Advances in Meteorology The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Weather and Climate in Monsoon Regions Wed, 26 Aug 2015 09:49:38 +0000 Lin Wang, June-Yi Lee, Haishan Chen, Fred Kucharski, Xiaolong Jia, Xiaojing Jia, and Jieshun Zhu Copyright © 2015 Lin Wang et al. All rights reserved. Recent Trends in Temperature and Precipitation in the Langat River Basin, Malaysia Wed, 26 Aug 2015 07:25:14 +0000 A study was undertaken to detect long-term trends in the annual and seasonal series of maximum and minimum temperatures. Measurements were taken at 11 meteorological stations located in the Langat River Basin in Malaysia. The rainfall and maximum and minimum temperature data were obtained from the Malaysia Meteorological Department (MMD) and the Department of Irrigation and Drainage (DID) Malaysia. The procedures used included the Mann-Kendall test, the Mann-Kendall rank statistic test, and the Theil-Sen’s slope method. The analytical results indicated that when there were increasing and decreasing trends in the annual and seasonal precipitation and temperature, only the increasing trends were significant at the 95% confidence level. The Theil-Sen’s slope method showed that the rate of increment in the annual precipitation is greater than the seasonal precipitation. A bootstrap technique was applied to explore uncertainty about significant slope values for rainfall, as well as the maximum and minimum temperatures. The Mann-Kendall rank statistics test indicated that most of the trends in the annual and seasonal time series started in the year 2000. All of the annual and seasonal significant trends were obtained at the stations located in the north, east, and northeast portions of the Langat River Basin. Mahdi Amirabadizadeh, Yuk Feng Huang, and Teang Shui Lee Copyright © 2015 Mahdi Amirabadizadeh et al. All rights reserved. Spatiotemporal Variability and Change of the South China Spring Precipitation during 1961–2012 Wed, 26 Aug 2015 07:05:03 +0000 We analyze precipitation data from 47 meteorological stations spanning between 1961 and 2012 and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis to understand spatiotemporal variability and change of spring precipitation of South China and their relations to atmospheric circulations. Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis and rotated EOF (REOF) are used to reveal dominant spatial structures of precipitation anomaly and Mann-Kendall testing method to determine the temporal locations of abrupt changes during the analyzed time span. We find that the first spatial mode of the spring precipitation of the South China has a domain uniform structure; the second is dominated by a spatial dipole; and the third contains six variability centers. 1980s was the decade of the largest amount of precipitation while 1960s the decade of the smallest amount of precipitation. The spring precipitation also appeared to have a decreasing trend since 2000. We also find that spring precipitation of the South China has experienced a few abrupt changes: sudden increment at 1964, sudden decrement at 2002, and sudden increment at 1995. In addition to these abrupt changes, the precipitation could also be characterized by variability of multiple temporal scales, with dominant periodicities of 4 years, 8 years, and 14 years. The South China spring precipitation is also closely tied to the atmospheric circulations: when Aleutian Low strengthens, westerly weakens, and the center of the Western Pacific subtropical high shifts southeastward in the early spring; and the South China precipitation tends to be abundant (positive anomaly). In contrast, when Ural ridge strengthens, the southern branch of the East Asian trough weakens and the Western Pacific subtropical high shifts northwestward in the early spring, the South China precipitation tends to be reduced (negative anomaly). Hong-Lan Liu, Qiang Zhang, Jun-Qin Guo, Jun-Guo Zhang, and Sheng Wang Copyright © 2015 Hong-Lan Liu et al. All rights reserved. Dominant Large-Scale Atmospheric Circulation Systems for the Extreme Precipitation over the Western Sichuan Basin in Summer 2013 Tue, 25 Aug 2015 14:14:09 +0000 The western Sichuan Basin (WSB) is a rainstorm center influenced by complicated factors such as topography and circulation. Based on multivariable empirical orthogonal function technique for extreme precipitation processes (EPP) in WSB in 2013, this study reveals the dominant circulation patterns. Results indicate that the leading modes are characterized by “Saddle” and “Sandwich” structures, respectively. In one mode, a TC from the South China Sea (SCS) converts into the inverted trough and steers warm moist airflow northward into the WSB. At the same time, WPSH extends westward over the Yangtze River and conveys a southeasterly warm humid flow. In the other case, WPSH is pushed westward by TC in the Western Pacific and then merges with an anomalous anticyclone over SCS. The anomalous