- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Advances in Meteorology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 321649, 22 pages
Applying a Mesoscale Atmospheric Model to Svalbard Glaciers
1Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Villavägen 16, 75236 Uppsala, Sweden
2Institute of Meteorology and Geophysics, Innsbruck University, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
3Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research, Utrecht University, 3508 TC Utrecht, The Netherlands
Received 2 December 2011; Revised 16 February 2012; Accepted 15 March 2012
Academic Editor: Igor N. Esau
Copyright © 2012 Björn Claremar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- J. O. Hagen, J. Kohler, K. Melvold, and J. G. Winther, “Glaciers in Svalbard: mass balance, runoff and freshwater flux,” Polar Research, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 145–159, 2003.
- P. Lemke, J. Ren, and R. B. Alley etal, “Observations: changes in snow, ice and frozen ground,” in Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning et al., Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2007.
- C. Nuth, G. Moholdt, J. Kohler, J. O. Hagen, and A. Kääb, “Svalbard glacier elevation changes and contribution to sea level rise,” Journal of Geophysical Research F, vol. 115, no. 1, Article ID F01008, pp. 1–16, 2010.
- G. Moholdt, J. O. Hagen, T. Eiken, and T. V. Schuler, “Geometric changes and mass balance of the Austfonna ice cap, Svalbard,” Cryosphere, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 21–34, 2010.
- H. Svendsen, A. Beszczynska-Møller, J. O. Hagen et al., “The physical environment of Kongsfjorden-Krossfjorden, and Arctic fjord system in Svalbard,” Polar Research, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 133–166, 2002.
- H. Hop, T. Pearson, E. N. Hegseth et al., “The marine ecosystem of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard,” Polar Research, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 167–208, 2002.
- J. G. Winther, O. Bruland, K. Sand et al., “Snow research in Svalbard—an overview,” Polar Research, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 125–144, 2003.
- J. Kohler and R. Aanes, “Effect of winter snow and ground-icing on a Svalbard reindeer population: results of a simple snowpack model,” Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 333–341, 2004.
- S. Willmes, J. Bareiss, C. Haas, and M. Nicolaus, “Observing snowmelt dynamics on fast ice in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, with NOAA/AVHRR data and field measurements,” Polar Research, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 203–213, 2009.
- S. Westermann, J. Lüers, M. Langer, K. Piel, and J. Boike, “The annual surface energy budget of a high-arctic permafrost site on Svalbard, Norway,” Cryosphere, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 245–263, 2009.
- AMAP Secratariat, “Snow, Water, Ice and Permafrost in the Arctic (SWIPA) 2011—Executive Summary,” AMAP, Norway, 2011, http://www.amap.no/swipa/.
- I. Hanssen-Bauer and E. J. Førland, “Temperature and precipitation variations in Norway and their links to atmospheric circulation,” International Journal of Climatology, vol. 20, no. 14, pp. 1693–1708, 2000.
- J. J. Cassano, J. E. Box, D. H. Bromwich, L. Li, and K. Steffen, “Evaluation of polar MM5 simulations of Greenland's atmospheric circulation,” Journal of Geophysical Research D, vol. 106, no. 24, pp. 33867–33889, 2001.
- H. Wei, W. J. Gutowski, C. J. Vorosmarty, and B. M. Fekete, “Calibration and validation of a regional climate model for pan-Arctic hydrologic simulation,” Journal of Climate, vol. 15, no. 22, pp. 3222–3236, 2002.
- J. A. Curry and A. H. Lynch, “Comparing arctic regional climate model,” EOS Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, vol. 83, no. 9, pp. 83–87, 2002.
- M. Tjernström, M. Žagar, G. Svensson et al., “Modelling the Arctic boundary layer: an evaluation of six ARCMIP regional-scale models using data from the SHEBA project,” Boundary-Layer Meteorology, vol. 117, no. 2, pp. 337–381, 2005.
- C. Jones, K. Wyser, A. Ullerstig, and U. Willen, “The RossbyCentre Regional Atmospheric Climate model (RCA) Part II: applicationto the arctic climate,” AMBIO, vol. 33, no. 4-5, pp. 261–266, 2004.
- A. Rinke, K. Dethloff, J. J. Cassano et al., “Evaluation of an ensemble of Arctic regional climate models: spatiotemporal fields during the SHEBA year,” Climate Dynamics, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 459–472, 2006.
