- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Advances in Meteorology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 363029, 14 pages
Rainfall-Altitude Relationship in Saudi Arabia
1King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442, Saudi Arabia
2Taibah University, P.O. Box 344, Madinah 30001, Saudi Arabia
Received 24 December 2012; Revised 23 February 2013; Accepted 26 February 2013
Academic Editor: Harry D. Kambezidis
Copyright © 2013 Khalid Al-Ahmadi and Sharaf Al-Ahmadi. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- M. A. Abdullah and M. A. Al-Mazroui, “Climatological study of the southwestern region of Saudi Arabia—I. Rainfall analysis,” Climate Research, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 213–223, 1998.
- A. M. Subyani, “Topographic and seasonal influences on precipitation variability in southwest Saudi Arabia,” Journal of King Abdulaziz University, vol. 11, pp. 89–102, 1999.
- M. Gouvas, N. Sakellariou, and F. Xystrakis, “The relationship between altitude of meteorological stations and average monthly and annual precipitation,” Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 557–570, 2009.
- M. S. Alyamani and Z. Sen, “Regional variations of monthly rainfall amounts in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia,” Journal of King Abdulaziz University, vol. 6, pp. 113–133, 1993.
- A. Basist and G. D. Bell, “Statistical relationships between topography and precipitation patterns,” Journal of Climate, vol. 7, pp. 1305–1315, 1994.
- D. Hayward and R. T. Clarke, “Relationship between rainfall, altitude and distance from the sea in the Freetown Peninsula, Sierra Leone,” Hydrological Sciences Journal, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 377–384, 1996.
- C. E. Konrad, “Relationships between precipitation event types and topography in the southern blue ridge mountains of the southeastern USA,” International Journal of Climatology, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 49–62, 1996.
- B. Sevruk, K. Matokova-Sadlonova, and L. Toskano, “Topography effects on small-scale precipitation variability in the Swiss pre-Alps,” IAHS-AISH Publication, vol. 248, pp. 51–58, 1998.
- P. Oettli and P. Camberlin, “Influence of topography on monthly rainfall distribution over East Africa,” Climate Research, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 199–212, 2005.
- W. Buytaert, R. Celleri, P. Willems, B. D. Bièvre, and G. Wyseure, “Spatial and temporal rainfall variability in mountainous areas: a case study from the south Ecuadorian Andes,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 329, no. 3-4, pp. 413–421, 2006.
- B. Alijani, “Effect of the Zagros Mountains on the spatial distribution of precipitation,” Journal of Mountain Science, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 218–231, 2008.
- K. Al-Ahmadi, S. Al-Ahmadi, and L. See, “Spatio-temporal variations in rainfall-topographic features relationships in the Southwest Region of Saudi Arabia,” Arabian Journal of Geosciences. In press.
- M. J. Abdulrazzak, A. U. Sorman, H. Onder, and A. M. Al-Sari, “Flood estimation and impact: southwestern region of Saudi Arabia,” Final report AR-10-51, KACST, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 1995.
- N. Hatzianastassiou, B. Katsoulis, J. Pnevmatikos, and V. Antakis, “Spatial and temporal variation of precipitation in Greece and surrounding regions based on Global Precipitation Climatology Project data,” Journal of Climate, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 1349–1370, 2008.
- V. P. Schermerhorn, “Relations between topography and annual precipitation in western Oregon and Washington,” Water Resources Research, vol. 3, pp. 707–711, 1967.
- B. Raab and H. Vedin, Eds., Sweden’S National Atlas: Climate, Lakes and Waters, Bokforlaget Bra Bocker, 1995.
- G. L. Johnson and C. L. Hanson, “Topographic and atmospheric influences on precipitation variability over a mountainous watershed,” Journal of Applied Meteorology, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 68–87, 1995.
- C. Prudhomme and D. W. Reed, “Relationships between extreme daily precipitation and topography in a mountainous region,” International Journal of Climatology, vol. 18, pp. 1439–1453, 1998.
- C. Prudhomme and D. W. Reed, “Mapping extreme rainfall in a mountainous region using geostatistical techniques,” International Journal of Climatology, vol. 19, pp. 1337–1356, 1999.
- P. C. Kyriakidis, J. Kim, and N. L. Miller, “Geostatistical mapping of precipitation from rain gauge data using atmospheric and terrain characteristics,” Journal of Applied Meteorology, vol. 40, no. 11, pp. 1855–1877, 2001.
- G. Drogue, J. Humbert, J. Deraisme, N. Mahr, and N. Freslon, “A statistical-topographic model using an omnidirectional parameterization of the relief for mapping orographic rainfall,” International Journal of Climatology, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 599–613, 2002.
- S. Naoum and I. K. Tsanis, “A multiple linear regression GIS module using spatial variables to model orographic rainfall,” Journal of Hydroinformatics, vol. 6, pp. 39–56, 2004.
- S. Naoum and I. K. Tsanis, “Orographic precipitation modeling with multiple linear regression,” Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 79–102, 2004.
- G. K. Chaun and J. G. Lockwood, “An assessment of topographical controls on the distribution of rainfall in the central Pennines,” Meteorological Magazine, vol. 103, pp. 275–287, 1974.
- F. F. Hill, K. A. Browning, and M. J. Bader, “Radar and raingauge observations of orographic rain over south Wales,” Quarterly Journal, Royal Meteorological Society, vol. 107, no. 453, pp. 643–670, 1981.
- D. E. Pedgley, “Heavy rainfalls over Snowdonia,” Weather, vol. 25, pp. 340–350, 1970.
