About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Advances in Meteorology
Volume 2010 (2010), Article ID 760546, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/760546
Research Article

Diagnosis of the Relationship between Dust Storms over the Sahara Desert and Dust Deposit or Coloured Rain in the South Balkans

General Department of Mathematics, Technological Education Institute of Piraeus, 250 Thivon and P. Ralli, 12244 Athens, Greece

Received 1 December 2009; Accepted 19 July 2010

Academic Editor: Harry D. Kambezidis

Copyright © 2010 N. G. Prezerakos et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. V. E. Angouridakis, A Case of Coloured Rain in the Area of Thessaloniki, Meteorologika, no. 14, University of Thessaloniki, 1971.
  2. S. Karoulias, The Saharian Depressions, Meteorologika, no. 57, University of Thessaloniki, 1971.
  3. N. G. Prezerakos, “The northwest African depressions affecting the south Balkans,” Journal of Climatology, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 643–654, 1985.
  4. M. Athanassiadou, H. Flocas, M. A. J. Harrison, M. C. Hort, C. S. Witham, and S. Millington, “The dust event of 17 April 2005 over Athens, Greece,” Weather, vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 125–131, 2006.
  5. M. T. Tullet, “A dust fall on 6 March 1977,” Weather, vol. 33, pp. 48–52, 1978.
  6. R. F. File, “Dust deposit in England on 9 November 1984,” Weather, vol. 41, pp. 191–195, 1986.
  7. S. Rodríguez, X. Querol, A. Alastuey, G. Kallos, and O. Kakaliagou, “Saharan dust contributions to PM10 and TSP levels in Southern and Eastern Spain,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 35, no. 14, pp. 2433–2447, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. J.-B. Stuut, I. Smalley, and K. O'Hara-Dhand, “Aeolian dust in Europe: African sources and European deposits,” Quaternary International, vol. 198, no. 1-2, pp. 234–245, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. J. M. Prospero, E. Bonatti, C. Schubert, and T. N. Carlson, “Dust in the Caribbean atmosphere traced to an African dust storm,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 287–293, 1970.
  10. J. M. Prospero and T. N. Carlson, “Vertical and areal distribution of Saharan dust over the western equatorial North Atlantic Ocean,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 77, pp. 5255–5265, 1972.
  11. G. E. Shaw, “Transport of Asian desert aerosol to the Hawaiian Islands,” Journal of Applied Meteorology, vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 1254–1259, 1980.
  12. Y. Iwasaka, H. Minoura, and K. Nagaya, “The transport and spacial scale of Asian dust-storm clouds: a case study of the dust-storm event of April 1979,” Tellus, vol. 35B, no. 3, pp. 189–196, 1983.
  13. M. Uematsu, R. A. Duce, J. M. Prospero, L. Chen, J. T. Merrill, and R. L. McDonald, “Transport of mineral aerosol from Asia over the North Pacific ocean,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 88, no. C9, pp. 5342–5352, 1983.
  14. E. F. Danielsen, “The relationship between severe weather, major dust storms and rapid large-scale cyclogenesis, Parts I and II,” in Subsynoptic Extratropical Weather Systems: Observations, Analysis, Modeling, and Prediction; Notes from a Colloquium: Summer 1974, vol. 2, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo, USA, 1975.
  15. D. G. Kaskaoutis, H. D. Kambezidis, P. T. Nastos, and P. G. Kosmopoulos, “Study on an intense dust storm over Greece,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 42, no. 29, pp. 6884–6896, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. R. Jones, “Atmospheric dispersion modelling at the Met. Office,” Weather, vol. 59, no. 11, pp. 311–316, 2004.
  17. G. Kallos, A. Papadopoulos, P. Katsafados, and S. Nickovic, “Transatlantic Saharan dust transport: model simulation and results,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 111, no. 9, Article ID D09204, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. N. Kubilay, S. Nickovic, C. Moulin, and F. Dulac, “An illustration of the transport and deposition of mineral dust onto the eastern Mediterranean,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 1293–1303, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. B. Marticorena, G. Bergametti, B. Aumont, Y. Callot, C. N'Doumé, and M. Legrand, “Modeling the atmospheric dust cycle 2. Simulation of Saharan dust sources,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 102, no. 4, pp. 4387–4404, 1997.