anticyclone and WPSH form a conjunction belt and convey the warm moist southwesterly airflow to meet with the cold flow over the WSB. The configurations of WPSH and TC in the tropic and the blocking and trough in the midhigh latitudes play important roles during the EPPs over the WSB. The persistence of EPPs depends on the long-lived large-scale circulation configuration steady over the suitable positions. Yamin Hu, Panmao Zhai, Lihong Liu, Yang Chen, and Yanju Liu Copyright © 2015 Yamin Hu et al. All rights reserved. Fuzzy Clustering-Based Ensemble Approach to Predicting Indian Monsoon Tue, 25 Aug 2015 13:42:43 +0000 Indian monsoon is an important climatic phenomenon and a global climatic marker. Both statistical and numerical prediction schemes for Indian monsoon have been widely studied in literature. Statistical schemes are mainly based on regression or neural networks. However, the variability of monsoon is significant over the years and a single model is often inadequate. Meteorologists revise their models on different years based on prevailing global climatic incidents like El-Niño. These indices often have degree of severity associated with them. In this paper, we cluster the monsoon years based on their fuzzy degree of associativity to these climatic event patterns. Next, we develop individual prediction models for the year clusters. A weighted ensemble of these individual models is used to obtain the final forecast. The proposed method performs competitively with existing forecast models. Moumita Saha, Pabitra Mitra, and Arun Chakraborty Copyright © 2015 Moumita Saha et al. All rights reserved. Analysis on the Extreme Heat Wave over China around Yangtze River Region in the Summer of 2013 and Its Main Contributing Factors Tue, 25 Aug 2015 13:24:35 +0000 In the summer of 2013, a rare extreme heat wave occurred in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River in China. Based on high resolution reanalysis data from ECMWF, comprehensive analyses on the associated atmospheric circulation and the sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) were provided. The stable and strong West Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH) was the direct cause for the heat wave. The WPSH had four westward extensions, which brought about four hot spells in southern China. The South Asia High (SAH) at 150 hPa was more eastward and more northward than normal. The strong Hadley circulation in the central and western Pacific and the anomalous easterlies at 500 hPa and 250 hPa in the middle and high latitudes were favorable for more hot days (HDs). The total HDs in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River had close relationships with the zonal wind anomalies in the middle and high latitudes, the SSTA in the Indian Ocean and Pacific, and the dry soil conditions of the Yangtze River Valley in spring and summer. The anomalies of the tropical, subtropical, and polar circulation and the underlying surfaces could be responsible for this extreme heat wave. Jin Li, Ting Ding, Xiaolong Jia, and Xianchan Zhao Copyright © 2015 Jin Li et al. All rights reserved. Spatiotemporal Characteristics of Evapotranspiration Paradox and Impact Factors in China in the Period of 1960–2013 Tue, 25 Aug 2015 13:06:00 +0000 Downward trend of potential evaporation accompanied with upward of air temperature which is denoted as evaporation paradox has been reported in many regions over the past several decades in the world. In this paper, evaporation paradox and key factors attributed to ET0 changes are systematically analyzed based on data from 599 meteorological stations during 1960–2013. Results show that (1) Evaporation paradox exists in all regions in1960–2013 and 1960–1999 except SWRB in 1960–2013 but no evaporation paradox in 2000–2013. (2) Evaporation paradox exists in large areas in spring and summer, the extent and range fall in autumn, and there is no evaporation paradox in winter. (3) The evaporation paradox area accounts for 73.7% of China in 1960–2013 and 91.2% in 1969–1999. (4) Sunshine hours, humidity, wind speed, and maximum temperature appear to be the most important variables which contributed to ET0 change in China. Huiping Huang, Yuping Han, Mingming Cao, Jinxi Song, Heng Xiao, and Weili Cheng Copyright © 2015 Huiping Huang et al. All rights reserved. Impact of Stratospheric Sudden Warming on East Asian Winter Monsoons Tue, 25 Aug 2015 12:43:59 +0000 Fifty-two Stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) events that occurred from 1957 to 2002 were analyzed based on the 40-year European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Reanalysis dataset. Those that could descent to the troposphere were composited to investigate their impacts on the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). It reveals that when the SSW occurs, the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and the North Pacific Oscillation (NPO) are both in the