Advances in Medicine The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Molecular Analysis of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci Isolated from Regional Hospitals in Trinidad and Tobago Thu, 19 May 2016 10:45:48 +0000 Geographic spread of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) clones in cities, countries, or even continents has been identified by molecular techniques. This study aimed at characterizing virulent genes and determining genetic relatedness of 45 VRE isolates from Trinidad and Tobago using molecular tools, including polymerase chain reaction, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and Random Amplification Polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The majority (84%) of the isolates were Enterococcus faecium possessing vanA gene while the rest (16%) were Enterococcus faecalis possessing vanB. The esp gene was found in all 45 VRE isolates while hyl genes were found only in E. faecium species. The E. faecium species expressed five distinct PFGE patterns. The predominant clones with similar or common patterns belonged to clones one and three, and each had 11 (29%) of the VRE isolates. Plasmid content was identified in representative isolates from each clonal group. By contrast, the E. faecalis species had one PFGE pattern suggesting the presence of an occult and limited clonal spread. The emergence of VRE in the country seems to be related to intra/interhospital dissemination of an epidemic clone carrying the vanA element. Therefore, infection control measures will be warranted to prevent any potential outbreak and spread of VRE in the country. Patrick E. Akpaka, Shivnarine Kissoon, and Padman Jayaratne Copyright © 2016 Patrick E. Akpaka et al. All rights reserved. An Optimized Injectable Hydrogel Scaffold Supports Human Dental Pulp Stem Cell Viability and Spreading Mon, 16 May 2016 09:54:10 +0000 Introduction. HyStem-C™ is a commercially available injectable hydrogel composed of polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA), hyaluronan (HA), and gelatin (Gn). These components can be mechanically tuned to enhance cell viability and spreading. Methods. The concentration of PEGDA with an added disulfide bond (PEGSSDA) was varied from 0.5 to 8.0% (w/v) to determine the optimal concentration for injectable clinical application. We evaluated the cell viability of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) embedded in 2% (w/v) PEGSSDA-HA-Gn hydrogels. Volume ratios of HA : Gn from 100 : 0 to 25 : 75 were varied to encourage hDPSC spreading. Fibronectin (Fn) was added to our model to determine the effect of extracellular matrix protein concentration on hDPSC behavior. Results. Our preliminary data suggests that the hydrogel gelation time decreased as the PEGSSDA cross-linker concentration increased. The PEGSSDA-HA-Gn was biocompatible with hDPSCs, and increased ratios of HA : Gn enhanced cell viability for 14 days. Additionally, cell proliferation with added fibronectin increased significantly over time at concentrations of 1.0 and 10.0 μg/mL in PEGDA-HA-Gn hydrogels, while cell spreading significantly increased at Fn concentrations of 0.1 μg/mL. Conclusions. This study demonstrates that PEG-based injectable hydrogels maintain hDPSC viability and facilitate cell spreading, mainly in the presence of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. T. D. Jones, A. Kefi, S. Sun, M. Cho, and S. B. Alapati Copyright © 2016 T. D. Jones et al. All rights reserved. Osteogenic Potential of Multipotent Adult Progenitor Cells for Calvaria Bone Regeneration Thu, 28 Apr 2016 09:45:31 +0000 Osteogenic cells derived from rat multipotent adult progenitor cells (rMAPCs) were investigated for their potential use in bone regeneration. rMAPCs are adult stem cells derived from bone marrow that have a high proliferation capacity and the differentiation potential to multiple lineages. They may also offer immunomodulatory properties favorable for applications for regenerative medicine. rMAPCs were cultivated as single cells or as 3D aggregates in osteogenic media for up to 38 days, and their differentiation to bone lineage was then assessed by immunostaining of osteocalcin and collagen type I and by mineralization assays. The capability of rMAPCs in facilitating bone regeneration was evaluated in vivo by the direct implantation of multipotent adult progenitor cell (MAPC) aggregates in rat calvarial defects. Bone regeneration was examined radiographically, histologically, and histomorphometrically. Results showed that rMAPCs successfully differentiated into osteogenic lineage by demonstrating mineralized extracellular matrix formation in vitro and induced new bone formation by the effect of rMAPC aggregates in vivo. These outcomes confirm that rMAPCs have a good osteogenic potential and provide insights into rMAPCs as a novel adult stem cell source for bone regeneration. Dong Joon Lee, Yonsil Park, Wei-Shou Hu, and Ching-Chang Ko Copyright © 2016 Dong Joon Lee et al. All rights reserved. Burden and Depression among Caregivers of Visually Impaired Patients in a Canadian Population Tue, 08 Mar 2016 11:29:13 +0000 Purpose/Background. This study reports the degree of burden and the proportion at risk for depression among individuals who provide care to visually impaired patients. Study Design. This is clinic-based, cross-sectional survey in a tertiary care hospital. Methods. Caregivers were considered unpaid family members for patients whose sole impairment was visual. Patients were stratified by vision in their better seeing eye into two groups: Group 1 had visual acuity between 6/18 and 6/60 and Group 2 were those who had 6/60 or worse. Burden was evaluated by the Burden Index of Caregivers and the prevalence of being at risk for depression was determined by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Results. 