Table 1: X-ray spectra carbon K-edge, near-edge, and postedge features.

ComponentTransitionEnergy (eV)

Aromatic/alkene, R(C=C)R C 1s- 284.4–286.4
Ketone, R(C=O)R C 1s- 286.2–290.9
Alkyl, R(CH) R C 1s- 287.4–288.5
Amide carbonyl, R–NH(C=O)R C 1s- 288.3 ± 0.2
Carboxylic carbonyl, R(C=O)OHC 1s- 288.2–288.9 ± 0.3
Alcohol, RCOHC 1s-3p/ 289.5 ± 0.3
Inorganic carbonate, C 1s- 290.4
Alkyl, R(CH) R C 1s- 290.8–293
Potassium, KL edges297.4 ± 0.2 and 299 ± 0.2

[34], [35], [36].