Table 2: Surface temperature and emissivity of different surface fabrics measured onsite. Surface temperatures that were measured in shaded areas during the day were excluded.

Surface fabricEmissivitySurface temperature
DaytimeNighttime
28 July 2012 23 September 2012 21 September 2012 28 September 2012
No.Mean (°C)SDNo.Mean (°C)SDNo.Mean (°C)SDNo.Mean (°C)SD

Metal roof0.99144.5136.8119.1117.0
Roof tile (brown)0.981255.95.2747.74.01215.60.61213.61.7
Roof tile (black)0.99657.47.0646.95.1615.61.8615.01.3
Roof tile (green)0.99151.7141.5117.9116.9
Wooded board0.95469.00.6652.21.9912.13.3712.20.6
Sand and bare0.962047.86.61730.66.52015.70.92015.10.7
Sidewalk brick0.964050.13.94039.35.04717.82.14617.91.2
Water1.00627.00.4621.40.8617.31.2619.90.4
Tree and lawn0.976737.73.38828.44.19214.22.19115.31.2
Asphalt0.967558.54.25345.53.77619.61.37518.71.2
Green roof0.93740.03.9526.23.0715.91.0416.71.0
Urethane0.96266.21.1249.30.2215.30.1214.40.5
Artificial turf0.96656.13.2639.91.2617.00.9616.80.7
Gravel0.981452.33.61437.52.41513.91.11515.01.1
Concrete0.97854.22.6840.52.6919.70.8918.80.7
Concrete roof (green)0.98757.42.4443.03.5518.11.2518.00.6
Concrete roof (gray)0.981658.72.71343.74.11519.92.21518.41.8
Tile1.00548.77.0630.54.1619.61.0617.70.4
Flagstone0.96557.21.6642.12.3615.71.8617.70.5
Granite0.98148.0141.3121.4119.3
Homogeneous lawn643.56.9633.01.8612.80.8612.30.5
Homogeneous sidewalk brick662.01.1646.20.8615.30.5619.30.8