negative phase and that the tropospheric circulation is quite wave-like. The Siberian high and the Aleutian low are both strengthened, leading to an increased gradient between the Asian continent and the North Pacific. Hence, a strong EAWM is observed with widespread cooling over inland and coastal East Asia. After the peak of the SSW, in contrast, the tropospheric circulation is quite zonally symmetric with negative phases of AO and NPO. The mid-tropospheric East Asian trough deepens and shifts eastward. This configuration facilitates warming over the East Asian inland and cooling over the coastal East Asia centered over Japan. The activities of planetary waves during the lifecycle of the SSW were analyzed. The anomalous propagation and the attendant altered amplitude of the planetary waves can well explain the observed circulation and the EAWM. Quanliang Chen, Luyang Xu, and Hongke Cai Copyright © 2015 Quanliang Chen et al. All rights reserved. The Okhotsk-Japan Circulation Pattern and the Heavy Rainfall in Beijing in 2012 Summer Mon, 24 Aug 2015 06:14:33 +0000 Using station precipitation and reanalysis data, we examined the evolution of the large-scale circulations associated with the heavy rainfall event that occurred around July 21, 2012 (721 heavy rainfall). This study focuses on a role that the large-scale circulations named “the Okhotsk-Japan (OKJ) circulation pattern” played in causing the heavy rainfall case. We found that the 721 heavy rainfall occurred under a background of the OKJ circulation that persisted for about 10 days. However, the pattern was different from the normal OKJ circulation, for this circulation pattern accompanied a blocking high between the Ural Mountains and the Baikal Lake. This difference resulted from the seasonal change of the basic flow. The related Rossby wave propagated eastward during the persisting period of the dominated OKJ pattern. This caused the development of a low-pressure system around the Baikal Lake and the weakening of a ridge around the Okhotsk Sea. The slow evolution of the OKJ circulation created a favorable environment for the moisture transport to northern China, assisting in the generation of the 721 heavy rainfall. Yafei Wang, Jianzhao Qin, and Lijuan Zhu Copyright © 2015 Yafei Wang et al. All rights reserved. Numerical Simulations of the 1 May 2012 Deep Convection Event over Cuba: Sensitivity to Cumulus and Microphysical Schemes in a High-Resolution Model Tue, 18 Aug 2015 06:32:40 +0000 This paper evaluates the sensitivity to cumulus and microphysics schemes, as represented in numerical simulations of the Weather Research and Forecasting model, in characterizing a deep convection event over the Cuban island on 1 May 2012. To this end, 30 experiments combining five cumulus and six microphysics schemes, in addition to two experiments in which the cumulus parameterization was turned off, are tested in order to choose the combination that represents the event precipitation more accurately. ERA Interim is used as lateral boundary condition data for the downscaling procedure. Results show that convective schemes are more important than microphysics schemes for determining the precipitation areas within a high-resolution domain simulation. Also, while one cumulus scheme captures the overall spatial convective structure of the event more accurately than others, it fails to capture the precipitation intensity. This apparent discrepancy leads to sensitivity related to the verification method used to rank the scheme combinations. This sensitivity is also observed in a comparison between parameterized and explicit cumulus formation when the Kain-Fritsch scheme was used. A loss of added value is also found when the Grell-Freitas cumulus scheme was activated at 1 km grid spacing. Yandy G. Mayor and Michel D. S. Mesquita Copyright © 2015 Yandy G. Mayor and Michel D. S. Mesquita. All rights reserved. Trend Change Study of Climate Variables in Xin’anjiang-Fuchunjiang Watershed, China Thu, 13 Aug 2015 14:06:57 +0000 This study emphasizes the precipitation and the maximum and minimum temperature trend and presents the results of study in temporal and spatial scales, after performing statistical analysis of the Xin’anjiang-Fuchunjiang watershed. Statistical Mann Kendall and Theil Sen techniques were used to determine the trend and its magnitude, respectively, and for determining the start and abrupt change in the trend, Sequential Mann Kendall test has been performed. Furthermore, statistical tests were performed to determine the overall trend in the area at a regional basis. For the removal of the serial effect of the data, prewhitening technique is applied. In this study, statistical tests were performed at 1901–2013 precipitation and temperature series and then after detection of the change year precipitation data were divided into two different scenarios of 1901–1960 period and 1961–2013 period. The results showed that precipitation trend