Advances in Meteorology The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Monitoring of the Deposition of PAHs and Metals Produced by a Steel Plant in Taranto (Italy) Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 A high time-resolved monitoring campaign of bulk deposition of PAHs and metals was conducted near the industrial area and at an urban background site in province of Taranto (Italy) in order to evaluate the impact of the biggest European steel plant. The deposition fluxes of the sum of detected PAHs at the industrial area ranged from 92 to 2432 ng m−2d−1. In particular the deposition fluxes of BaP, BaA, and BkF were, on average, 10, 14, and 8 times higher than those detected at the urban background site, respectively. The same finding was for metals. The deposition fluxes of Ni (19.8 µg m−2 d−1) and As (2.2 µg m−2 d−1) at the industrial site were about 5 times higher than those at the urban background site, while the deposition fluxes of Fe (57 mg m−2d−1) and Mn (1.02 mg m−2d−1) about 31 times higher. Precipitation and wind speed played an important role in PAH deposition fluxes. Fe and Mn fluxes at the industrial site resulted high when wind direction favored the transport of air masses from the steel plant to the receptor site. The impact of the industrial area was also confirmed by IP/(IP + BgP), IP/BgP, and BaP/BgP diagnostic ratios. M. Amodio, G. de Gennaro, A. Di Gilio, and M. Tutino Copyright © 2014 M. Amodio et al. All rights reserved. Litter Production and Nutrient Dynamic on a Moso Bamboo Plantation following an Extreme Disturbance of 2008 Ice Storm Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Ice storm is known to play a role in determining forest succession and litter dynamics constitute an important aspect of nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems. However, ice storm effects on amount and pattern of litterfall are not clearly understood. We investigated litter production and litter leaf nutrient dynamic in a moso bamboo plantation in China following an extreme disturbance of ice storm in 2008. The litterfall in on-years was significantly lower than in off-years. Ice storm caused total litterfall increasing from 16.68% to 35.60% and greatly disturbed the litterfall peak rhythm especially in the on-year. The litter leaf nutrient concentrations at two latitudes significantly fluctuated after ice-snow disaster in 2008, litter leaf stoichiometric traits indicated that litter leaf chemistry showed more easily decomposition with higher C/P ratio, N/P ratio, and lower C/N ratio. It is clear from this study that litterfall restoration dynamic would result in long-term changes in litter nutrient cycling and may help predicting below ground carbon dynamic in future research as well as subtropical forest inventories following extreme disturbance. Xiaogai Ge, Benzhi Zhou, and Yilin Tang Copyright © 2014 Xiaogai Ge et al. All rights reserved. Uncertainty Assessment: Reservoir Inflow Forecasting with Ensemble Precipitation Forecasts and HEC-HMS Wed, 27 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 During an extreme event, having accurate inflow forecasting with enough lead time helps reservoir operators decrease the impact of floods downstream. Furthermore, being able to efficiently operate reservoirs could help maximize flood protection while saving water for drier times of the year. This study combines ensemble quantitative precipitation forecasts and a hydrological model to provide a 3-day reservoir inflow in the Shihmen Reservoir, Taiwan. A total of six historical typhoons were used for model calibration, validation, and application. An understanding of cascaded uncertainties from the numerical weather model through the hydrological model is necessary for a better use for forecasting. This study thus conducted an assessment of forecast uncertainty on magnitude and timing of peak and cumulative inflows. It found that using the ensemble-mean had less uncertainty than randomly selecting individual member. The inflow forecasts with shorter length of cumulative time had a higher uncertainty. The results showed that using the ensemble precipitation forecasts with the hydrological model would have the advantage of extra lead time and serve as a valuable reference for operating reservoirs. Sheng-Chi Yang and Tsun-Hua Yang Copyright © 2014 Sheng-Chi Yang and Tsun-Hua Yang. All rights reserved. Source Allocation of Long-Range Asian Dusts Transportation across the Taiwan Strait by Innovative Chemical-Assisted Identification Methods Wed, 27 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 This study used the backward trajectory calculation to obtain the transportation routes of Asian dusts and further combined the chemical composition with the enrichment factor (EF) and the grey relational analysis (GR) to identify the potential sources of eighteen Asian dust storm (ADS) events. The results showed that the chemical compositions of atmospheric particles sampled at the Pescadores Islands were very similar to source soils fugitively emitted from Inner Mongolia, which could assist in identifying the source regions of Asian dusts. This study further compared the source allocation