Table 1: Comparison of the STD, Noah, RUC, and CLM3 land surface schemes in WRF.

VegetationSoilSnowLakeRiver routing

STDN/A5 layer temperatures, but no moisture and frozen soilN/AN/AN/A
NoahOne vegetation type in one grid cell without dynamic vegetation and carbon budget4 layer temperatures and moistures and frozen soil1 layer snow lumped with the top soil layer No liquid water fixed snow densityN/AN/A
RUCOne vegetation type in one grid cell without dynamic vegetation and carbon budget6 layer temperatures and moistures and frozen soil2 layer snow No liquid water Fixed snow densityN/AN/A
CLM3Subgrids with up to 10 vegetation types in one grid cell with dynamic vegetation and carbon budget10-layer temperatures and moistures and frozen soil5 layer snow with liquid water Variable snow density10 layer lake with lake ice and snow includedA Digital Elevation Model (DEM) to calculate water flow directions