Table 2: Statistical parameters for HIRHAM model and observed data sets for mean sea level pressure (MSLP), 2m air temperature (T2m), and precipitation (Precip) in the entire model domain (ALL) and selected subdomains: mountain area >1500 m a.s.l. (ELEV1500), ocean (SEA), land surface (LAND) and Indian continent (INDIA), defined as pattern correlation coefficient (PATCOR), difference “HIRHAM model minus observation”, or the difference between two observational data sets (BIAS) and root mean square error (RMSE) in hPa (MSLP), K (T2m) and mm (Precip).

DatasetsTime averageParameterDomainPatcorBiasRMSE

HIRHAM versus ERA401958–2001MSLPALL0.95 0.5 1.5
ELEV15000.80 2.0 2.9
SEA 0.99 0.1 0.6
LAND0.94 0.7 1.8
INDIA 0.93 −0.2 5.9

HIRHAM versus ERA401958–2001T2mALL0.96 0.3 2.3
ELEV1500 0.90 −1.7 3.5
SEA0.93 0.4 0.7
LAND0.95 0.2 2.8
INDIA 0.93 1.9 10.7

HIRHAM versus ERA401958–2001PrecipALL0.75 27.4 128.5
ELEV1500 0.72 −15.5 88.3
SEA0.69 65.3181.5
LAND0.79 8.8 91.8
INDIA0.77 42.7250.6

HIRHAM versus GPCC41958–2001PrecipALL0.79 10.4 94.8
ELEV15000.85 4.1 73.3
SEA none comparable grid points
LAND0.80 6.5 89.3
INDIA0.81 38.6244.7

GPCC4 versus ERA401958–2001PrecipALL0.82 −1.9 75.0
ELEV15000.60 −8.4 97.1
SEA none comparable grid points
LAND0.80 −0.6 70.8
INDIA0.74 −0.1 95.7