of Asian dusts obtained from EF, GR, and backward trajectory, which showed that the source regions of Asian dusts obtained from these three methods were quite similar. The similarity of backward trajectory and GR reached as high as 83.3%. Moreover, the similarity of backward trajectory calculation and EF or GR was up to 77.8% while that of the GR and EF was up to 83.3%. Overall, these three methods can successfully allocate the source regions of Asian dusts by 66.7%. Moreover, these innovative chemical-assisted methods can be successfully applied to identify the source regions of Asian dusts for 18 ADS events. Yi-Hsiu Jen, Yi-Chi Liu, Iau-Ren Ie, Chung-Shin Yuan, and Chung-Hsuang Hung Copyright © 2014 Yi-Hsiu Jen et al. All rights reserved. Noise Reduction Analysis of Radar Rainfall Using Chaotic Dynamics and Filtering Techniques Wed, 20 Aug 2014 07:29:47 +0000 The aim of this study is to evaluate the filtering techniques which can remove the noise involved in the time series. For this, Logistic series which is chaotic series and radar rainfall series are used for the evaluation of low-pass filter (LF) and Kalman filter (KF). The noise is added to Logistic series by considering noise level and the noise added series is filtered by LF and KF for the noise reduction. The analysis for the evaluation of LF and KF techniques is performed by the correlation coefficient, standard error, the attractor, and the BDS statistic from chaos theory. The analysis result for Logistic series clearly showed that KF is better tool than LF for removing the noise. Also, we used the radar rainfall series for evaluating the noise reduction capabilities of LF and KF. In this case, it was difficult to distinguish which filtering technique is better way for noise reduction when the typical statistics such as correlation coefficient and standard error were used. However, when the attractor and the BDS statistic were used for evaluating LF and KF, we could clearly identify that KF is better than LF. Soojun Kim, Huiseong Noh, Narae Kang, Keonhaeng Lee, Yonsoo Kim, Sanghun Lim, Dong Ryul Lee, and Hung Soo Kim Copyright © 2014 Soojun Kim et al. All rights reserved. Generalized Scaling of Urban Heat Island Effect and Its Applications for Energy Consumption and Renewable Energy Mon, 18 Aug 2014 14:06:40 +0000 In previous work from this laboratory, it has been found that the urban heat island intensity (UHI) can be scaled with the urban length scale and the wind speed, through the time-dependent energy balance. The heating of the urban surfaces during the daytime sets the initial temperature, and this overheating is dissipated during the night-time through mean convection motion over the urban surface. This may appear to be in contrast to the classical work by Oke (1973). However, in this work, we show that if the population density is used in converting the population data into urbanized area, then a good agreement with the current theory is found. An additional parameter is the “urban flow parameter,” which depends on the urban building characteristics and affects the horizontal convection of heat due to wind. This scaling can be used to estimate the UHI intensity in any cities and therefore predict the required energy consumption during summer months. In addition, all urbanized surfaces are expected to exhibit this scaling, so that increase in the surface temperature in large energy-consumption or energy-producing facilities (e.g., solar electric or thermal power plants) can be estimated. T.-W. Lee, Heung S. Choi, and Jinoh Lee Copyright © 2014 T.-W. Lee et al. All rights reserved. Forecasting Strategies for Haboobs: An Underreported Weather Phenomenon Mon, 18 Aug 2014 06:51:30 +0000 On June 5, 2013, Lubbock Texas is hit by a haboob at 10:30 pm. The storm is categorized as a wind event by television media and the dust component goes unreported. This event is used as a case study to evaluate the usefulness of the polarimetric variables differential reflectivity (ZDR) and correlation coefficient (CC) in identifying the storm as a haboob. Photographic evidence of the haboob is collected and correlated to NEXRAD signatures of base reflectivity and velocity from the Lubbock TX NEXRAD station (KLBB). NEXRAD level III products ZDR and CC are also obtained. The storm presents with gust front features to the north and east of the station. Low values returned from CC indicate nonmeteorological content. ZDR representations weakly indicate the presence of gust fronts to the east, with a stronger signal to the north. As no visual evidence of the northern gust front is available, the ZDR data are inconclusive. The correlation of low CC values to the visual representation of the haboob is an indicator that CC in combination with the NEXRAD base reflectivity and velocity products may be used to test wind events for the presence of sand, dust, and dirt and therefore exhibit predictive qualities. Mark J. Dempsey Copyright © 2014 Mark J. Dempsey. All rights reserved. Ground-Based Polarimetric Remote Sensing of Dust Aerosol Properties in Chinese Deserts near Hexi Corridor Mon, 18 Aug 2014 05:51:19 +0000 One-year observation of dust aerosol properties near Hexi Corridor was