  20. S. Michaelides, P. Evripidou, and G. Kallos, “Monitoring and predicting Saharan Désert dust events in the eastern Mediterranean,” Weather, vol. 54, pp. 311–316, 1999.
  21. S. Ničković and S. Dobričić, “A model for long-range transport of desert dust,” Monthly Weather Review, vol. 124, no. 11, pp. 2537–2544, 1996.
  22. S. Nickovic, O. Kakaliagou, G. Kallos, D. Jovic, and A. Papadopoulos, “Eta/dust model: sensitivity to model resolution and desert source specification,” in Proceedings of the 1st LAS/WMO International Symposium on Sand and Dust Storms, WMO Programme on Weather Prediction Research Report Series Project no. 10, WMO Technical Document no. 864, pp. 187–196, Damascus, Syria, November 1997.
  23. S. Nickovic, G. Kallos, A. Papadopoulos, and O. Kakaliagou, “A model for prediction of desert dust cycle in the atmosphere,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 106, no. 16, pp. 18113–18129, 2001.
  24. L. Carapiperis and A. Tataris, “Coloured rain during the 15 and 22 March of 1962,” in Proceedings of the Academy of Athens, vol. 38, pp. 300–308, 1963.
  25. T. A. Charadonis, T. J. Makrogiannis, and A. A. Flocas, “The possibility of identification of sand clouds and prediction of coloured rain over Greece by mean of satellite imagery,” Bulletin of the Geological Society of Greece, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 303–314, 1991.
  26. T Makrogiannis, A. Flocas, N. Ramos, and A. Karipidis, “A case of dust fall and coloured rain in the Greek area,” Rivista di Meteorologia Aeronautica, vol. 50, no. 1-2, pp. 65–74, 1990.
  27. C. D. Thorncroft and H. A. Flocas, “A case study of Saharan cyclogenesis,” Monthly Weather Review, vol. 125, no. 6, pp. 1147–1165, 1997.
  28. Karein D., The forecasting of cyclogenesis in the Mediterranean region, Ph.D. thesis, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, 1975.
  29. F. Defant, “On the hydrodynamic instability caused by approach of subtropical and polar front jet stream in northern latitudes before the onset of strong cyclogenesis,” in Rossby Memorial Volume: The Atmosphere and Sea in Motion, B. Bolin, Ed., pp. 305–325, Rockefeller Institute, New York, NY, USA, 1959.
  30. N. G. Prezerakos, H. A. Flocas, and D. Brikas, “The role of the interaction between polar and subtropical jet in a case of depression rejuvenation over the Eastern Mediterranean,” Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics, vol. 92, no. 1-2, pp. 139–151, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. N. G. Prezerakos, “Synoptic flow patterns leading to the generation of north-west African depressions,” International Journal of Climatology, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 33–48, 1990.
  32. N. G. Prezerakos, S. C. Michaelides, and A. S. Vlassi, “Atmospheric synoptic conditions associated with the initiation of north-west African depressions,” International Journal of Climatology, vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 711–729, 1990.
  33. U. Dayan, J. Heffter, J. Miller, and G. Gutman, “Dust intrusion events into the Mediterranean basin,” Journal of Applied Meteorology, vol. 30, no. 8, pp. 1185–1199, 1991.
  34. C. Moulin, C. E. Lambert, U. Dayan et al., “Satellite climatology of African dust transport in the Mediterranean atmosphere,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 103, no. D11, pp. 13137–13144, 1998.
  35. B. Marticorena and G. Bergammetti, “Modelling the atmosphere dust cycle: 1-Design of a soil-derived dust production scheme,” Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, vol. 100, pp. 16415–16430, 1995.
  36. D. Soderman and F. Dulac, “Monitoring and prediction of the atmospheric transport and deposition of desert dust in the Mediterranean region,” in Programme on Weather Prediction Research (PWPR), vol. 10 of Report Series Project, pp. 181–186, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1998.
  37. I. Tegen and I. Fung, “Modeling of mineral dust in the atmosphere: sources, transport, and optical thickness,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 99, no. D11, pp. 22897–22914, 1994.