236 caregivers of 236 patients were included. Total mean BIC scores were higher in Group 2. Female caregivers, caregivers providing greater hours of care, and caregivers of patients who have not completed vision rehabilitation programs are at higher risk for depression. Zainab Khan, Puneet S. Braich, Karim Rahim, Jaspreet S. Rayat, Lin Xing, Munir Iqbal, Karim Mohamed, Sanjay Sharma, and David Almeida Copyright © 2016 Zainab Khan et al. All rights reserved. Assessment of Newly Proposed Clinical Criteria to Identify HNF1A MODY in Patients with an Initial Diagnosis of Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Thu, 28 Jan 2016 15:11:19 +0000 The most common form of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is caused by mutations in the hepatocyte nuclear factor 1A (HNF1A) gene. However, most HNF1A mutation-carriers are initially misdiagnosed with type 1 (T1DM) or type 2 (T2DM) diabetes mellitus; hence, they often receive nonoptimal treatment. The aim of our study was to test newly proposed clinical criteria for the identification of HNF1A MODY in patients with a diagnosis of T1DM or T2DM. To achieve this, the following criteria to preselect patients for screening were used: for T1DM: TDIR (total daily insulin requirement) > 0.3 IU of insulin/kg and the percentage of basal insulin > 30% of TDIR; for T2DM: sulphonylurea- (SU-) based oral treatment (monotherapy or combined with Metformin) > 15 years and BMI < 30 kg/m2. We reviewed the clinical data of 140 patients with T1DM and 524 clinically diagnosed with T2DM. On the basis of these criteria, we found a HNF1A mutation in 1 out of 2 individuals with a diagnosis of T1DM and 1 out of 11 selected individuals with a diagnosis of T2DM. We believe that the simplicity of the proposed criteria might prove useful in clinical practice, as an alternative to more time-consuming classical diagnostic techniques. Malgorzata Grzanka, Bartlomiej Matejko, Magdalena Szopa, Beata Kiec-Wilk, Maciej T. Malecki, and Tomasz Klupa Copyright © 2016 Malgorzata Grzanka et al. All rights reserved. Morphological Spectrum of Orbitoocular Diseases in a Tertiary Health Centre in Keffi, North Central Nigeria Tue, 20 Oct 2015 12:12:08 +0000 Aim. The aim of this study was to carry out a retrospective clinicopathological analysis of the ocular lesions requiring biopsy seen in the Department of Histopathology, Federal Medical Centre (FMC), Keffi, in North Central Nigeria. Materials and Method. A retrospective review of the clinicopathologic profile of orbitoocular lesions diagnosed at the FMC, Keffi, was done. Clinical and pathological data were obtained from the patients’ clinical records and original biopsy reports, respectively. Results. Sixty-six cases of orbitoocular lesions were reviewed for this study. Of the 54 cases investigated, 28 were HIV negative while 26 were HIV positive (37.1% of all cases). There were 30 cases of Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia (OSSN) with a male-to-female ratio of 0.9 : 1. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was the most frequent OSSN with 17 cases. The mean age of cases of SCC is 37.1 ± 7.6 SD (years). The mean age of carcinoma in situ is 35.8 ± 11.4 years. Conclusion. There was no significant difference in the sex distribution of patients with OSSN. It is probable that a diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma may be encountered in about a year after diagnosis of a carcinoma in situ especially if the in situ carcinoma is left untreated or improperly treated. Ifeyinwa Mary Onwubuya, Tunde Mark Owoyele, Olaejirinde Olaniyi Olaofe, and Kevin Nwabueze Ezike Copyright © 2015 Ifeyinwa Mary Onwubuya et al. All rights reserved. An Association between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of Lys751Gln ERCC2 Gene and Ovarian Cancer in Polish Women Wed, 07 Oct 2015 11:55:33 +0000 Aim. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the Lys751Gln (rs13181) ERCC2 gene polymorphism in clinical parameters and the risk for development of ovarian cancer. Material and Methods. The study consisted of 430 patients with ovarian cancer (mean age: 53.2 ± 10.11) and 430 healthy subjects (mean age: 50.31 ± 18.21). Analysis of the gene polymorphisms was performed using the PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each genotype and allele were calculated. Results. The results obtained indicate that the genotype Gln/Gln is associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer (OR 5.01; 95% CI 3.37–7.43; ). Association of Lys751Gln polymorphism with histological grading showed increased ERCC2 Gln/Gln (OR = 6.96; 95% CI 3.41–14.21; ) genotype in grading 1 as well as Gln allele overrepresentation (OR = 4.98; 95% CI 3.37–7.40; ) in G1 ovarian patients. Finally, with clinical FIGO staging under evaluation, an increase in ERCC2 Gln/Gln homozygote frequencies in staging I and Gln allele frequencies in SI were observed. Conclusion. On the basis of these results, we conclude that ERCC2 gene polymorphism Lys751Gln may be associated with an increased risk of ovarian carcinoma. Magdalena M. Michalska, Dariusz Samulak, Hanna Romanowicz, Maciej Sobkowski, and Beata Smolarz Copyright © 2015 Magdalena M. Michalska et al. All rights reserved. Use of Virtual Reality Tools for Vestibular Disorders Rehabilitation: A Comprehensive Analysis Thu, 30 Apr 2015 14:16:36 +0000 Classical peripheral vestibular disorders rehabilitation is a long and costly process. While virtual reality settings have been repeatedly suggested to represent possible tools to help the rehabilitation process, no systematic study had been conducted so far. We systematically reviewed