obtained from polarimetric measurements by ground-based sunphotometer in the county of Minqin in northwestern China from March 2012 to February 2013. We observed an annual mean AOD of at 0.50 μm and Ångström exponents of 0.1–1.0 fitting a bimode normal distribution centered at 0.18 and 0.50, respectively. The effective radii of fine (0.13–0.17 μm) and coarse (2.49–3.49 μm) modes were found stable at all seasons together with the appearance of a third mode of particle radius at 0.4–1.0 μm when AOD was larger than 0.6. It is noticeable that the real (1.5–1.7) and imaginary (0.0005 to 0.09) parts of complex refractive indices were higher than other studies performed in other desert regions of China, while single scattering albedo was relatively lower (~0.84–0.89) at wavelengths of 0.44, 0.67, 0.87, and 1.02 μm. This is partially due to calcite or hematite in the soil in Minqin or the influence of anthropogenic aerosols containing carbon. Moreover, from our novel polarimetric measurement, the scattering phase function () and degree of linear polarization for incident unpolarized light () of dust aerosols were also obtained within this deserted area. Hua Xu, Zhengqiang Li, Donghui Li, Li Li, Xingfeng Chen, Yisong Xie, Kaitao Li, Cheng Chen, and Yuhuan Zhang Copyright © 2014 Hua Xu et al. All rights reserved. Forecasting Hydrological Disaster Using Environmental Thermographic Modeling Tue, 12 Aug 2014 09:42:11 +0000 The concept of thermographic model is new to environmental studies. Its mode of operation is fairly synonymous to the operational technique of the regular thermography machine. The location of the study area is between latitudes 8°24′N and 9°20′N of the equator and between longitudes 7°30′E and 8°48′E of the Greenwich Meridian. The subsoil for the soil samples was identified within the particles range 63 ± 3% sand, 28 ± 5% clay, 6 ± 2% silt, 0.9 ± 0.3% organic carbon, and 1 ± 0.2% organic matter. Field work was carried out and the measurements obtained were validated using satellite data. At shallow ground depth, the thermal diffusivity is not proportional to either the increase or the decrease in the ground temperatures. Features of the temperature anomaly showed strange shifts per month within 2012. The environmental thermographic model (ETM) can be adopted by meteorological ground stations to investigate the net radiation over the land. The ability of the ETM could be extended to monitoring ground anomalies like fractures of basic rocks amongst others. Moses E. Emetere Copyright © 2014 Moses E. Emetere. All rights reserved. Fog Formation in Cold Season in Ji’nan, China: Case Analyses with Application of HYSPLIT Model Tue, 12 Aug 2014 08:58:04 +0000 Fog events almost happened every year in cold season in North China Plain. In this study, hybrid single-particle Lagrangian integrated trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was applied to analyze the formation of four fog events occurring in Ji’nan, China, during the period from March 2012 to February 2014. Three types of fog have been distinguished, including radiation fog, advection fog, and frontal fog. When fog events happened, the average surface temperature ranged from near zero to 10°C and the relative humidity was around 90%. Fog events often happened immediately after haze episodes (i.e., fog-haze) and sometimes after light rain. Back trajectory analyses show that the air masses during the fog events mostly came from the local Shandong areas and moved in very slow speed (4–24 km h−1). During the fog events, the humidity along the air trajectories always gradually increased to saturation. The mixed layer depth was small, generally below 400 m at noon and around 100 m at midnight. However, the air temperature exhibited complex variations—sometimes decreased and sometimes kept stable or even increased. Xinfeng Wang and Jianmin Chen Copyright © 2014 Xinfeng Wang and Jianmin Chen. All rights reserved. Airmass Trajectories and Long Range Transport of Pollutants: Review of Wet Deposition Scenario in South Asia Tue, 12 Aug 2014 05:44:58 +0000 This paper presents a review of airmass trajectories and their role in air pollution transport. It describes the concept, history, and basic calculation of air trajectories citing various trajectory models used worldwide. It highlights various areas of trajectory applications and errors associated with trajectory calculations. South Asian region receives airmasses from Europe, Middle East, Africa, and Indian Ocean, and so forth, depending upon the season. These airmasses are responsible for export and import of pollutants depositing in nearby states. Trajectory analysis revealed that soil is contributed by the dust storms coming from Oman through Gulf and Iran, while most of black carbon (BC) sources are located in India. A detailed review of trajectories associated with wet deposition events indicated that airmasses coming from Europe and Middle East carry high concentration of acidic pollutants which are deposited in Himalayan ranges. Similarly, trajectory analysis revealed that acidic pollutants from continental anthropogenic sources are transported to an ecosensitive site in Western Ghats in India and the outward fluxes of anthropogenic activities of Indo-Gangetic region are transported towards Bay of Bengal. Hence, transboundary and long range transport of pollutants are very important issues in South Asia which need immediate attention of scientists and policy makers. Umesh Kulshrestha and Bablu Kumar Copyright © 2014 Umesh Kulshrestha and Bablu Kumar. All rights reserved. The Impact of Nonlocal Ammonia on Submicron Particulate Matter and Visibility Degradation in Urban Shanghai Tue, 05 Aug 2014 12:54:33 +0000 To study the role of submicron particulate matter on visibility degradation in Shanghai, mass concentrations of PM1, secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) in PM1, and SIA precursor gasses were on-line monitored during a 4-week intensive campaign in December 2012. During the campaign, 8 haze periods were identified when on average PM1 mass increased to 62.1 ± 25.6 μg/m3 compared to 30.7 ± 17.1 μg/m3 during clear weather periods. The sum of SIA in PM1 increased in mass concentration during the haze from 14.9 ± 7.4 μg/m3 during clear periods to 29.7 ± 10.7 μg/m3 during the haze periods. Correlation coefficients (R2) of the visibility as function of mass concentrations of SIA species in PM1 show negative exponential relations implying the importance of the SIA species in visibility reduction. The important role of ammonia in SIA formation is recognized and demonstrated. Generally, ammonium neutralizes sulfate and nitrate and the molar equivalent ratio of ammonium versus the sum of sulfate and nitrate increases during the haze episodes. Air mass backward trajectories introducing the haze periods show the impact of nonlocal ammonia on visibility degradation in Shanghai. Roeland Cornelis Jansen, Jianmin Chen, and Yunjie Hu Copyright © 2014 Roeland Cornelis Jansen et al. All rights reserved. Monitoring and Modeling Terrestrial Ecosystems’ Response to Climate Change Tue, 05 Aug 2014 05:26:27 +0000 Dong Jiang, Shengli Huang, and Dawei Han Copyright © 2014 Dong Jiang et al. All rights reserved. The Use of Trajectory Cluster Analysis to Evaluate the Long-Range Transport of Black Carbon Aerosol in the South-Eastern Baltic Region Thu, 24 Jul 2014 10:13:31 +0000 Trajectory cluster analysis and source-receptor models (the potential source contribution function (PSCF), concentration weighted trajectories (CWT), and trajectory source apportionment (TSA)) were applied to investigate the source-receptor relationship for the aerosol black carbon (BC) measured at the coastal site (Preila, 55.55°N, 21.04°E) during 2013. The main sources and paths of advection to the south-eastern Baltic region and its relation to black carbon concentration were identified. The 72 h backward trajectories of air masses arriving at Preila from January to December 2013 were determined and were categorized by clustering them into six clusters. Subsequently, BC levels at Preila associated with each air mass cluster during this period were analyzed. The PSCF and CWT analysis shows that, on high BC concentration days, the air masses commonly originated and passed over southern regions of Europe before arriving at Preila in winter, while a strong impact of wildfires was observed in spring. Steigvilė Byčenkienė, Vadimas Dudoitis, and Vidmantas Ulevicius Copyright © 2014 Steigvilė Byčenkienė et al. All rights reserved. Crop Yield and Temperature Changes in North China during 601–900 AD Thu, 24 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Depending on the descriptions of crop yield and social response to crop failure/harvest from Chinese historical documents, we classified the crop yield of North China during 601–900 AD into six categories and quantified each category to be the crop yield grades. We found that the regional mean crop yield had a significant () negative trend at the rate of −0.24% per decade. The interannual, multiple-decadal, and century-scale variability accounted for ~47%, ~30%, and ~20% of the total variations of crop yield, respectively. The interannual variability was significantly () persistent across the entire period. The multiple-decadal variability was more dominant after 750 AD than that before 750 AD, while the century-scale variability was more dominant before 750 AD than that after 750 AD. The variations of crop yield could be partly explained by temperature changes. On one hand, the declining trend of crop yield cooccurred with the climate cooling trend from 601 to 900 AD; on the other hand, the crop yield was positively correlated with temperature changes at 30-year resolution with the correlation coefficient of 0.59 (). These findings supported that high (low) crop yield occurred in the warming (cooling) climate. Haolong Liu, Quansheng Ge, Jingyun Zheng, Zhixin Hao, and Xuezhen Zhang Copyright © 2014 Haolong Liu et al. All rights reserved. An Integrated Model for Simulating Regional Water Resources Based on Total Evapotranspiration Control Approach Mon, 14 Jul 2014 12:00:08 +0000 Total evapotranspiration and water consumption (ET) control is considered an efficient method for water management. In this study, we developed a water allocation and simulation (WAS) model, which can simulate the water cycle and output different ET values for natural and artificial water use, such as crop evapotranspiration, grass evapotranspiration, forest evapotranspiration, living water consumption, and industry water consumption. In the calibration and validation periods, a “piece-by-piece” approach was used to evaluate the model from runoff to ET data, including the remote sensing ET data and regional measured ET data, which differ from the data from the traditional hydrology method. We applied the model to Tianjin City, China. The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (Ens) of the runoff simulation was 0.82, and its regression coefficient was 0.92. The Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (Ens) of regional total ET simulation was 0.93, and its regression coefficient was 0.98. These results demonstrate that ET of irrigation lands is the dominant part, which accounts for 53% of the total ET. The latter is also a priority in ET control for water management. Jianhua Wang, Xuefeng Sang, Zhengli Zhai, Yang Liu, and Zuhao Zhou Copyright © 2014 Jianhua Wang et al. All rights reserved. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Precipitation in Haihe River Basin, China: Characterization and Management Implications Mon, 14 Jul 2014 08:26:50 +0000 Data analysis and characterization of precipitation in the Haihe River Basin (HRB) of China are required for management practices for the purpose of flood water control and utilization. In the companion paper, we presented precipitation data in the HRB during 1951–2010 and reported its basic statistics such as temporal trend and spatial variability. In this study, spatiotemporal variability on the precipitation was further investigated comprehensively for the underlying physics and the implication to water resource management. During the summer flood season of the study area, basin-wide precipitation was negatively correlated to average NINO3.4 index. Spatially, summer precipitation was correlated with gridded sea surface temperature (SST) observed in the eastern tropic Pacific Ocean and the western tropic Indian Ocean. SST in two representative areas was identified as potential predictors for precipitation in the HRB. No spatial or temporal correlations were confirmed between precipitation and soil moisture as annual averages in the study area. Copula analysis suggested about 40% possibility in a year with a potential for cross-watershed water diversion within HRB. Yuzhou Luo, Zhonggen Wang, Xiaomang Liu, and Minghua Zhang Copyright © 2014 Yuzhou Luo et al. All rights reserved. Statistical Downscaling of ERA-Interim Forecast Precipitation Data in Complex Terrain Using LASSO Algorithm Thu, 10 Jul 2014 12:01:59 +0000 Precipitation is an essential input parameter for land surface models because it controls a large variety of environmental processes. However, the commonly sparse meteorological networks in complex terrains are unable to provide the information needed for many applications. Therefore, downscaling local precipitation is necessary. To this end, a new machine learning method, LASSO algorithm (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator), is used to address the disparity between ERA-Interim forecast precipitation data (0.25° grid) and point-scale meteorological observations. LASSO was tested and validated against other three downscaling methods, local intensity scaling (LOCI), quantile-mapping (QM), and stepwise regression (Stepwise) at 50 meteorological stations, located in the high mountainous region of the central Alps. The downscaling procedure is implemented in two steps. Firstly, the dry or wet days are classified and the precipitation amounts conditional on the occurrence of wet days are modeled subsequently. Compared to other three downscaling methods, LASSO shows the best performances in precipitation occurrence and precipitation amount prediction on average. Furthermore, LASSO could reduce the error for certain sites, where no improvement could be seen when LOCI and QM were used. This study proves that LASSO is a reasonable alternative to other statistical methods with respect to the downscaling of precipitation data. Lu Gao, Karsten Schulz, and Matthias Bernhardt Copyright © 2014 Lu Gao et al. All rights reserved. Improving Regional Dynamic Downscaling with Multiple Linear Regression Model Using Components Principal Analysis: Precipitation over Amazon and Northeast Brazil Thu, 10 Jul 2014 09:16:10 +0000 In the current context of climate change discussions, predictions of future scenarios of weather and climate are crucial for the generation of information of interest to the global community. Due to the atmosphere being a chaotic system, errors in predictions of future scenarios are systematically observed. Therefore, numerous techniques have been tested in order to generate more reliable predictions, and two techniques have excelled in science: dynamic downscaling, through regional models, and ensemble prediction, combining different outputs of climate models through the arithmetic average, in other words, a postprocessing of the output data species. Thus, this paper proposes a method of postprocessing outputs of regional climate models. This method