  38. S. A. Grigoryan and M. A. Sofiev, “Numerical modeling of dust elevation during storm episodes and its long-range atmospheric transport,” in Proceedings of the 1st LAS/WMO International Symposium on Sand and Dust Storms, WMO Programme on Weather Prediction Research Report Series Project no. 10, WMO Technical Document no. 864, pp. 88–98, Damascus, Syria, November 1997.
  39. N G. Prezerakos, “Dust storms over Sahara Desert leading to dust deposit or coloured rain in the South Balkans,” in Proceedings of the 1st LAS/WMO International Symposium on Sand and Dust Storms, WMO Programme on Weather Prediction Research Report Series Project no. 10, WMO Technical Document no. 864, pp. 21–38, Damascus, Syria, November 1997.
  40. C. Kottmeier and B. Fay, “Trajectories in the Antarctic lower troposphere,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 103, no. D9, pp. 10947–10959, 1998.
  41. World Meteorological Organization, World Weather Watch (WWW) Program, “Technical Progress Report on the Global Data-Processing System (GDPS),” Report Series 2, WMO, Geneva, Switzerland, 1995.
  42. N. Brooks and M. Legrand, “Dust variability over northern Africa and rainfall in the Sahel,” in Linking Climate Change to Land Surface, S. J. McLaren and D. R. Kniveton, Eds., Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2000.
  43. P. Ginoux, M. Chin, I. Tegen, et al., “Global simulation of dust in the troposphere: model description and assessment,” Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, vol. 106, no. D17, pp. 20255–20273, 2001.
  44. J. M. Prospero, P. Ginoux, O. Torres, S. E. Nicholson, and T. E. Gill, “Environmental characterization of global sources of atmospheric soil dust identified with the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) absorbing aerosol product,” Reviews of Geophysics, vol. 40, no. 1, p. 1002, 2002.
  45. S. Petterssen, Weather Analysis and Forecasting, vol. 1, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 1956.
  46. S. Petterssen and S. J. Smebye, “On the development of extratropical cyclones,” The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol. 97, no. 414, pp. 457–482, 1956.
  47. B. J. Hoskins, M. E. McIntyre, and A. W. Robertson, “On the use and significance of isentropic potential vorticity maps,” The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol. 111, no. 470, pp. 877–946, 1985.
  48. N. G. Prezerakos, H. A. Flocas, and S. C. Michaelides, “Absolute vorticity advection and potential vorticity of the free troposphere as synthetic tools for the diagnosis and forecasting of cyclogenesis,” Atmosphere-Ocean, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 65–91, 1997.
  49. S. A. Ackerman and T. Inoue, “Radiation energy budget studies using collocated AVHRR and ERBE observations,” Journal of Applied Meteorology, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 370–378, 1994.
  50. S. A. Ackerman, “Remote sensing aerosols using satellite infrared observations,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 102, no. D14, pp. 17069–17079, 1997.
  51. L. Wald, “Some terms of reference in data fusion,” IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 1190–1193, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  52. J. P. Frangi, A. Druilhet, P. Durand, H. Ide, J. P. Pages, and A. Tinga, “Energy budget of the Sahelian surface layer,” Annales Geophysicae, vol. 10, no. 1-2, pp. 25–33, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  53. E. Katragkou, S. Kazadzis, V. Amiridis, V. Papaioannou, S. Karathanasis, and D. Melas, “PM10 regional transport pathways in Thessaloniki, Greece,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 1079–1085, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  54. A. Papayannis, D. Balis, V. Amiridis et al., “Measurements of Saharan dust aerosols over the eastern Mediterranean using elastic backscatter-Raman lidar, spectrophotometric and satellite observations in the frame of the EARLINET project,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 2065–2079, 2005.
  55. A. Poupkou, D. Melas, I. Ziomas et al., “Simulated summertime regional ground-level ozone concentrations over Greece,” Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, vol. 196, no. 1–4, pp. 169–181, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  56. K. Markakis, A. Poupkou, D. Melas, and C. Zerefos, “A GIS based anthropogenic PM10 emission inventory for Greece,” Atmospheric Pollution Research, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 71–81, 2009.