the current literature to analyze the published protocols documenting the use of virtual reality settings for peripheral vestibular disorders rehabilitation. There is an important diversity of settings and protocols involving virtual reality settings for the treatment of this pathology. Evaluation of the symptoms is often not standardized. However, our results unveil a clear effect of virtual reality settings-based rehabilitation of the patients’ symptoms, assessed by objectives tools such as the DHI (mean decrease of 27 points), changing symptoms handicap perception from moderate to mild impact on life. Furthermore, we detected a relationship between the duration of the exposure to virtual reality environments and the magnitude of the therapeutic effects, suggesting that virtual reality treatments should last at least 150 minutes of cumulated exposure to ensure positive outcomes. Virtual reality offers a pleasant and safe environment for the patient. Future studies should standardize evaluation tools, document putative side effects further, compare virtual reality to conventional physical therapy, and evaluate economical costs/benefits of such strategies. Mathieu Bergeron, Catherine L. Lortie, and Matthieu J. Guitton Copyright © 2015 Mathieu Bergeron et al. All rights reserved. The Knowledge, Attitude, and Perception towards Epilepsy amongst Medical Students in Uyo, Southern Nigeria Tue, 31 Mar 2015 12:18:13 +0000 Background and Aim. Epilepsy remains a stigmatized disease especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. Lack of information and illiteracy has been blamed as the cause of the stigmatization. This stigmatization stems from the fact that the traditional African belief views epilepsy as a spiritual disease. We studied the knowledge, attitude, and perception towards epilepsy amongst medical students comparing the knowledge of the clinical students with that of the basic medical (preclinical) students. Methodology. The participants were medical students in University of Uyo. We administered questionnaires which explored the knowledge of etiology (perceived and medically proven). We studied the beliefs in infectivity of epilepsy, treatment together with their attitudes, and perception to persons with epilepsy. Results. Most of the participants do not have a good knowledge of epilepsy. The knowledge, however, was much better amongst the clinical students. There is some difference in the attitudes of the clinical students compared with the basic students. Conclusion. There is a knowledge gap in epilepsy even amongst medical students. Participants still harbor the traditional African beliefs that epilepsy is a spiritual disease. Mercifully, the knowledge is better amongst the clinical students. This is not surprising since the clinical students have had clinical exposure to epilepsy. Bertha C. Ekeh and Udeme E. Ekrikpo Copyright © 2015 Bertha C. Ekeh and Udeme E. Ekrikpo. All rights reserved. Mathematical Modelling and Tuberculosis: Advances in Diagnostics and Novel Therapies Sun, 15 Mar 2015 09:57:56 +0000 As novel diagnostics, therapies, and algorithms are developed to improve case finding, diagnosis, and clinical management of patients with TB, policymakers must make difficult decisions and choose among multiple new technologies while operating under heavy resource constrained settings. Mathematical modelling can provide helpful insight by describing the types of interventions likely to maximize impact on the population level and highlighting those gaps in our current knowledge that are most important for making such assessments. This review discusses the major contributions of TB transmission models in general, namely, the ability to improve our understanding of the epidemiology of TB. We focus particularly on those elements that are important to appropriately understand the role of TB diagnosis and treatment (i.e., what elements of better diagnosis or treatment are likely to have greatest population-level impact) and yet remain poorly understood at present. It is essential for modellers, decision-makers, and epidemiologists alike to recognize these outstanding gaps in knowledge and understand their potential influence on model projections that may guide critical policy choices (e.g., investment and scale-up decisions). Alice Zwerling, Sourya Shrestha, and David W. Dowdy Copyright © 2015 Alice Zwerling et al. All rights reserved. Investigation of Suspected Pulmonary Embolism at Hutt Valley Hospital with CT Pulmonary Angiography: Current Practice and Opportunities for Improvement Sun, 01 Mar 2015 09:23:29 +0000 Aims. To study the use of CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) at Hutt Hospital and investigate the use of pretest probability scoring in the assessment of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods. We studied patients with suspected PE that underwent CTPA between January and May 2012 and collected data on demographics, use of pretest probability scoring, and use of D Dimer and compared our practice with the British Thoracic Society (BTS) guideline. Results. 