- B. Johansson and D. Chen, “The influence of wind and topography on precipitation distribution in Sweden: statistical analysis and modelling,” International Journal of Climatology, vol. 23, no. 12, pp. 1523–1535, 2003.
- M. Gouvas and N. Sakellariou, “Relation of the altitude of the meteorological stations to the average annual and monthly rainfall amount,” in Proceedings of 7th Pan-Hellenic International Conference of Meteorology, Climatology and Atmospheric Physics, pp. 765–771, Nicosia, Cyprus, 2004.
- A. Páez, “Anisotropic variance functions in geographically weighted regression models,” Geographical Analysis, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 299–314, 2004.
- A. Getis and J. K. Ord, “The analysis of spatial association by use of distance statistics,” Geographical Analysis, vol. 24, pp. 189–206, 1992.
- A. S. Fotheringham, C. Brunsdon, and M. Charlton, Geographically Weighted Regression: the Analysis of Spatially Varying Relationships, Wiley, Chichester, UK, 2002.
- J. Mennis, “Mapping the results of geographically weighted regression,” Cartographic Journal, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 171–179, 2006.
- C. Brunsdon, J. McClatchey, and D. Unwin, “Spatial variations in the average rainfall-altitude relationships in Great Britain: an approach using geographically weighted regression,” International Journal of Climatology, vol. 21, pp. 455–466, 2001.
- C. D. Lloyd, “Nonstationary models for exploring and mapping monthly precipitation in the United kingdom,” International Journal of Climatology, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 390–405, 2010.
- WASA, Water Atlas of Saudi Arabia, Ministry of Agriculture and Water, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 1988.
- ASTER GDEM, “ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER GDEM),” 2010, http://www.jspacesystems.or.jp/ersdac/GDEM/E/.
- M. Charlton and A. S. Fotheringham, Geographically Weighted Regression, National Centre For Geocomputation, National University of Ireland Maynooth, Maynooth, CoKildare, Ireland, 20092009.
- A. S. Fotheringham, M. E. Charlton, and C. Brundsdon, “Geographically weighted regression: a natural evolution of the expansion method for spatial data analysis,” Environment and Planning A, vol. 30, no. 11, pp. 1905–1927, 1998.
- A. S. Fotheringham, C. Bunsden, and M. Charlton, Quantitative Geography, Sage, London, 2000.
- C. M. Hurvich, J. S. Simonoff, and C. L. Tsai, “Smoothing parameter selection in nonparametric regression using an improved Akaike information criterion,” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 271–293, 1998.
- D. C. Wheeler, “Diagnostic tools and a remedial method for collinearity in geographically weighted regression,” Environment and Planning A, vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 2464–2481, 2007.
- C. Brunsdon, M. Charlton, and P. Harris, “Living with collinearity in local regression models,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Spatial Accuracy Assessment in Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences, Florianópolis-SC, Brazil, 2012.
- D. Belsey, E. Kuh, and R. Welsch, Regression Diagnostics: Identifying Influential Data and Sources of Collinearity, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2004.
- L. M. Scott and M. V. Janikas, “Spatial statistics in ArcGIS,” in Handbook of Applied Spatial Analysis: Software, Tools, Methods and Application, M. M. Fischer and A. Getis, Eds., Springer, 2010.
- A. Mitchell, The ESRI Guide to GIS Analysis, Spatial Measurements and Statistics, ESRI, Redlands, Calif, USA, 2005.
- M. C. Peel, B. L. Finlayson, and T. A. McMahon, “Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification,” Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 439–473, 2007.
- B. Y. M. Ahmed, “Climatic classification of Saudi Arabia: an application of factor cluster analysis,” Geo Journal, vol. 41, pp. 69–84, 1997.
- Z. Sen, “Hydrology of Saudi Arabia,” in Proceedings of the Symposium on Water Resources in Saudi Arabia, pp. A68–A94, Scientific Publishing Centre, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 1983.
- M. S. Alyamani, “Isotopic composition of rainfall and ground-water recharge in the western province of Saudi Arabia,” Journal of Arid Environments, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 751–760, 2001.
- MacLaren International Limited, “Water and agricultural development studies-Arabian Shield-South,” in Hydrogeological Investigations, Annex 3, Ministry of Agriculture and Water, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 1979.
- M. D. Al-Qurashi, Synoptic climatology of the rainfall in the southwest region of Saudi Arabia [Master Dissertation], Department of Geography, University of Western Michigan, 1981.
- Z. Şen and K. Al-Suba'i, “Hydrological considerations for dam siting in arid regions: a Saudi Arabian study,” Hydrological Sciences Journal, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 173–186, 2002.
- A. M. Subyani, A. A. Al-Modayan, and F. S. Al-Ahmadi, “Topographic, seasonal and aridity influences on rainfall variability in western Saudi Arabia,” Journal of Environmental Hydrology, vol. 18, pp. 1–11, 2010.
- K. P. Burnham and D. R. Anderson, Model Selection and Multimodel Inference: A Practical Information-Theoretical Approach, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 2002.
- C. D. Lloyd, Local Models for Spatial Analysis, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 2011.
- R. Mandal, S. St-Hilaire, J. G. Kie, and D. Derryberry, “Spatial trends of breast and prostate cancers in the United States between 2000 and 2005,” International Journal of Health Geographics, vol. 8, no. 1, article 53, 2009.
- C. H. Lin and T. H. Wen, “Using geographically weighted regression (GWR) to explorespatial varying relationships of immature mosquitoes andhuman densities with the incidence of dengue,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 2798–2815, 2011.