consists in using the statistical tool multiple linear regression by principal components for combining different simulations obtained by dynamic downscaling with the regional climate model (RegCM4). Tests for the Amazon and Northeast region of Brazil (South America) showed that the method provided a more realistic prediction in terms of average daily rainfall for the analyzed period prescribed, after comparing with the prediction made by set through the arithmetic averages of the simulations. This method photographed the extreme events (outlier) that the prediction by averaging failed. Data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) were used to evaluate the method. Aline Gomes da Silva and Claudio Moises Santos e Silva Copyright © 2014 Aline Gomes da Silva and Claudio Moises Santos e Silva. All rights reserved. Atmospheric Deposition of Inorganic Elements and Organic Compounds at the Inlets of the Venice Lagoon Mon, 07 Jul 2014 10:01:22 +0000 The Venice Lagoon is subjected to long-range transport of contaminants via aerosol from the near Po Valley. Moreover, it is an area with significant local anthropogenic emissions due to the industrial area of Porto Marghera, the urban centres, and the glass factories and with emissions by ships traffic within the Lagoon. Furthermore, since 2005, the Lagoon has also been affected by the construction of the MOSE (Modulo Sperimentale Elettromeccanico—Electromechanical Experimental Module) mobile dams, as a barrier against the high tide. This work presents and discusses the results from chemical analyses of bulk depositions, carried out in different sites of the Venice Lagoon. Fluxes of pollutants were also statistically analysed on PCA with the aim of investigating the spatial variability of depositions and their correlation with precipitations. Fluxes of inorganic pollutants depend differently on precipitations, while organic compounds show a more seasonal trend. The statistical analysis showed that the site in the northern Lagoon has lower and almost homogeneous fluxes of pollutants, while the other sites registered more variable concentrations. The study also provided important information about the annual trend of pollutants and their evolution over a period of about five years, from 2005 to 2010. E. Morabito, D. Contini, F. Belosi, A. M. Stortini, L. Manodori, and A. Gambaro Copyright © 2014 E. Morabito et al. All rights reserved. Air Pollution, Air Quality, and Climate Change Sun, 06 Jul 2014 11:59:34 +0000 Sachin D. Ghude, Pavan S. Kulkarni, D. M. Chate, Mrinal Biswas, Samir Pokhrel, and Anne Boynard Copyright © 2014 Sachin D. Ghude et al. All rights reserved. Meteorological Influences on Seasonal Variation of Fine Particulate Matter in Cities over Southern Ontario, Canada Sun, 06 Jul 2014 08:49:41 +0000 This study examines meteorological impacts on seasonal variation of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in southern Ontario, Canada. After analyzing PM2.5 data at 12 cities in the region in 2006, we found that PM2.5 concentrations were 30–40% higher in summer (7–15 μg/m3) than in winter (4–11 μg/m3). High PM2.5 episodes occurred more frequently in warmer seasons. Analyses of surface meteorology, weather maps, and airflow trajectories suggest that these PM2.5 episodes were often related to synoptic transport of pollutants from highly polluted areas in the United States. The southerly or southwesterly winds associated with midlatitude cyclones play an important role in such transport. A typical weather pattern favoring the transport is suggested. When it was hot, humid, and stagnant with southerly or southwesterly winds, the likelihood of high PM2.5 occurrences was high. The Greater Golden Horseshoe and Southwestern Ontario regions had higher PM2.5 (6–12 μg/m3 annually) than the northern region (4–6 μg/m3), reflecting combined effects of meteorology, regional transport, and local emissions. In the future, PM2.5 transport from the United States will likely increase in abundance because of possible prolonged accumulation at the pollution sources as the frequency of the midlatitude cyclones may reduce under climate change. Jane Liu and Siliang Cui Copyright © 2014 Jane Liu and Siliang Cui. All rights reserved. Climate Change Impact on Photovoltaic Energy Output: The Case of Greece Wed, 02 Jul 2014 10:08:09 +0000 Solar power is the third major renewable energy, constituting an increasingly important component of global future—low carbon—energy portfolio. Accurate climate information is essential for the conditions of solar energy production, maximization, and stable regulation and planning. Climate change impacts on energy output projections are thus of crucial importance. In this study the effect of projected changes in irradiance and temperature on the performance of photovoltaic systems in Greece is examined. Climate projections were obtained from 5 regional climate models (RCMs) under the A1B emissions scenario, for two future periods. The RCM data present systematic errors against observed values, resulting in the need of bias adjustment. The projected change in photovoltaic energy output was then estimated, considering changes in temperature and