is insignificant while maximum and minimum temperature have increased during 1901–2013 period except for some stations of autumn and summer seasons. Muhammad Zaman, Guohua Fang, Kashif Mehmood, and Muhammad Saifullah Copyright © 2015 Muhammad Zaman et al. All rights reserved. Land Use Zoning for Conserving Ecosystem Services under the Impact of Climate Change: A Case Study in the Middle Reaches of the Heihe River Basin Sun, 09 Aug 2015 06:51:21 +0000 Ecosystem services are the benefit human populations derive directly and indirectly from the natural environment. They suffer from both the human intervention, like land use zoning change, and natural intervention, like the climate change. Under the background of climate change, regulation services of ecosystem could be strengthened under proper land use zoning policy to mitigate the climate change. In this paper, a case study was conducted in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin to assess the ecosystem services conservation zoning under the change of land use associated with climate variations. The research results show the spatial impact of land use zoning on ecosystem services in the study area which are significant reference for the spatial optimization of land use zoning in preserving the key ecosystem services to mitigate the climate change. The research contributes to the growing literature in finely characterizing the ecosystem services zones altered by land use change to alleviate the impact of climate change, as there is no such systematic ecosystem zoning method before. Chenchen Shi, Jinyan Zhan, Yongwei Yuan, Feng Wu, and Zhihui Li Copyright © 2015 Chenchen Shi et al. All rights reserved. Data Assimilation in Numerical Weather and Climate Models Thu, 06 Aug 2015 14:12:22 +0000 Shaoqing Zhang, Guijun Han, Yuanfu Xie, and Juan Jose Ruiz Copyright © 2015 Shaoqing Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Initialized Decadal Predictions by LASG/IAP Climate System Model FGOALS-s2: Evaluations of Strengths and Weaknesses Thu, 06 Aug 2015 11:23:00 +0000 Decadal prediction experiments are conducted by using the coupled global climate model FGOALS-s2, following the CMIP 5 protocol. The paper documents the initialization procedures for the decadal prediction experiments and summarizes the predictive skills of the experiments, which are assessed through indicators adopted by the IPCC AR5. The observational anomalies of surface and subsurface ocean temperature and salinity are assimilated through a modified incremental analysis update (IAU) scheme. Three sets of 10-year-long hindcast and forecast runs were started every five years in the period of 1960–2005, with the initial conditions taken from the assimilation runs. The decadal prediction experiment by FGOALS-s2 shows significant high predictive skills in the Indian Ocean, tropical western Pacific, and Atlantic, similar to the results of the CMIP5 multimodel ensemble. The predictive skills in the Indian Ocean and tropical western Pacific are primarily attributed to the model response to the external radiative forcing associated with the change of atmospheric compositions. In contrast, the high skills in the Atlantic are attributed, at least partly, to the improvements in the prediction of the Atlantic multidecadal variability coming from the initialization. Bo Wu, Xiaolong Chen, Fengfei Song, Yong Sun, and Tianjun Zhou Copyright © 2015 Bo Wu et al. All rights reserved. Remote Sensing and Modeling of Atmospheric Dust and Studying Its Impact on Environment, Weather, and Climate Thu, 06 Aug 2015 11:08:44 +0000 Hesham El-Askary, Seon K. Park, Slobodan Nickovic, and Mian Chin Copyright © 2015 Hesham El-Askary et al. All rights reserved. Statistical Prediction of the South China Sea Surface Height Anomaly Thu, 06 Aug 2015 10:00:57 +0000 Based on the simple ocean data assimilation (SODA) data, this study analyzes and forecasts the monthly sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) averaged over South China Sea (SCS). The approach to perform the analysis is a time series decomposition method, which decomposes monthly SSHAs in SCS to the following three parts: interannual, seasonal, and residual terms. Analysis results demonstrate that the SODA SSHA time series are significantly correlated to the AVISO SSHA time series in SCS. To investigate the predictability of SCS SSHA, an exponential smoothing approach and an autoregressive integrated moving average approach are first used to fit the interannual and residual terms of SCS SSHA while keeping the seasonal part invariant. Then, an array of forecast experiments with the start time spanning from June 1977 to June 2007 is performed based on the prediction model which integrates the above two models and the time-independent seasonal term. Results indicate that the valid forecast time of SCS SSHA of the statistical model is about 7 months, and the predictability of SCS SSHA in Spring and Autumn is stronger