105 patients underwent CTPA and 15% of patients had PE. 13% of patients had a Wells score prior to their scan. Wells score calculated by researchers revealed 54%, 36%, and 8% patients had low, medium, and high risk pretest probabilities and 8%, 20%, and 50% of these patients had positive scans. D Dimer was performed in 58% of patients and no patients with a negative D Dimer had a PE. Conclusion. The CTPA positive rate was similar to other contemporary studies but lower than previous New Zealand studies and some international guidelines. Risk stratification of suspected PE using Wells score and D Dimer was underutilised. A number of scans could have been safely avoided by using accepted guidelines reducing resources use and improving patient safety. Nick Kennedy, Sisira Jayathissa, and Paul Healy Copyright © 2015 Nick Kennedy et al. All rights reserved. A Critical Analysis of Claims and Their Authenticity in Indian Drug Promotional Advertisements Wed, 28 Jan 2015 11:27:06 +0000 Introduction. Drug promotional advertisements (DPAs) form a major marketing technique of pharmaceutical companies for promoting their products and disseminating ambiguous drug information which can affect prescribing pattern of physicians. Drug information includes product characteristics, various marketing claims with references in support to increase its credibility and authenticity. Material and Methods. An observational study was carried out on fifty printed drug advertisement brochures which were collected from different OPDs of Guru Nanak Dev Hospital attached to Government Medical College, Amritsar, India. These advertisements were analyzed and claims were categorized into true, false, exaggerated, vague, and controversial on criteria as reported by Rohraa et al. (2006). References of DPAs in support of the claims were critically analyzed for their retrievability from web and validity pertaining to claims. Results. Out of 209 claims from 50 advertisements, only 46% were found to be true, 21% false, 16% vague, 7% exaggerated, and 10% controversial in nature. Out of 160 references given in support of claims, 49 (30%) of references were irretrievable. Out of 111 (70%) retrievable references, 92 (83%) references were found valid. Conclusion. Drug information provided in the DPAs was biased, incomplete, unauthentic, and unreliable with references exhibiting questionable credibility. Gurpreet Kaur Randhawa, Navyug Raj Singh, Jaswant Rai, Gobindnoor Kaur, and Resham Kashyap Copyright © 2015 Gurpreet Kaur Randhawa et al. All rights reserved. An Average Body Circumference Can Be a Substitute for Body Mass Index in Women Thu, 20 Nov 2014 07:25:14 +0000 Introduction. Significant correlations between BMI and some body circumferences have been previously reported. In this study we investigated if the average of the sum of eight body circumferences can be a substitute for BMI. Patients and Methods. BMI and eight body circumferences (neck, waist, hip, arm, forearm, wrist, thigh, and ankle) were measured in 193 apparently healthy women aged 20–83, and within a wide range of BMI. Women with BMI ≤ 24.9 were designated as normal, with BMI 25–29.9 as overweight and with BMI ≥ 30 as obese. The relationship of the average body circumference (ABC) of the sum of the eight circumferences, and of each individual circumference with BMI, was evaluated. Results. ABC had the strongest correlation with BMI (, ) among all the circumferences tested. Hip circumference had the strongest correlation with BMI (, ) among the circumferences of individual body sites. Receiver-Operator Characteristic analysis showed that women with ABC > 44.0 cm could be recognized as having BMI ≥ 25 with sensitivity 90.2% and specificity 88.5%, while women with ABC > 47.1 cm could be diagnosed as having BMI ≥ 30 with sensitivity 92.2% and specificity 91.5%. Conclusion. An average body circumference strongly correlated with BMI in women and can serve as a surrogate of BMI. Antonis Polymeris, Peter D. Papapetrou, and Georgios Katsoulis Copyright © 2014 Antonis Polymeris et al. All rights reserved. Presumed Virus-Induced Punctal Occlusion Thu, 13 Nov 2014 07:05:07 +0000 Purpose. To investigate viral infection as a cause of punctal stenosis in individuals without any ocular or systemic risk factors. Methods. The study group comprised patients with no known cause for punctal occlusion who underwent surgery at one medical center during a one-year period. Excised tissue was subjected to histological examination, PCR, and nested PCR testing for common viruses (adenovirus, influenza A and B, enterovirus, varicella-zoster, CMV, herpes simplex types 1 and 2, Epstein-Barr virus, and parainfluenza type 1). Results. All nine patients identified were female, 20–38 years of age. The three-snip-procedure resolved tearing in eight of them. All excised samples showed chronic mononuclear inflammation compatible with viral infection or with viral infection immune inflammatory reaction. PCR testing was negative for all the viruses examined; however, nested PCR was positive in three patients. Conclusion. This study supports the proposition that punctal occlusion in young healthy females may be due to viral infection. Michael Yulish and Joseph Pikkel Copyright © 2014 Michael Yulish and Joseph Pikkel. All rights reserved. Stroke Recovery: Surprising Influences and Residual Consequences Tue, 11 Nov 2014 08:05:03 +0000 There is startling individual variability in the degree to which people recover from stroke and the duration of time over which recovery of some symptoms occurs. There are a variety of mechanisms of recovery from stroke which take place at distinct time points after stroke and are influenced by different variables. We review recent studies from our laboratory that unveil some surprising findings, such as the role of education in chronic recovery. We also report data showing that the consequences that most plague survivors of stroke and their caregivers are loss of high level cortical functions, such as empathy or written language. These results have implications for rehabilitation and management of stroke. Argye E. Hillis and Donna C. Tippett Copyright © 2014 Argye E. Hillis and Donna C. Tippett. All rights reserved. Reconstructive Surgery for Head and Neck Cancer Patients Sun, 09 Nov 2014 11:52:08 +0000 The field of head and neck surgery has gone through numerous changes in the past two decades. Microvascular free flap reconstructions largely replaced other techniques. More importantly, there has been a paradigm shift toward seeking not only to achieve reliable wound closure to protect vital structures, but also to reestablish normal function and appearance. The present paper will present an algorithmic approach to head and neck reconstruction of various subsites, using an evidence-based approach wherever possible. Matthew M. Hanasono Copyright © 2014 Matthew M. Hanasono. All rights reserved. Effects of Atorvastatin on Oxidative Stress Biomarkers and Mitochondrial Morphofunctionality in Hyperfibrinogenemia-Induced Atherogenesis Thu, 23 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Relationship between hyperfibrinogenemia (HF), oxidative stress, and atherogenesis was established. Effect of atorvastatin (Ator) was assessed. Wistar male (6 months) rats were studied: Ctr, control, without HF induction; Ctr-Ator, without HF treated with atorvastatin; AI, atherogenesis induced, and AI-Ator, atherogenesis induced and treated with atorvastatin. Atherogenesis was induced by daily adrenaline injection (0.1 mL/day/rat) for 90 days; treatment started 15 days after induction. Fibrinogen (mg/dL) and nitric oxide (NO) were measured in plasma (mM) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (U/mL) in red cell lysate by spectrophotometry. Slices of aorta were analyzed by electron microscopy (EM). ANOVA and chi-square test were used; was established. There were no significant differences between Ctr and Ctr-Atorv in fibrinogen, NO, and SOD values. Comparing Ctr with AI an increase of fibrinogen is observed (), but it decreased after administration of atorvastatin in AI-Ator (). NO diminished in AI relative to Ctr and increased in AI-Ator (). SOD showed an increase in AI and AI-Ator compared to Ctr (). EM revealed expansion of intermembrane space and disorganization of crests in AI. In AI-Ator mitochondrial areas and diameters were similar to control. Atorvastatin normalizes HF, stabilizes NO, increases SOD, and produces a partial regression of mitochondrial lesions. María de la Paz Scribano, María del Carmen Baez, Becerra Florencia, Mariana Denise Tarán, Signorini Franco, Ariel G. Balceda, and Mónica Moya Copyright © 2014 María de la Paz Scribano et al. All rights reserved. Ivacaftor Therapy in CF Patients: Single Center Experience Wed, 22 Oct 2014 08:58:27 +0000 Ivacaftor is the first novel cystic fibrosis pharmaceutical that acts at the molecular level to potentiate cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) function and was first approved for clinical use in 2012. We are sharing our single center experience of five patients: four from pediatric age group and one adult patient. All patients had both subjective and objective improvements in their health. Despite established lung disease, our patients had significant improvement in both their FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 second) and FE and BMI (body mass index). Larger studies demonstrated only 6.7% improvement in mean FEV1 after starting Ivacaftor therapy but their patient population had normal lung function to begin with. In contrast our case series demonstrates that, in patients with established lung disease and diminished lung function, Ivacaftor can be expected to result in much higher recovery in lung function. Mean FEV1 improved by 35% in our case series. Ivacaftor is extremely expensive, costing $300,000 per patient per year requiring lifelong therapy, hence requiring prior authorizations from most third-party payers in the USA. The knowledge shared from our experience will be useful for other clinicians to petition healthcare policymakers on behalf of their patients. Pritish Mondal, Amber Loyson, Jorge Lascano, and Satyanarayan Hegde Copyright © 2014 Pritish Mondal et al. All rights reserved. Malaria, Typhoid Fever, and Their Coinfection among Febrile Patients at a Rural Health Center in Northwest Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study Wed, 01 Oct 2014 14:26:32 +0000 Background. Malaria and typhoid fever are major public health problems in tropical and subtropical countries. People in endemic areas are at risk of contracting both infections concurrently. Objectives. The study was aimed at determining the prevalence and associated risk factors of malaria, typhoid, and their coinfection among febrile patients. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 febrile patients suspected for malaria and/or typhoid fever from April to May, 2013, at Ayinba Health Center, Northwest Ethiopia. Blood samples were collected for blood culture, Widal test, and blood film preparation. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 statistical software. Results. The prevalence of malaria was 36.5% (). Among these 32 (43.8%), 30 (41.1%) and 11 (15.1%) were positive for P. falciparum, P. vivax, and mixed infections, respectively. The seroprevalence of typhoid fever was 38 (19%), but 1 (0.5%) with blood culture. Malaria typhoid fever coinfection was 13 (6.5%). 