- L. Rontu, F. Obleitner, S. Gollvik, C. Zingerle, and S. Tijm, “HIRLAM experiments on surface energy balance accross Vatnajökull,” Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics, vol. 103, no. 1–4, pp. 67–77, 2009.
- J. J. Cassano, M. E. Higgins, and M. W. Seefeldt, “Performance of the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model for month-long pan-arctic simulations,” Monthly Weather Review, vol. 139, no. 11, pp. 3469–3488, 2011.
- D. K. Perovich, E. L. Andreas, J. A. Curry, et al., “Year on ice gives climate insights,” EOS Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, vol. 80, no. 41, p. 481, 1999.
- P. Skeie and S. Grønas, “Strongly stratified easterly flows across Spitsbergen,” Tellus A, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 473–486, 2000.
- D. H. Bromwich, J. J. Cassano, T. Klein et al., “Mesoscale modeling of katabatic winds over Greenland with the Polar MM5,” Monthly Weather Review, vol. 129, no. 9, pp. 2290–2309, 2001.
- A. D. Sandvik and B. R. Furevik, “Case study of a coastal jet at Spitsbergen—comparison of SAR- and model-estimated wind,” Monthly Weather Review, vol. 130, no. 4, pp. 1040–1051, 2002.
- H. Olafsson and H. Agustsson, “Gravity wave breaking in easterly flow over Greenland and associated low level barrier- and reverse tip-jets,” Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics, vol. 104, no. 3-4, pp. 191–197, 2009.
- S. Grønas, “Mesoscale phenomena induced by mountains over Scandinavia and Spitsbergen,” in Proceedings of the Workshop on Orography, pp. 165–182, ECMWF, Reading, UK, 1997.
- A. Dörnbrack, I. S. Stachlewska, C. Ritter, and R. Neuber, “Aerosol distribution around Svalbard during intense easterly winds,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 1473–1490, 2010.
- K. Dethloff, M. Schwager, J. H. Christensen et al., “Recent greenland accumulation estimated from regional climate model simulations and ice core analysis,” Journal of Climate, vol. 15, no. 19, pp. 2821–2832, 2002.
- M. Bougamont, J. L. Bamber, and W. Greuell, “A surface mass balance model for the Greenland Ice Sheet,” Journal of Geophysical Research F, vol. 110, no. 4, Article ID F04018, pp. 1–13, 2005.
- J. E. Box, D. H. Bromwich, B. A. Veenhuis et al., “Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance variability (1988–2004) from calibrated polar MM5 output,” Journal of Climate, vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 2783–2800, 2006.
- J. Ettema, M. R. van den Broeke, E. van Meijgaard et al., “Higher surface mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet revealed by high-resolution climate modeling,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 36, no. 12, Article ID L12501, pp. 1–5, 2009.
- W. J. J. van Pelt, J. Oerlemans, C. H. Reijmer, V. A. Pohjola, R. Petterson, and J. H. van Angelen, “Simulating melt, runoff and refreezing on Nordenskiöldbreen, Svalbard, using a coupled snow and energy balance model,” The Cryosphere Discussions, vol. 6, pp. 211–266, 2011.
- W. C. Skamarock, J. B. Klemp, J. Dudhia et al., “A description of the advanced research WRF version 2,” NCAR Technical Note TN-468 + STR, Boulder, Colo, USA, 2005.
- W. C. Skamarock, J. B. Klemp, and J. Dudhia et al, “A description of the advanced research WRF version 3,” NCAR Technical Note TN-475+STR, Boulder, Colo, USA, 2008.
- K. M. Hines and D. H. Bromwich, “Development and testing of polar weather research and forecasting (WRF) model. Part I: greenland ice sheet meteorology,” Monthly Weather Review, vol. 136, no. 6, pp. 1971–1989, 2008.
- D. H. Bromwich, K. M. Hines, and L. S. Bai, “Development and testing of Polar Weather Research and Forecasting model: 2. Arctic Ocean,” Journal of Geophysical Research D, vol. 114, no. 8, Article ID D08122, pp. 1–22, 2009.
- K. M. Hines, D. H. Bromwich, L. S. Bai, M. Barlage, and A. G. Slater, “Development and testing of polar WRF. Part III: Arctic land,” Journal of Climate, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 26–48, 2011.
- N. Mölders and G. Kramm, “A case study on wintertime inversions in Interior Alaska with WRF,” Atmospheric Research, vol. 95, no. 2-3, pp. 314–332, 2010.
- D. F. Porter, J. J. Cassano, and M. C. Serreze, “Analysis of the Arctic atmospheric energy budget in WRF: a comparison with reanalyses and satellite observations,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 116, Article ID D22108, pp. 1–20, 2011.
- A. B. Wilson, D. H. Bromwich, and K. M. Hines, “Evaluation of polar WRF forecasts on the Arctic System Reanalysis domain: surface and upper air analysis,” Journal of Geophysical Research D, vol. 116, no. 11, Article ID D11112, pp. 1–18, 2011.
- T. Kilpeläinen, T. Vihma, and H. Ólafsson, “Modelling of spatial variability and topographic effects over Arctic fjords in Svalbard,” Tellus A, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 223–237, 2011.
- S. Kirkwood, M. Mihalikova, T. N. Rao, and K. Satheesan, “Turbulence associated with mountain waves over Northern Scandinavia—a case study using the ESRAD VHF radar and the WRF mesoscale model,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 3583–3599, 2010.
- E. Mäkiranta, T. Vihma, A. Sjöblom, and E. M. Tastula, “Observations and modelling of the atmospheric boundary layer over sea-ice in a Svalbard Fjord,” Boundary-Layer Meteorology, vol. 140, no. 1, pp. 105–123, 2011.
- M. Reeve and E. Kolstad, “The spitsbergen south cape tip jet,” Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol. 137, no. 660, pp. 1739–1748, 2011.
- E. Stütz, Dynamically and thermally driven flows over and around Svalbard, a case study based on numerical simulations and airborne measurements, Diploma thesis, Institute of Meteorology and Geophysics, Innsbruck University, Innsbruck, Austria, 2010.
- D. P. Dee, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons et al., “The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol. 137, no. 656, pp. 553–597, 2011.
- U. Heikkilä, A. Sandvik, and A. Sorteberg, “Dynamical downscaling of ERA-40 in complex terrain using the WRF regional climate model,” Climate Dynamics, vol. 37, no. 7-8, pp. 845–866, 2010.
- M.-D. Chou and M. J. Suarez, “An efficient thermal infrared radiation parametrization for use in general circulation models,” NASA Technical Memorandum 104606, 1994.
- E. J. Mlawer, S. J. Taubman, P. D. Brown, M. J. Iacono, and S. A. Clough, “Radiative transfer for inhomogeneous atmospheres: RRTM, a validated correlated-k model for the longwave,” Journal of Geophysical Research D, vol. 102, no. 14, pp. 16663–16682, 1997.
- G. A. Grell and D. Devenyi, “A generalized approach to parameterizing convection combining ensemble and data assimilation techniques,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 29, no. 14, article 1693, 2002.
- H. Morrison, J. A. Curry, and V. I. Khvorostyanov, “A new double-moment microphysics parameterization for application in cloud and climate models. Part I: description,” Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol. 62, no. 6, pp. 1665–1677, 2005.
- Z. I. Janjic, “The surface layer in the NCEP Eta Model,” in Proceedings of the 11th Conference on Numerical Weather Prediction, pp. 354–355, American Meteorological Society, Norfolk, Va, USA, August 1996.
- Z. I. Janjic, “Non singular Implementation of the Mellor–Yamada Level 2.5 Scheme in the NCEP Meso model,” NCEP Office Note no. 437, 2002.
- G. L. Mellor and T. Yamada, “Development of a turbulence closure model for geophysical fluid problems.,” Reviews of Geophysics & Space Physics, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 851–875, 1982.
- A. S. Monin and A. M. Obukhov, “Basic laws of turbulent mixing in the surface layer of the atmosphere,” Trudy Geofizicheskogo Instituta, Akademiya Nauk SSSR, vol. 24, no. 151, pp. 163–187, 1954.
- F. Chen and J. Dudhia, “Coupling and advanced land surface-hydrology model with the Penn State-NCAR MM5 modeling system. Part I: model implementation and sensitivity,” Monthly Weather Review, vol. 129, no. 4, pp. 569–585, 2001.
- M. Möller, R. Möller, É. Beaudon, et al., “Snowpack characteristics of Vestfonna and de Geerfonna (Nordaustlandet, Svalbard)—a spatiotemporal analysis based on multiyear snow-pit data,” Geografiska Annaler, vol. 93A, no. 4, pp. 273–285, 2011.
- S.-Y. Hong and J.-O. Lin, “The WRF single-moment 6-class microphysics scheme (WSM6),” Journal of the Korean Meteorological Society, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 129–151, 2006.
- S. Sukoriansky, B. Galperin, and V. Perov, “Application of a new spectral theory of stably stratified turbulence to the atmospheric boundary layer over sea ice,” Boundary-Layer Meteorology, vol. 117, no. 2, pp. 231–257, 2005.
- T. Kilpeläinen, T. Vihma, M. Manninen et al., “ Modelling the vertical structure of the atmospheric boundary layer over Arctic fjords in Svalbard,” Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society. In press.
- M. Nakanishi and H. Niino, “An improved Mellor-Yamada Level-3 model: its numerical stability and application to a regional prediction of advection fog,” Boundary-Layer Meteorology, vol. 119, no. 2, pp. 397–407, 2006.
- R. L. Hawley, O. Brandt, E. M. Morris, J. Kohler, A. P. Shepherd, and D. J. Wingham, “Techniques for measuring high-resolution firn density profiles: case study from Kongsvegen, Svalbard,” Journal of Glaciology, vol. 54, no. 186, pp. 463–468, 2008.
- M. A. G. den Ouden, C. H. Reijmer, V. Pohjola, R. S. W. van de Wal, J. Oerlemans, and W. Boot, “Stand-alone single-frequency GPS ice velocity observations on Nordenskiöldbreen, Svalbard,” Cryosphere, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 593–604, 2010.
- M. Möller, R. Finkelnburg, M. Braun et al., “Climatic mass balance of the ice cap Vestfonna, Svalbard: a spatially distributed assessment using ERA-Interim and MODIS data,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 116, Article ID F03009, pp. 1–14, 2011.
- V. A. Pohjola, P. Kankaanpää, J. C. Moore, and T. Pastusiak, “Preface: the international polar year project “Kinnvika”—arctic warming and impact research at 80° N,” Geografiska Annaler, vol. 93A, no. 4, pp. 201–208, 2011.
- F. Obleitner and M. Lehning, “Measurement and simulation of snow and superimposed ice at the Kongsvegen glacier, Svalbard (Spitzbergen),” Journal of Geophysical Research D, vol. 109, no. 4, Article ID D04106, pp. 1–12, 2004.
- G. König-Langlo and E. Augstein, “Parameterization of the downward long-wave radiation at the earth’s surface in polar regions,” Meteorologische Zeitschrift, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 343–347, 1994.
- C. R. Stearns, G. A. Weidner, and L. M. Keller, “Atmospheric circulation around the Greenland Crest,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 102, no. D12, pp. 13801–13812, 1997.
- V. A. Pohjola, J. C. Moore, E. Isaksson et al., “Effect of periodic melting on geochemical and isotopic signals in an ice core from Lomonosovfonna, Svalbard,” Journal of Geophysical Research D, vol. 107, no. 4, Article ID 4036, pp. 1–14, 2002.
- S. Söderberg and O. Parmhed, “Numerical modelling of katabatic flow over a malting outflow glacier,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol, vol. 120, no. 3, pp. 507–543, 2006.
- D. Wilks, Statistical Methods in the Atmospheric Sciences, Academic Press, 2006.
- R. B. Stull, An Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1988.
- F. Pellicciotti, T. Raschle, T. Huerlimann, M. Carenzo, and P. Burlando, “Transmission of solar radiation through clouds on melting glaciers: a comparison of parameterizations and their impact on melt modelling,” Journal of Glaciology, vol. 57, no. 202, pp. 367–381, 2011.
- S. Forsström, J. Ström, C. A. Pedersen, E. Isaksson, and S. Gerland, “Elemental carbon distribution in Svalbard snow,” Journal of Geophysical Research D, vol. 114, no. 19, Article ID D19112, pp. 1–8, 2009.
- B. Aamaas, C. E. Bøggild, F. Stordal, T. Berntsen, K. Holmén, and J. Ström, “Elemental carbon deposition to Svalbard snow from Norwegian settlements and long-range transport,” Tellus B, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 340–351, 2011.