than that in Summer and Winter. In addition, the prediction skill of SCS SSHA has remarkable decadal variability, with better phase forecast in 1997–2007. Caixia Shao, Weimin Zhang, Chunjian Sun, Xinmin Chai, and Zhimin Wang Copyright © 2015 Caixia Shao et al. All rights reserved. An Evaluation Method of Underwater Ocean Environment Safety Situation Based on D-S Evidence Theory Thu, 06 Aug 2015 09:58:50 +0000 Because of complex ocean environment, underwater vehicles are facing many challenges in navigation safety and precise navigation. Aiming at the requirements of underwater navigation safety, this paper presents an evaluation method of underwater ocean environment safety situation based on Dempster-Shafer (D-S) evidence theory. Firstly, the vital ocean environment factors which affect the underwater navigation safety are taken into account, and a novel basic probability assignment (BPA) construction method of ocean environment factors is proposed according to their characteristics. Then, a new transformation method of BPA to decision-making probability is put forward to deal with the uncertainty degree. Furthermore, the super-standard weight is applied to preprocess the BPA, and D-S combination rule is used to acquire the evaluation result by fusing the preprocessed BPA. Ocean environment safety situation index is obtained by quantizing the evaluation grades. Finally, experimental results show that the method proposed has the superior practicability and reliability in actual applications. Yuxin Zhao, Renfeng Jia, and Chang Liu Copyright © 2015 Yuxin Zhao et al. All rights reserved. A Study of Coupling Parameter Estimation Implemented by 4D-Var and EnKF with a Simple Coupled System Thu, 06 Aug 2015 09:50:06 +0000 Coupling parameter estimation (CPE) that uses observations to estimate the parameters in a coupled model through error covariance between variables residing in different media may increase the consistency of estimated parameters in an air-sea coupled system. However, it is very challenging to accurately evaluate the error covariance between such variables due to the different characteristic time scales at which flows vary in different media. With a simple Lorenz-atmosphere and slab ocean coupled system that characterizes the interaction of two-timescale media in a coupled “climate” system, this study explores feasibility of the CPE with four-dimensional variational analysis and ensemble Kalman filter within a perfect observing system simulation experiment framework. It is found that both algorithms can improve the representation of air-sea coupling processes through CPE compared to state estimation only. These simple model studies provide some insights when parameter estimation is implemented with a coupled general circulation model for improving climate estimation and prediction initialization. Guijun Han, Xinrong Wu, Shaoqing Zhang, Zhengyu Liu, Ionel Michael Navon, and Wei Li Copyright © 2015 Guijun Han et al. All rights reserved. Investigation of Three-Dimensional Evolution of East Asian Dust Storm by Modeling and Remote Sensing Measurements Thu, 06 Aug 2015 09:19:57 +0000 The three-dimensional evolution of an East Asian dust storm during 23–26 April 2009 was investigated by utilizing a regional air quality model system (RAQMS) and satellite measurements. This severe dust storm hit Mt. Tai in east China with daily mean PM10 concentration reaching 1400 μg/m3 and the model captured the PM10 variation reasonably well. Modeled spatial distributions of AOD and vertical profiles of aerosol extinction coefficient during the dust storm were compared with MODIS and CALIPSO data, demonstrating that RAQMS was able to reproduce the 3D structure and the evolution of the dust storm reasonably well. During early days of the dust storm, daily mean dust-induced AOD exceeded 2.0 over dust source regions (the Gobi desert and the Taklamakan desert) and was in a range of 1.2–1.8 over the North China Plain, accounting for about 98% and up to 90% of total AOD over corresponding areas, respectively. The top of the dust storm reached about 8 km over east China, with high dust concentration locating at around 40°N. Dust aerosol below 2 km was transported southeastward off the Gobi desert while dust above 2 km was transported out of China along 40°–45°N. Jiawei Li and Zhiwei Han Copyright © 2015 Jiawei Li and Zhiwei Han. All rights reserved. Diffusion Filters for Variational Data Assimilation of Sea Surface Temperature in an Intermediate Climate Model Thu, 06 Aug 2015 08:11:10 +0000 Sequential, adaptive, and gradient diffusion filters are implemented into spatial multiscale three-dimensional variational data assimilation (3DVAR) as alternative schemes to model background error covariance matrix for the commonly used correction scale method, recursive filter method, and sequential 3DVAR. The gradient diffusion filter (GDF) is verified by a two-dimensional sea surface temperature (SST) assimilation