About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Advances in Meteorology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 246874, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/246874
Research Article

Desert Dust Outbreaks over Mediterranean Basin: A Modeling, Observational, and Synoptic Analysis Approach

1LaMMA Consortium, Laboratory of Monitoring and Environmental Modeling for the Sustainable Development, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy
2IBIMET, National Research Council, Via G. Caproni 8, 50145 Florence, Italy
3Department of Chemistry, University of Florence, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy
4INFN, National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy
5Department of Geography, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91905, Israel
6Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy

Received 9 March 2012; Accepted 19 June 2012

Academic Editor: Pawan Gupta

Copyright © 2012 F. Calastrini et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. IPCC, “Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing,” in Climate Change 2007: the Physical Basis, P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, et al., Eds., pp. 129–234, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, USA.
  2. J. Haywood and O. Boucher, “Estimates of the direct and indirect radiative forcing due to tropospheric aerosols: a review,” Reviews of Geophysics, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 513–543, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. E. Penner, et al., “Aerosols, their direct and indirect effects,” in Climate Change 2001: the Scientific Basis, J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, et al., Eds., pp. 289–348, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2001.
  4. V. Ramaswamy, et al., “Radiative forcing of climate change,” in Climate Change 2001: the Scientific Basis, J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, et al., Eds., pp. 349–416, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2001.
  5. U. Lohmann and J. Feichter, “Global indirect aerosol effects: a review,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 715–737, 2005. View at Scopus
  6. IPCC, “Summary for policymakers,” in Climate Change 2007: the Physical Science Basis, S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, et al., Eds., Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, USA, 2007.
  7. N. M. Mahowald and L. M. Kiehl, “Mineral aerosol and cloud interactions,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 28–1, 2003. View at Scopus
  8. K. H. Rosenlof, S. J. Oltmans, D. Kley et al., “Stratospheric water vapor increases over the past half-century,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 1195–1198, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. T. D. Jickells, Z. S. An, K. K. Andersen et al., “Global iron connections between desert dust, ocean biogeochemistry, and climate,” Science, vol. 308, no. 5718, pp. 67–71, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. G. S. Okin, N. Mahowald, O. A. Chadwick, and P. Artaxo, “Impact of desert dust on the biogeochemistry of phosphorus in terrestrial ecosystems,” Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol. 18, no. 2, Article ID GB2005, 9 pages, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. M. Prospero, P. Ginoux, O. Torres, S. E. Nicholson, and T. E. Gill, “Environmental characterization of global sources of atmospheric soil dust identified with the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) absorbing aerosol product,” Reviews of Geophysics, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 1–31, 2002. View at Scopus
  12. X. Tie, S. Madronich, S. Walters et al., “Assessment of the global impact of aerosols on tropospheric oxidants,” Journal of Geophysical Research D, vol. 110, no. 3, pp. 1–32, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. M. Prospero, “Saharan dust transport over the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean: an overview,” in The Impact of Desert Dust Across the Mediterranean, S. Guerzoni and R. Chester, Eds., pp. 133–151, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1996.
  14. U. Dayan, J. Heffter, J. Miller, and G. Gutman, “Dust intrusion events into the Mediterranean basin,” Journal of Applied Meteorology, vol. 30, no. 8, pp. 1185–1199, 1991. View at Scopus
  15. X. Querol, J. Pey, M. Pandolfi et al., “African dust contributions to mean ambient PM10 mass-levels across the Mediterranean Basin,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 43, no. 28, pp. 4266–4277, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. Rodríguez, X. Querol, A. Alastuey, G. Kallos, and O. Kakaliagou, “Saharan dust contributions to PM10 and TSP levels in Southern and Eastern Spain,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 35, no. 14, pp. 2433–2447, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. Escudero, X. Querol, J. Pey et al., “A methodology for the quantification of the net African dust load in air quality monitoring networks,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 41, no. 26, pp. 5516–5524, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. B. Mason, Principles of Geochemistry, Wiley, New York, NY, USA, 1966.
  19. R. A. Pielke, W. R. Cotton, R. L. Walko et al., “A comprehensive meteorological modeling system-RAMS,” Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics, vol. 49, no. 1-4, pp. 69–91, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. G. Acker and G. Leptoukh, “Online analysis enhances use of NASA Earth Science Data,” Eos, vol. 88, no. 2, pp. 14–17, 2007. View at Scopus
  21. M. Chin, P. Ginoux, S. Kinne et al., “Tropospheric aerosol optical thickness from the GOCART model and comparisons with satellite and sun photometer measurements,” Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 461–483, 2002. View at Scopus