insolation. The spatiotemporal analysis indicates significant increase in mean annual temperature (up to 3.5°C) and mean total radiation (up to 5 W/m2) by 2100. The performance of photovoltaic systems exhibits a negative linear dependence on the projected temperature increase which is outweighed by the expected increase of total radiation resulting in an up to 4% increase in energy output. Ioanna S. Panagea, Ioannis K. Tsanis, Aristeidis G. Koutroulis, and Manolis G. Grillakis Copyright © 2014 Ioanna S. Panagea et al. All rights reserved. Atmospheric Deposition: Sampling Procedures, Analytical Methods, and Main Recent Findings from the Scientific Literature Thu, 19 Jun 2014 16:12:02 +0000 The atmosphere is a carrier on which some natural and anthropogenic organic and inorganic chemicals are transported, and the wet and dry deposition events are the most important processes that remove those chemicals, depositing it on soil and water. A wide variety of different collectors were tested to evaluate site-specificity, seasonality and daily variability of settleable particle concentrations. Deposition fluxes of POPs showed spatial and seasonal variations, diagnostic ratios of PAHs on deposited particles, allowed the discrimination between pyrolytic or petrogenic sources. Congener pattern analysis and bulk deposition fluxes in rural sites confirmed long-range atmospheric transport of PCDDs/Fs. More and more sophisticated and newly designed deposition samplers have being used for characterization of deposited mercury, demonstrating the importance of rain scavenging and the relatively higher magnitude of Hg deposition from Chinese anthropogenic sources. Recently biological monitors demonstrated that PAH concentrations in lichens were comparable with concentrations measured in a conventional active sampler in an outdoor environment. In this review the authors explore the methodological approaches used for the assessment of atmospheric deposition, from the analysis of the sampling methods, the analytical procedures for chemical characterization of pollutants and the main results from the scientific literature. M. Amodio, S. Catino, P. R. Dambruoso, G. de Gennaro, A. Di Gilio, P. Giungato, E. Laiola, A. Marzocca, A. Mazzone, A. Sardaro, and M. Tutino Copyright © 2014 M. Amodio et al. All rights reserved. Seasonal Prediction of Surface Air Temperature across Vietnam Using the Regional Climate Model Version 4.2 (RegCM4.2) Wed, 18 Jun 2014 13:00:16 +0000 To investigate the ability of dynamical seasonal climate predictions for Vietnam, the RegCM4.2 is employed to perform seasonal prediction of 2 m mean (T2m), maximum (Tx), and minimum (Tn) air temperature for the period from January 2012 to November 2013 by downscaling the NCEP Climate Forecast System (CFS) data. For model bias correction, the model and observed climatology is constructed using the CFS reanalysis and observed temperatures over Vietnam for the period 1980–2010, respectively. The RegCM4.2 forecast is run four times per month from the current month up to the next six months. A model ensemble prediction initialized from the current month is computed from the mean of the four runs within the month. The results showed that, without any bias correction (CTL), the RegCM4.2 forecast has very little or no skill in both tercile and value predictions. With bias correction (BAS), model predictions show improved skill. The experiment in which the results from the BAS experiment are further successively adjusted (SUC) with model bias at one-month lead time of the previous run showed further improvement compared to CTL and BAS. Skill scores of the tercile probability forecasts were found to exceed 0.3 for most of the target months. Tan Phan Van, Hiep Van Nguyen, Long Trinh Tuan, Trung Nguyen Quang, Thanh Ngo-Duc, Patrick Laux, and Thanh Nguyen Xuan Copyright © 2014 Tan Phan Van et al. All rights reserved. Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of Meteorological Drought in Shandong Province, China, from 1961 to 2008 Sun, 15 Jun 2014 05:08:13 +0000 Shandong province is located in the northern part of China and tends to be a drought-prone region. This study is dedicated to making a comprehensive and quantitative analysis of the spatial patterns of drought frequency and its climate trend coefficient, drought grades, and temporal characteristics of drought coverage area, drought duration, and drought intensity from 1961 to 2008 by using the meteorological drought composite index (CI). The results indicated that the occurrence frequency of meteorological drought in Shandong province was generally high and some part of this region such as Jiaodong peninsula had suffered drought pressure with an evident ascending trend. The drought extent and influence were very severe in 1980s and 1990s but very slight in 1964; large-area drought mainly occurred after the 1970s and the yearly and seasonally interdecadal drought duration both showed a fluctuation of 10a periodic cycle approximately. Furthermore, the slight drought mainly appeared in the northwest and southwest while the other grades of drought exhibited much significant spatial and temporal variability. Besides, drought in spring was more