Table 1: Parameterizations used in this study.

ProcessScheme and reference

Cloud microphysicsSix water-class cloud microphysical scheme [16]
Subgrid-scale convectionFurther developed 3D version of the Grell-Dévényi cumulus-ensemble scheme [17]
RadiationGoddard shortwave radiation scheme [18], Radiative Transfer Model for long-wave radiation [19], radiative feedback from aerosols [20]
Atmospheric boundary layer and sublayer processes[21]
Land-surface processesModified Rapid Update Cycle land-surface model [22]
Gas-phase chemistry[23]
Photolysis frequencies[24]
Aerosol physics, chemistry and dynamicsModal Aerosol Dynamics Model for Europe [25] and Secondary ORGanic Aerosol Model [26]
Dry deposition[27] with the modifications by [14]
Biogenic emissionscalculated inline depending on meteorological conditions [28]