experiment. Compared to the existing DF, the new GDF scheme shows a superior performance in the assimilation experiment due to its success in extracting the spatial multiscale information. The GDF can retrieve successfully the longwave information over the whole analysis domain and the shortwave information over data-dense regions. After that, a perfect twin data assimilation experiment framework is designed to study the effect of the GDF on the state estimation based on an intermediate coupled model. In this framework, the assimilation model is subject to “biased” initial fields from the “truth” model. While the GDF reduces the model bias in general, it can enhance the accuracy of the state estimation in the region that the observations are removed, especially in the South Ocean. In addition, the higher forecast skill can be obtained through the better initial state fields produced by the GDF. Xuefeng Zhang, Dong Li, Peter C. Chu, Lianxin Zhang, and Wei Li Copyright © 2015 Xuefeng Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Using Adjoint-Based Forecast Sensitivity Method to Evaluate TAMDAR Data Impacts on Regional Forecasts Thu, 06 Aug 2015 07:56:12 +0000 This study evaluates the impact of Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting (TAMDAR) observations on regional 24-hour forecast error reduction over the Continental United States (CONUS) domain using adjoint-based forecast sensitivity to observation (FSO) method as the diagnostic tool. The relative impact of TAMDAR observations on reducing the forecast error was assessed by conducting the WRFDA FSO experiments for two two-week-long periods, one in January and one in June 2010. These experiments assimilated operational TAMDAR data and other conventional observations, as well as GPS refractivity (GPSREF). FSO results show that rawinsonde soundings (SOUND) and TAMDAR exhibit the largest observation impact on 24 h WRF forecast, followed by GeoAMV, aviation routine weather reports (METAR), GPSREF, and synoptic observations (SYNOP). At 0000 and 1200 UTC, TAMDAR has an equivalent impact to SOUND in reducing the 24-hour forecast error. However, at 1800 UTC, TAMDAR has a distinct advantage over SOUND, which has the sparse observation report at these times. In addition, TAMDAR humidity observations at lower levels of the atmosphere (700 and 850 hPa) have a significant impact on 24 h forecast error reductions. TAMDAR and SOUND observations present a qualitatively similar observation impact between FSO and Observation System Experiments (OSEs). Xiaoyan Zhang, Hongli Wang, Xiang-Yu Huang, Feng Gao, and Neil A. Jacobs Copyright © 2015 Xiaoyan Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Research on Cold Core Eddy Change and Phytoplankton Bloom Induced by Typhoons: Case Studies in the South China Sea Thu, 06 Aug 2015 07:55:26 +0000 The effects of 8 typhoons which passed by coldcore eddy (CCE) areas in the South China Sea (SCS) from 1997 to 2009 were observed and evaluated. The changes in the preexisting CCE acted upon by typhoons were described by eddy kinetic energy (EKE) and eddy available gravitational potential energy (EAGPE). The mechanical energy of CCE was estimated from a two-layer reduced gravity model. Comparing with the scenario that typhoon passes by the region without CCEs, the preexisting CCE area plays an important role in the increase of chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentration in the CCEs impacted by the typhoons. The preexisting chl-a in CCE is about 25%~45% (8%~25%) of postexisting chl-a in CCE for higher (slower) transit speed typhoons. If the EAGPE of CCE increases greatly after typhoon passing by with slow transit speed, so does the chl-a in the CCE area. The EKE (EAGPE) changes of the preexisting CCE are in the order of O(1014~1015 J). EKE and EAGPE of CCE are dominantly enhanced by typhoon with slow transit speed (<3 m/s) and the posttyphoon EAGPE is always larger than posttyphoon EKE for 8 cases. The maximum EAGPE change of the preexisting CCE reaches  J, which was induced by typhoon Hagibis. Xiao-dong Shang, Hai-bin Zhu, Gui-ying Chen, Chi Xu, and Qi Yang Copyright © 2015 Xiao-dong Shang et al. All rights reserved. Low-Frequency Variability of the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass Identified from the China Coastal Waters and Adjacent Seas Reanalysis Thu, 06 Aug 2015 07:54:28 +0000 This study uses the China Coastal Waters and Adjacent Seas Reanalysis (CORA) data to investigate the interannual and decadal variability of the Yellow Sea cold water mass (YSCWM) and its relationship to climate indices including the Arctic Oscillation (AO), El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). On the interannual timescale, the strong correlation between winter PDO and the YSCWM may indicate the dominant effect of winter PDO on the YSCWM through the modulation of local heat flux and wind stress. It is also found that the local wind stress and heat flux