serious than that in winter. This study is anticipated to support the mitigation of drought hazards and to improve the management practices of environment system in Shandong province. Xiaoli Wang, Xiyong Hou, Zhi Li, and Yuandong Wang Copyright © 2014 Xiaoli Wang et al. All rights reserved. A Probabilistic Rain Diagnostic Model Based on Cyclone Statistical Analysis Wed, 11 Jun 2014 11:48:03 +0000 Data from a dense network of 69 daily precipitation gauges over the island of Crete and cyclone climatological analysis over middle-eastern Mediterranean are combined in a statistical approach to develop a rain diagnostic model. Regarding the dataset, 0.5 × 0.5, 33-year (1979–2011) European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis (ERA-Interim) is used. The cyclone tracks and their characteristics are identified with the aid of Melbourne University algorithm (MS scheme). The region of interest is divided into a grid mesh and for each grid the probability of rain occurrence from passing cyclones is estimated. Such probability maps are estimated for three rain intensity categories. The probability maps are evaluated for random partitions of the data as well as for selected rain periods. Cyclones passing south of Italy are found to have greater probability of producing light rain events in Crete in contrast to medium and heavy rain events which are mostly triggered by cyclones of southern trajectories. The performance of the probability maps is very satisfactory, recognizing the majority of “affecting” cyclones and rejecting most cyclones that do not trigger rain events. Statistical measures of sensitivity and specificity range between 0.5 and 0.8 resulting in effective forecasting potential. V. Iordanidou, A. G. Koutroulis, and I. K. Tsanis Copyright © 2014 V. Iordanidou et al. All rights reserved. The Review of GRACE Data Applications in Terrestrial Hydrology Monitoring Thu, 05 Jun 2014 10:56:09 +0000 The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite provides a new method for terrestrial hydrology research, which can be used for improving the monitoring result of the spatial and temporal changes of water cycle at large scale quickly. The paper presents a review of recent applications of GRACE data in terrestrial hydrology monitoring. Firstly, the scientific GRACE dataset is briefly introduced. Recently main applications of GRACE data in terrestrial hydrological monitoring at large scale, including terrestrial water storage change evaluation, hydrological components of groundwater and evapotranspiration (ET) retrieving, droughts analysis, and glacier response of global change, are described. Both advantages and limitations of GRACE data applications are then discussed. Recommendations for further research of the terrestrial water monitoring based on GRACE data are also proposed. Dong Jiang, Jianhua Wang, Yaohuan Huang, Kang Zhou, Xiangyi Ding, and Jingying Fu Copyright © 2014 Dong Jiang et al. All rights reserved. Earth Observations and Societal Impacts Thu, 05 Jun 2014 07:50:13 +0000 Yuei-An Liou, Chung-Ru Ho, Yuriy Kuleshov, and Jean-Pierre Barriot Copyright © 2014 Yuei-An Liou et al. All rights reserved. Impact of a Detailed Urban Parameterization on Modeling the Urban Heat Island in Beijing Using TEB-RAMS Thu, 05 Jun 2014 07:16:20 +0000 The Town Energy Budget (TEB) model coupled with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) is applied to simulate the Urban Heat Island (UHI) phenomenon in the metropolitan area of Beijing. This new model with complex and detailed surface conditions, called TEB-RAMS, is from Colorado State University (CSU) and the ASTER division of Mission Research Corporation. The spatial-temporal distributions of daily mean 2 m air temperature are simulated by TEB-RAMS during the period from 0000 UTC 01 to 0000 UTC 02 July 2003 over the area of 116°E~116.8°E, 39.6°N~40.2°N in Beijing. The TEB-RAMS was run with four levels of two-way nested grids, and the finest grid is at 1 km grid increment. An Anthropogenic Heat (AH) source is introduced into TEB-RAMS. A comparison between the Land Ecosystem-Atmosphere Feedback model (LEAF) and the detailed TEB parameterization scheme is presented. The daily variations and spatial distribution of the 2 m air temperature agree well with the observations of the Beijing area. The daily mean 2 m air temperature simulated by TEB-RAMS with the AH source is 0.6 K higher than that without specifying TEB and AH over the metropolitan area of Beijing. The presence of urban underlying surfaces plays an important role in the UHI formation. The geometric morphology of an urban area characterized by road, roof, and wall also seems to have notable effects on the UHI intensity. Furthermore, the land-use dataset from USGS is replaced in the model by a new land-use map for the year 2010 which is produced by the Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth (RADI), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). The simulated regional mean 2 m air temperature is 0.68 K higher from 01 to 02 July 2003 with the new land cover map. Lei Jiang, Lixin Lu, Lingmei Jiang, Yuanyuan Qi, and Aqiang Yang Copyright © 2014 Lei Jiang et al. All rights reserved.