Table 3: Observed types of marine primary organic aerosol and the suggested biological relevance of specific particle types.

LocationMethod(s)Particle SizeDominant Component(s) or Spectral FeatureBiological Relevance
Polysaccharides

Arctic TEM, 100 nmColloidal spherulesEPS gels
Various TEM 1  mColloidal spherulesEPS gels
X-ray backscatter,
and solubility
Mediterranean Sea andAlcian blue dye1–50  mSemi-transparent colloidsPolysaccharides
Long Island Sound
W. Pacific TEM, 50 nmColloidal spherulesEPS gels
SEM with X-ray backscatter,
and solubility
North Atlantic HNMR (WSOC and WIOC)60–1000 nmHydroxylate aliphaticsLipopolysaccharides
Lipid-like aliphatics
Arctic FTIR spectroscopy 1  mOrganic hydroxyl groupsPolysaccharides
Alkane groups
SE Pacific FTIR spectroscopy 1  mOrganic hydroxyl groupsPolysaccharides
SE Pacific STXM-NEXAFS 1  mOrganic hydroxyl groupsPolysaccharides
Arctic STXM-NEXAFS 1  mCarboxylic acid groupsPolysaccharides

Protein and amino acid compounds

Arctic TEM and Extraction 50 nmHydrophobic organicAmino acids
aggregates
Mediterranean Sea andHPLC andnot providedAsp, Glu, Ser, AlaAmino acids
Long Island Sound Coomassie Blue dye1–50  mSemi-transparent colloidsProteins
Arctic STXM-NEXAFS 1  mAlkane andProtein
amide groups
SE Pacific STXM-NEXAFS 1  mAlkane andProtein
amide groups

Micro-organisms and their fragments

Arctic TEM and Extraction 400 nmBacteria and diatoms
Arctic TEM,200–5000 nmMicro-organisms and
fragments
X-ray backscatter,
and solubility
W. Pacific TEM, 400 nmCaCO Coral-related
SEM with X-ray backscatter,3.7 to 7.5  mBacteria
and solubility
SE Pacific STXM-NEXAFS 1  mCaCO and alkane groupsCalcareous phytoplankton
fragments

None listed

Tasmania PALMS 160 nmOrganic mass fragments
Arctic TEM 100 nmOrganic liquidProteins
Ireland IC, 1.5  mWIOC (not characterized)
EGA,WSOC (aliphatic groups
HNMR, near heteroatoms, HULIS,
and TOCand partially oxidized
species)

HNMR characterized aerosol was generated in a laboratory setting from collected seawater.
[25], [26], [22], [27], [7], [8], [15], This work, [28], [14], [42], [6].