  22. D. A. Gillette, “Major contributions of natural primary continental aerosols: source mechanisms,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 338, pp. 348–358, 1980.
  23. D. A. Gillette, “Production of dust that may be carried great distances,” in Desert Dust: Origin, Characteristics, and Effect on Man, T. L. Pewe, Ed., vol. 186, pp. 11–26, Geological Society of America Special, 1981.
  24. B. Marticorena and G. Bergametti, “Modeling the atmospheric dust cycle: 1. Design of a soil-derived dust emission scheme,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 100, no. 8, pp. 16–430, 1995. View at Scopus
  25. F. Meneguzzo, M. Pasqui, G. Menduni et al., “Sensitivity of meteorological high-resolution numerical simulations of the biggest floods occurred over the Arno river basin, Italy, in the 20th century,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 288, no. 1-2, pp. 37–56, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. G. Messeri, A. Pellegrini, M. Pasqui et al., “Weather forecast using RAMS model. A case study,” in Proceedings of the Italian Physical Society Conference, vol. 80, pp. 55–68, 2002.
  27. M. Pasqui, J. Lichtenegger, F. Meneguzzo, and G. Messeri, “Validation of Model rams with ERS-2 SAR observations in convectives storm events over the Mediterranean sea,” in Mediterranean Storms, R. Deidda, A. Mugnai, and F. Siccardi, Eds., publicatioin no.2560, GNDCI, 2002.
  28. M. Pasqui, L. Bottai, C. Busillo et al., “Dust sandstorm dynamics analysis in northern China by means of atmospheric, emission, dispersion modeling,” in Proceeding of the 8th International Conference on Development of Drylands, Beijing, China, 2006.
  29. M. Kanamitsu, W. Ebisuzaki, J. Woollen et al., “NCEP-DOE AMIP-II reanalysis (R-2),” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol. 83, no. 11, pp. 1631–1643, 2002. View at Scopus
  30. S. Nickovic, G. Kallos, A. Papadopoulos, and O. Kakaliagou, “A model for prediction of desert dust cycle in the atmosphere,” Journal of Geophysical Research D, vol. 106, no. 16, pp. 18113–18129, 2001. View at Scopus
  31. I. Tegen and I. Fung, “Modeling of mineral dust in the atmosphere: sources, transport, and optical thickness,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 99, no. 11, pp. 22–914, 1994. View at Scopus
  32. E. Bartholomé and A. S. Belward, “GLC2000: a new approach to global land cover mapping from earth observation data,” International Journal of Remote Sensing, vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 1959–1977, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. FAO, IIASA, ISRIC, ISSCAS, and JRC, “Harmonized world soil database,” (version 1. 1), FAO, Rome, Italy and IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria, 2009.
  34. S. A. Slinn and W. G. N. Slinn, “Predictions for particle deposition on natural waters,” Atmospheric Environment. Part A, vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 1013–1016, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. H. Seinfeld and S. N. Pandis, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. from Air Pollution to Climate Change, John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY, USA, 1998.
  36. P. Bonelli, G. M. Braga Marcazzan, and E. Cereda, “Elemental composition and air trajectories of African dust transported in Northern Italy,” in The Impact of Desert Dust Across the Mediterranean, S. Guerzoni and R. Chester, Eds., pp. 275–283, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1996.
  37. I. Borbely-Kiss, A. Z. Kiss, E. Koltay, G. Szabo, and L. Bozo, “Saharan dust episodes in Hungarian aerosol: elemental signatures and transport trajectories,” Journal of Aerosol Science, vol. 35, no. 10, pp. 1205–1224, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. G. M. B. Marcazzan, P. Bonelli, E. Della Bella, A. Fumagalli, R. Ricci, and U. Pellegrini, “Study of regional and long-range transport in an Alpine station by PIXE analysis of aerosol particles,” Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, B, vol. 75, no. 1-4, pp. 312–316, 1993. View at Scopus
  39. M. Chiari, F. Lucarelli, F. Mazzei et al., “Characterization of airborne particulate matter in an industrial district near Florence by PIXE and PESA,” X-Ray Spectrometry, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 323–329, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, L. Lange et al., “Saharan dust in Brazil and Suriname during the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA)—cooperative LBA Regional Experiment (CLAIRE) in March 1998,” Journal of Geophysical Research D, vol. 106, no. 14, pp. 14919–14934, 2001. View at Scopus
  41. G. Calzolai, M. Chiari, I. García Orellana et al., “The new external beam facility for environmental studies at the Tandetron accelerator of LABEC,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B, vol. 249, no. 1-2, pp. 928–931, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. J. L. Campbell, N. I. Boyd, N. Grassi, P. Bonnick, and J. A. Maxwell, “The Guelph PIXE software package IV,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B, vol. 268, no. 20, pp. 3356–3363, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. S. Becagli, C. Ghedini, S. Peeters et al., “MBAS (Methylene Blue Active Substances) and LAS (Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonates) in Mediterranean coastal aerosols: sources and transport processes,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 45, no. 37, pp. 6788–6801, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. R. Washington, M. C. Todd, S. Engelstaedter, S. Mbainayel, and F. Mitchell, “Dust and the low-level circulation over the Bodélé Depression, Chad: observations from BoDEx 2005,” Journal of Geophysical Research D, vol. 111, no. 3, Article ID D03201, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. C. Moulin, C. E. Lambert, F. Dulac, and U. Dayan, “Control of atmospheric export of dust from North Africa by the North Atlantic Oscillation,” Nature, vol. 387, no. 6634, pp. 691–694, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus