Table 2: Synthesis of the most important measurement campaigns for dust characterization involving lidar measurements.

Measurement campaignLocationPeriodMain
references
InstrumentsLidar added value

INDOEX
(Indian Ocean Experiment)
http://www-indoex.ucsd.edu/
Indian subcontinent
and Indian Ocean
(8°N–8°S, 70°E–80°E)
January–March 1999[69, 158]Ground-based:
- Gas samplers/Proton Transfer Reaction; Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS)/Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (AP-CIMS)
- micro pulse lidar/multi-wavelength lidar
First vertical resolved
microphysical properties:
m
SSA at 532 nm = 1–0.25
= 6–44  m2/cm3

PRIDE
(Puerto Rico Dust Experiment)
http://modis-atmos.gsfc.nasa.gov/PRIDE
Puerto Rico
(18.21°N–65.60°W)
28 June–24 July 2000[67, 159161]Ground-based
- surface station/2 AERONET Sun-photometers/MICROTOPS sunphotometer
- micro pulse lidar
Airborne:
- AATS-6 Sun-photometer/radiometers /2optical counters

Research vessel:
- in situ sensors
Highly variable layering:
Dust up to 5 km
Dust intrusion in the
marine boundary layer

SHADE
(Saharan Dust Experiment)
Sal Island (Capo Verde)
and M’Buor (Senegal)
9–29 September 2000[68, 162]Ground-based: 
- CIMEL Sun-photometers
Airborne:
- in situ sensors/radiometers /POLDER radiometer
-backscatter lidar
Lidar/in situ measurements integration
Dust in the PBL and up to 4.5 km
Smaller radius in the PBL

ACE-Asia
(Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment)
http://saga.pmel.noaa.gov/aceasia
SE China, Korea, Japan
(22–50°N, 100–150°E)
Spring 2001[163, 164]Ground-based:
- Backscatter/Raman lidars
- Sun photometer/Radiometers/Absorption Photometer
Airborne:
- AERONET Sun photometers/Radiometers/
PSAP/4 Nephelometer/In situ sensors
Shipborne:
Micro pulse lidar

Spaceborne:
- Aerosol and species retrievals
Depolarization measurements for discriminating spherical and no spherical particles
Dust extinction coefficient at 532 nm up to 0.3 km−1

MINATROC
(Mineral dust and Tropospheric Chemistry)
Mount Cimone, Italy
(44.2°N, 10.7°E, 1870 m a.s.l.)
Izana, Tenerife, Spain
(28.30°N, 16.48°W 2367 m asl)
June–July 2000
July –August 2002
[165]- Differential mobility analyzer (DMA)/optical particle counter (OPC)
- Single backscatter depolarization lidar
Dust layering 2–8 km a.s.l.
Dust extinction coefficient 0.2 km−1 (532 nm)
Particle linear depolarization ratio ~15% (532 nm)

CRYSTAL-FACE
(Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers-Florida Area Cirrus)
http://cloud1.arc.nasa.gov/crystalface
SW and SE Florida, USA
(24°–26°N 83°–80°W)
July 2002[17, 166, 167]Ground-based: 
- CIMEL Sun-photometers/Surface flux measurements/UV/IR/Broadband radiometers
- Ceilometer
- Backscatter lidars
Airborne:
- Sun-photometers/Radiometers/Nephelometer/In situ sensors

Spaceborne:
Aerosol and species retrievals
Dust particles are effective Ice Condensation Nuclei in mildly supercooled (−5.2/−8.8°C) altocumulus

UAE2(Unified Aerosol Experiment)

http://uae2.gsfc.nasa.gov/
United Arab Emirates, Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman.August–September 2004[168, 169]Ground-based:
- 15 sun-photometers/AERI interferometer/particle sizer/NRL Mobile Atmospheric Aerosol And Radiation Characterization (MAARCO)/NASA’s Surface-sensing Measurements for Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (SMART)/radiosonde
- Micro pulse lidars
Airborne:  
- Aerosol, clouds and water droplet probes/Cloud Absorption Radiometer/Polar Nephelometer
- Lidar
Micro Pulse Lidar/Sun-photometer synergy:
dust /clouds separation
AOD at 550 nm
AOD in IR in daytime
Large AOD variability
(range 0.4–0.53)
Larger variability at coastal and island sites

AMMA
(African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis)
http://www.amma-international.org/spip.php?rubrique1
Africa (Mali-Niger-Nigeria-Senegal-Benin-Algeria, Mauritania)
(8°–19°N, 2°–8°E)
2002–2010[71, 170172]Ground-based:
- SW-LW broadband radiometers/AERONET/Microtops II Sun-photometers/TEOMs/Particle/CCN Counters/Aerosol filter sampling/Nephelometers/
Aethalometers/Pyranometers/Pyrgeometers/
Scatterometers/Pyrheliometers/Shadow band radiometers/Gas samplers (O3, CO, SO2, , COV)
- Ceilometers/Elastic/Raman lidars/Depolarization/Raman lidars
Airborne:
- PSAP-PMS- FFSSP/Nephelometer/Q-AMS/
Shortwave Spectrometer (SWS)/Eppley radiometers/Solar Hemispheric Integrating
Measurement System (SHIMS)/Gas samplers
(O3, CO, SO2, )/Aerosol filter sampling
Mixing of dust with biomass burning particles (2–5 km)
Dust extinction coefficient 0.2–0.4 km−1, but also up to 1.5 km−1 (355 nm)
Particle linear depolarization ratio 25% (355 nm)
 sr−1 (355 nm)

SAMUM -1
(Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment)
http://samum.tropos.de/
South Morocco Ouarzazate
(30.9°N, 6.9°W, 1133 m a.s.l.)
and Tinfou
(30.2°N, 5.6°W, 680 m asl)
May–June 2006([175] and
references therein)
Ground-based:  
- in situ physical–chemical and optical sensors/AERONET Sun-photometers/
Radiometers/Radiosonde/Surface-sensing Measurements for Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (SMART)/Compact radiation measurement system (CORAS)
- Raman lidars/Doppler lidar

Airborne:
- in situ sensors
- HSRL
S (355 nm, 532 nm, 1064 nm) = 50–60 sr
Particle linear depolarization ratio: ~30% (532 nm)

Å( ) ~ 0
(355/532 nm)

AOD < 0.8 (532 nm)

Median effective diameter 2.5  m

CALIPSO underestimates the dust optical depth by about 25%.

Lidar-AERONET comparison:
- Good agreement for pure dust AOD and Å( ).

-at near ultraviolet wavelengths differences in complex refractive index, lidar ratio and single scattering albedo

SAMUM 2
(Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment)
http://samum.tropos.de/
Cape Verde, Africa
~15°N, 23.5°W
Winter 2008[143, 155, 176]Ground-based
- in situ physical–chemical and optical sensors/
3 AERONET Sun-photometers/radiometers/1 radiosonde
- 3 Raman lidars/1 Doppler lidar
Airborne
- in situ sensors
- HSRL
Dust layers depth (  km)
Dust S (355 nm, 532 nm, 1064 nm): 50–60 sr

Dust particles significantly aged