2–5-year-old children and poor hand washing habit were significantly associated with malaria and typhoid infection, respectively (). Conclusions. The prevalence of malaria and typhoid fever was found high. Further studies should be done on the other determinants of malaria and typhoid fever coinfection in different seasons and different study areas. Meseret Birhanie, Belay Tessema, Getachew Ferede, Mengistu Endris, and Bamlaku Enawgaw Copyright © 2014 Meseret Birhanie et al. All rights reserved. Chemokines Referee Inflammation within the Central Nervous System during Infection and Disease Tue, 30 Sep 2014 13:34:45 +0000 The discovery that chemokines and their receptors are expressed by a variety of cell types within the normal adult central nervous system (CNS) has led to an expansion of their repertoire as molecular interfaces between the immune and nervous systems. Thus, CNS chemokines are now divided into those molecules that regulate inflammatory cell migration into the CNS and those that initiate CNS repair from inflammation-mediated tissue damage. Work in our laboratory throughout the past decade has sought to elucidate how chemokines coordinate leukocyte entry and interactions at CNS endothelial barriers, under both homeostatic and inflammatory conditions, and how they promote repair within the CNS parenchyma. These studies have identified several chemokines, including CXCL12 and CXCL10, as critical regulators of leukocyte migration from perivascular locations. CXCL12 additionally plays an essential role in promoting remyelination of injured white matter. In both scenarios we have shown that chemokines serve as molecular links between inflammatory mediators and other effector molecules involved in neuroprotective processes. Douglas M. Durrant, Jessica L. Williams, Brian P. Daniels, and Robyn S. Klein Copyright © 2014 Douglas M. Durrant et al. All rights reserved. Sepsis Associated Encephalopathy Tue, 30 Sep 2014 06:16:22 +0000 Sepsis associated encephalopathy (SAE) is a common but poorly understood neurological complication of sepsis. It is characterized by diffuse brain dysfunction secondary to infection elsewhere in the body without overt CNS infection. The pathophysiology of SAE is complex and multifactorial including a number of intertwined mechanisms such as vascular damage, endothelial activation, breakdown of the blood brain barrier, altered brain signaling, brain inflammation, and apoptosis. Clinical presentation of SAE may range from mild symptoms such as malaise and concentration deficits to deep coma. The evaluation of cognitive dysfunction is made difficult by the absence of any specific investigations or biomarkers and the common use of sedation in critically ill patients. SAE thus remains diagnosis of exclusion which can only be made after ruling out other causes of altered mentation in a febrile, critically ill patient by appropriate investigations. In spite of high mortality rate, management of SAE is limited to treatment of the underlying infection and symptomatic treatment for delirium and seizures. It is important to be aware of this condition because SAE may present in early stages of sepsis, even before the diagnostic criteria for sepsis can be met. This review discusses the diagnostic approach to patients with SAE along with its epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and differential diagnosis. Neera Chaudhry and Ashish Kumar Duggal Copyright © 2014 Neera Chaudhry and Ashish Kumar Duggal. All rights reserved. Prevalence and Aetiology of Left Ventricular Thrombus in Patients Undergoing Transthoracic Echocardiography at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital Mon, 29 Sep 2014 08:24:11 +0000 Objectives. We sought to determine the prevalence and aetiology of LVT among patients undergoing echocardiography. Methods. We reviewed case notes and echocardiographic data of patient diagnosed with LVT using noncontrast transthoracic echocardiography. Definition of various conditions was made using standard guidelines. Mean ± SD were derived for continuous variables and comparison was made using Student’s -test. Results. Total of 1302 transthoracic echocardiograms were performed out of which 949 adult echocardiograms were considered eligible. Mean age of all subjects with abnormal echocardiograms was 44.73 (16.73) years. Abnormalities associated with LVT were observed in 782/949 (82.40%) subjects among whom 84/782 (8.85%) had LVT. The highest prevalence of 39.29% (33/84) was observed in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, followed by myocardial infarction with a prevalence of 29.76% (25/84). Peripartum cardiomyopathy accounted for 18/84 (21.43%) cases with some having multiple thrombi, whereas hypertensive heart disease was responsible for 6/84 (7.14%) cases. The lowest prevalence of 2.38% (2/84) was observed in those with rheumatic heart disease. Left ventricular EF of <35% was recorded in 55/84 (65.48%). Conclusions. Left ventricular thrombus is common among patients undergoing echo, with dilated cardiomyopathy being the most common underlying aetiology followed by myocardial infarction. Multiple LVTs were documented in peripartum cardiomyopathy. Mohammed Abdullahi Talle, Faruk Buba, and Charles Oladele Anjorin Copyright © 2014 Mohammed Abdullahi Talle et al. All rights reserved. Current Options for Determining Fracture Union Mon, 15 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Determining whether a bone fracture is healed is one of the most important and fundamental clinical determinations made in orthopaedics. However, there are currently no standardized methods of assessing fracture union, which in turn has created significant disagreement among orthopaedic surgeons in both clinical and research settings. An extensive amount of research has been dedicated to finding novel and reliable ways of determining healing with some promising results. Recent advancements in imaging techniques and introduction of new radiographic scores have helped decrease the amount of disagreement on this topic among physicians. The knowledge gained from biomechanical studies of bone healing has helped us refine our tools and create more efficient and practical research instruments. Additionally, a deeper understanding of the molecular pathways involved in the bone healing process has led to emergence of serologic markers as possible candidates in assessment of fracture union. In addition to our current physician centered methods, patient-centered approaches assessing quality of life and function are gaining popularity in assessment of fracture union. Despite these advances, assessment of union remains an imperfect practice in the clinical setting. Therefore, clinicians need to draw on multiple modalities that directly and indirectly measure or correlate with bone healing when counseling patients. Saam Morshed Copyright © 2014 Saam Morshed. All rights reserved. Advances in Proteomic Technologies and Its Contribution to the Field of Cancer Mon, 08 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Systematic studies of the cancer genome have generated a wealth of knowledge in recent years. These studies have uncovered a number of new cancer genes not previously known to be causal targets in cancer. Genetic markers can be used to determine predisposition to tumor development, but molecularly targeted treatment strategies are not widely available for most cancers. Precision care plans still must be developed by understanding and implementing basic science research into clinical treatment. Proteomics is continuing to make major strides in the discovery of fundamental biological processes as well as more recent transition into an assay platform capable of measuring hundreds of proteins in any biological system. As such, proteomics can translate basic science discoveries into the clinical practice of precision medicine. The proteomic field has progressed at a fast rate over the past five years in technology, breadth and depth of applications in all areas of the bioscience. Some of the previously experimental technical approaches are considered the gold standard today, and the community is now trying to come to terms with the volume and complexity of the data generated. Here I describe contribution of proteomics in general and biological mass spectrometry in particular to cancer research, as well as related major technical and conceptual developments in the field. Mehdi Mesri Copyright © 2014 Mehdi Mesri. All rights reserved. Targeting BCL2-Proteins for the Treatment of Solid Tumours Wed, 27 Aug 2014 08:13:20 +0000 Due to their central role in the regulation of apoptosis, the antiapoptotic BCL2-proteins are highly promising targets for the development of novel anticancer treatments. To this end, several strategies have been developed to inhibit BCL2, , BCL-w, and MCL1. While early clinical trials in haematological malignancies demonstrated exciting single-agent activity of BCL2-inhibitors, the response in solid tumours was limited, indicating that, in solid tumours, different strategies have to be developed in order to successfully treat patients with BCL2-inhibitors. In this review, the function of the different antiapoptotic BCL2-proteins and their role in solid tumours will be discussed. In addition, a comprehensive analysis of current small molecules targeting these antiapoptotic BCL2-proteins (e.g., ABT-737, ABT-263, ABT-199, TW-37, sabutoclax, obatoclax, and MIM1) will be provided including a discussion of the results of any clinical trials. This analysis will summarise the potential of BCL2-inhibitors for the treatment of solid tumours and will unravel novel approaches to utilise these inhibitors in clinical applications. Meike Vogler Copyright © 2014 Meike Vogler. All rights reserved. Coexistence of Upper Airway Obstruction and Primary and Secondary Enuresis Nocturna in Children and the Effect of Surgical Treatment for the Resolution of Enuresis Nocturna Wed, 20 Aug 2014 07:10:14 +0000 Objective. The aim of this study is to investigate the coexistence of upper airway obstruction (UAO) and primary enuresis nocturna (PEN) and secondary enuresis nocturna (SEN) in children. Besides, the efficacy of surgery on resolution of enuresis nocturna is evaluated. Materials and Methods. The children with PEN and SEN were included in the first group and investigated for UAO in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology. During the same period, children who had been planned for an operation to treat UAO over 5 years old were included in the second group and were evaluated in the Department of Urology for PEN and SEN before the operation. Results. A hundred patients completed the study (50 patients in Group 1, 50 patients in Group 2). According to the otolaryngologic examination, 20 of 25 PEN patients and 9 of 25 SEN patients also had UAO. The difference was statistically different (). The second group consisted of fifty patients on the surgery list for upper airway obstructive pathologies. Coexistence of PEN and SEN is found in 12 and 3 of children, respectively. These ratios were statistically significant (). The improvement rate of PEN and SEN after operation in the second group was 83.3% and 33.3%, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (). Conclusion. There is a strong relationship between PEN and UAO, but it cannot be declared for SEN patients. UAO should be kept in mind as a possible etiologic factor for PEN. Gül Soylu Özler and Serkan Özler Copyright © 2014 Gül Soylu Özler and Serkan Özler. All rights reserved. The Efficacy of Sucralfate and Chlorhexidine as an Oral Rinse in Patients with Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis Thu, 14 Aug 2014 09:50:06 +0000 Aim. In this study, we compared the efficacy of sucralfate suspension with chlorhexidine as an oral rinse in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) in terms of pain relief and healing time. Materials and Methods. The subjects with a complaint of recurrent oral aphthous ulcers less than 1 cm in diameter on the first day of the occurrence of the ulcer and between 20 and 40 years were included in the study. Seventy patients completed the study. The patients were randomized into two groups as SCH group