seen from Figure 7(c) that the plastic deformation of deformed casing occurs and the repairing effect of entire deformed casing is good in the repairing process.

In the fourth stage, it can be concluded from Figure 8(d) that the maximum of the residual stress of deformed casing reaches up to 849.4 MPa; the maximum of unilateral expanding radial displacement (residual deformation) of deformed casing is equal to 1.81 mm after being repaired and the total radial displacement of deformed casing is equal to 3.62 mm according to the symmetry.

##### 5.2. Simulation Results and Analysis under the Confining Pressure

The same PCS is used to simulate the repairing process of deformed casing, as shown in Figure 9, and the geometric and mechanical parameters of deformed casing are shown in Table 3. The repairing process of deformed casing is simulated by using the same finite element model under different confining pressure (0 MPa, 5 MPa, 10 MPa, 20 MPa, and 30 MPa). Similarly, according to the reacting force on the predefined reference node at the bottom of the deformed casing, the repairing forces have been obtained in the process of repairing under different confining pressure, as shown in Figure 9 and Table 3.

It can be seen from Table 3 and Figure 9 that repairing force increases with the increase in confining pressure. The linear relation between the repairing force and confining pressure is obtained by analyzing and fitting those data, as shown in Figure 9. Based on that relation, the repairing force required to repair the deformed casing under different confining pressure can be determined accurately so that it can provide powerful guidance for the designing and construction parameters of the pear-shaped casing swage.

##### 5.3. Summary

The maximum of Von Mises equivalent stress of deformed casing is larger than the yield strength and the plastic deformation occurs during the repairing process. The maximum of residual stress of deformed casing reaches up to 849.5 MPa and the total expanding radial displacement (residual deformation) of deformed casing is equal to 3.62 mm after being repaired. The repairing force required to repair deformed casing is equal to 63.5 t under the condition of zero confining pressure as shown in Table 4. All of them suggested that the repairing effect is good.

The repairing process of deformed casing has been simulated by using the finite element model under different confining pressure (0 MPa, 5 MPa, 10 MPa, 20 MPa, and 30 MPa). Similarly, the repairing force has been obtained under different confining pressure and the repairing force increases with the increase of confining pressure. The relation between the repairing force and confining pressure has been obtained by fitting and analysis of the obtained experimental data.

The numerical simulation results and the actual test data were compared as shown in Table 4. It can be observed from Table 4 that the repairing force (69 t) obtained by repairing test is close to the simulation results (63.5 t) and the deviation is 8.6%, which is acceptable. The expanding radial displacement (3.36 mm) obtained by repairing test is close to the simulation results (3.62 mm) and the deviation is 7.74%, which is acceptable. It is considered that the experimental results are in excellent agreement with the simulation results of FEA and the finite element model and analysis results are accurate and reliable.

#### 6. Conclusions

(1)The repairing test of 7′′ API deformed casing was performed by using pear-shaped casing swage. The repairing force, expanding radial displacement (residual deformation) of deformed casing, and the deformation law of deformed casing in the repairing process were obtained according to the repairing test.(2)Based on the elastic-plastic mechanics and finite element theory, three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) model was established with the aim of studying the repairing process of deformed casing by pear-shaped casing swage. According to the model, the repairing force required to repair the 7′′ API deformed casing was obtained and the linear correlation between the repairing force and confining pressure was obtained. So this model can provide theoretical basis for the deformed casing to repair in different formation depth.(3)The accuracy and reliability of the proposed finite element model have been validated through a very careful comparison with test data. It indicated that the results of the repairing test and the finite element model can provide powerful guidance for designing and constructing parameters of the pear-shaped casing swage.

#### Acknowledgment

The authors are thankful to the National Natural Science Foundation of China (nos. 51074135, 51274170, and 51004084) for providing the financial assistance.

#### References

- J. Minzheng,
*Study the repairing force and damage mechanism for the cement loop during repairing destroyed casing [Ph.D. Dissertation]*, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin, China, 2003. - C. Chang and M. D. Zoback, “Viscous creep in room-dried unconsolidated Gulf of Mexico shale (I): experimental results,”
*Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering*, vol. 69, no. 3-4, pp. 239–246, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - X. L. Huang, C. H. Yang, J. J. Liu, X. He, and J. Xiong, “Experimental and numerical studies on mudstone's creep behavior during water injection and its effect on casing damage,”
*AIP Conference Proceedings*, vol. 1024, no. 1, pp. 1354–1356, 2008. - L. Wei, L. Li, l. Hui, et al., “Casing damage detection and repair technology western sichuan deep well,”
*Natural Gas Technology and Economy*, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 31–33, 2011. - W. Qi and L. He, “Optimum design of impact construction technology for casing damaged well,”
*Petroleum Machinery*, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 11–14, 2005. - N. Jingtai, P. Youwen, W. Congcong, et al., “Cement loop damage-based fracture mechanism during repair of casing failure well,”
*Procedia Earth and Planetary Science*, vol. 5, pp. 322–325, 2011. - Z. Xiaopeng, L. Yishan, W. Mule, et al., “Research on the critical indexes for casing dressing by Smith expansion cone,”
*China Petroleum Machinery*, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 1–3, 2012. - Z. Ji-Cheng, S. Kao-Ping, and D. Ruo-Xia, “Dongguo casing failures derive from many causes,”
*Oil and Gas Journal*, vol. 106, no. 3, pp. 51–54, 2008. View at Scopus - L. Jingmei, “Casing damage mechanism and numerical simulation induced by sand producing,”
*Advances in Petroleum Exploration and Development*, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 58–62, 2011. - T. Yugang, Z. Feng, Y. Wei, et al., “Application of underground fiber optic video detection technology in shengli oilfield,”
*Journal of Oil and Gas Technology*, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 468–470, 2008. - T. Perveza, S. Z. Qamara, A. C. Seibib, and F. K. Al-Jahwaria, “Use of SET in cased and open holes: comparison between aluminum and steel,”
*Materials & Design*, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 811–817, 2008. - D. A. Blane and A. J. Crossland, “Design and development of a tubing repair solution using an expandable metal patch,”
*SPE*130718, 2010. - A. Storaune and W. J. Winters, “Versatile expandables technology for casing repair,”
*SPE/IADC*92330, 2005. - G. Innes, J. Craig, and S. Lavan, “The use of expandable tubular technology to enhance reservoir management and maintain integrity,”
*OTC*15148, 2003. - S. Junsheng, G. Xiaohong, S. Yingchun, et al., “Rolling reshaping technology used to repair deformed casings downhole in Puguang gas field,”
*Natural Gas Industry*, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 52–54, 2009. - W. Tao, Y. Shenglai, Z. Weihong et al., “Law and countermeasures for the casing damage of oil production wells and water injection wells in Tarim Oilfield,”
*Petroleum Exploration and Development*, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 352–361, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - X. Binggui, Z. Yanping, W. Hui, Y. Hongwei, and J. Tao, “Application of numerical simulation in the solid expandable tubular repair for casing damaged wells,”
*Petroleum Exploration and Development*, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 651–657, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - R. D. Mack and Shell Intl, “The Effect of Tubular Expansion on The Mechanical Properties and Performance of Selected OCTG—Results of Laboratory Studies,” SPE 17622-MS, 2005.
- O. S. Al-Abri, “Analytical and numerical solution for large plastic deformation of solid expandable tubular,”
*SPE*152370-STU, 2011.