and CHX group. Changes in pain scores, healing time, and side effects of the treatments were evaluated. Results. The mean value of pain scores on the days after the treatment from the first day to the seventh day was significantly higher in CHX group than SCH group (). On the seventh day after the treatment, the ulcers were completely reepithelialized in 23 patients in SCH group and in 19 patients in CHX group. The difference was statistically significant (). In SCH group, the mean healing time of ulcers was days whereas it was days in CHX group. The difference was statistically significant (). No side effects were recorded in either of the groups. Conclusion. Topical sucralfate suspension is an easy, safe, inexpensive, and effective treatment option for RAS to obtain pain relief and shorten the healing time of oral ulcers. Gül Soylu Özler, Şemsettin Okuyucu, and Ertap Akoğlu Copyright © 2014 Gül Soylu Özler et al. All rights reserved. Assessment of the Self-Perception of Dental Appearance, Its Comparison with Orthodontist’s Assessment and Demand for Treatment in Eastern Nepalese Patients Wed, 13 Aug 2014 07:27:46 +0000 Aims. The aim of this study was to assess the self-perception of dental appearance among Eastern Nepalese patients using aesthetic component (AC) of the index of orthodontic treatment need (IOTN) and to compare it with that of an orthodontist’s assessment using the same scale and determine whether gender, area of residence, and level of education influence subject’s self-perception and orthodontist’s ratings. Methods. A total of 252 subjects (equal number of male and female) were conveniently selected. The average ages of subjects were years. The level of subject’s perception and orthodontist’s assessment was analyzed by nonparametric Chi square test. Kappa coefficient was done to verify its agreement. The Spearman’s correlation test was used to check the association of educational level and age. Mann-Whitney test was used to check the associations of sex and areas of residence. Results. The demand for treatment was significantly associated with the perception of the subject and orthodontist’s assessment. However, age, gender, and educational level were statistically insignificant in influencing subject perception and orthodontist’s assessment. Conclusion. Patient’s self-perception should be given equal importance while planning orthodontic treatment. Varun Pratap Singh, Amita Sharma, and Deepak Kumar Roy Copyright © 2014 Varun Pratap Singh et al. All rights reserved. Hemodynamic Surveillance of Ventricular Pacing Effectiveness with the Transvalvular Impedance Sensor Mon, 04 Aug 2014 09:00:55 +0000 The Transvalvular Impedance (TVI) is derived between atrial and ventricular pacing electrodes. A sharp TVI increase in systole is an ejection marker, allowing the hemodynamic surveillance of ventricular stimulation effectiveness in pacemaker patients. At routine follow-up checks, the ventricular threshold test was managed by the stimulator with the supervision of a physician, who monitored the surface ECG. When the energy scan resulted in capture loss, the TVI system must detect the failure and increase the output voltage. A TVI signal suitable to this purpose was present in 85% of the tested patients. A total of 230 capture failures, induced in 115 patients in both supine and sitting upright positions, were all promptly recognized by real-time TVI analysis (100% sensitivity). The procedure was never interrupted by the physician, as the automatic energy regulation ensured full patient’s safety. The pulse energy was then set at 4 times the threshold to test the alarm specificity during daily activity (sitting, standing up, and walking). The median prevalence of false alarms was 0.336%. The study shows that TVI-based ejection assessment is a valuable approach to the verification of pacing reliability and the autoregulation of ventricular stimulation energy. Valeria Calvi, Giovanni Pizzimenti, Marco Lisi, Giuseppe Doria, Ludovico Vasquez, Francesco Lisi, Salvatore Felis, Donatella Tempio, Alfredo Virgilio, Alberto Barbetta, and Franco Di Gregorio Copyright © 2014 Valeria Calvi et al. All rights reserved. Evaluating the Reproducibility of Motion Analysis Scanning of the Spine during Walking Thu, 17 Jul 2014 08:10:54 +0000 The Formetric 4D dynamic system (Diers International GmbH, Schlangenbad, Germany) is a rasterstereography based imaging system designed to evaluate spinal deformity, providing radiation-free imaging of the position, rotation, and shape of the spine during the gait cycle. Purpose. This study was designed to evaluate whether repeated measurements with the Formetric 4D dynamic system would be reproducible with a standard deviation of less than +/− 3 degrees. This study looked at real-time segmental motion, measuring kyphosis, lordosis, trunk length, pelvic, and T4 and L1 vertebral body rotation. Methods. Twenty healthy volunteers each underwent 3 consecutive scans. Measurements for kyphosis, lordosis, trunk length, and rotations of T4, L1, and the pelvis were recorded for each trial. Results. The average standard deviations of same-day repeat measurements were within +/− 3 degrees with a range of 0.51 degrees to 2.3 degrees. Conclusions. The surface topography system calculated reproducible measurements with error ranges comparable to the current gold standard in dynamic spinal motion analysis. Therefore, this technique should be considered of high clinical value for reliably evaluating segmental motion and spinal curvatures and should further be evaluated in the setting of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Aaron Gipsman, Lisa Rauschert, Michael Daneshvar, and Patrick Knott Copyright © 2014 Aaron Gipsman et al. All rights reserved.