in summer have little impact on the interannual variability of the YSCWM. On the decadal time scale, the YSCWM is associated with winter AO and winter PDO. Winter AO mainly controls local heat flux, modulating the decadal variability of the YSCWM. In contrast, winter PDO is strongly connected with winter heat flux and wind stress to modulate the decadal variability of the YSCWM. In summer, for three climate factors, ENSO is the dominant factor controlling the decadal variability of the YSCWM. Xuewei Li, Xidong Wang, Peter C. Chu, and Dongliang Zhao Copyright © 2015 Xuewei Li et al. All rights reserved. Some Aspects of Sensitivity Analysis in Variational Data Assimilation for Coupled Dynamical Systems Thu, 06 Aug 2015 07:53:34 +0000 Variational data assimilation (VDA) remains one of the key issues arising in many fields of geosciences including the numerical weather prediction. While the theory of VDA is well established, there are a number of issues with practical implementation that require additional consideration and study. However, the exploration of VDA requires considerable computational resources. For simple enough low-order models, the computational cost is minor and therefore models of this class are used as simple test instruments to emulate more complex systems. In this paper, the sensitivity with respect to variations in the parameters of one of the main components of VDA, the nonlinear forecasting model, is considered. For chaotic atmospheric dynamics, conventional methods of sensitivity analysis provide uninformative results since the envelopes of sensitivity functions grow with time and sensitivity functions themselves demonstrate the oscillating behaviour. The use of sensitivity analysis method, developed on the basis of the theory of shadowing pseudoorbits in dynamical systems, allows us to calculate sensitivity functions correctly. Sensitivity estimates for a simple coupled dynamical system are calculated and presented in the paper. To estimate the influence of model parameter uncertainties on the forecast, the relative error in the energy norm is applied. Sergei Soldatenko, Peter Steinle, Chris Tingwell, and Denis Chichkine Copyright © 2015 Sergei Soldatenko et al. All rights reserved. An Assessment of Data from the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder at the Met Office Thu, 06 Aug 2015 07:45:53 +0000 An appraisal of the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) for use in numerical weather prediction (NWP) is presented, including an assessment of the data quality, the impact on Met Office global forecasts in preoperational trials, and a summary of performance over a period of 17 months operational use. After remapping, the noise performance (NEΔT) of the tropospheric temperature sounding channels is evaluated to be approximately 0.1 K, comparing favourably with AMSU-A. However, the noise is not random, differences between observations and simulations based on short-range forecast fields show a spurious striping effect, due to 1/f noise in the receiver. The amplitude of this signal is several tenths of a Kelvin, potentially a concern for NWP applications. In preoperational tests, adding ATMS data to a full Met Office system already exploiting data from four microwave sounders improves southern hemisphere mean sea level pressure forecasts in the 2- to 5-day range by 1-2%. In operational use, where data from five other microwave sounders is assimilated, forecast impact is typically between −0.05 and −0.1 J/kg (3.4% of total mean impact per day over the period 1 April to 31 July 2013). This suggests benefits beyond redundancy, associated with reducing already small analysis errors. Amy Doherty, Nigel Atkinson, William Bell, and Andrew Smith Copyright © 2015 Amy Doherty et al. All rights reserved. Prediction of Moderate and Heavy Rainfall in New Zealand Using Data Assimilation and Ensemble Thu, 06 Aug 2015 07:34:22 +0000 This numerical weather prediction study investigates the effects of data assimilation and ensemble prediction on the forecast accuracy of moderate and heavy rainfall over New Zealand. In order to ascertain the optimal implementation of state-of-the-art 3Dvar and 4Dvar data assimilation techniques, 12 different experiments have been conducted for the period from 13 September to 18 October 2010 using the New Zealand limited area model. Verification has shown that an ensemble based on these experiments outperforms all of the individual members using a variety of metrics. In addition, the rainfall occurrence probability derived from the ensemble is a good predictor of heavy rainfall. Mountains significantly affect the performance of this ensemble which provides better forecasts of heavy rainfall over the South Island than over the North Island. Analysis suggests that underestimation of orographic lifting due to the relatively low resolution of the model (~12 km) is a factor leading to this variability in heavy rainfall forecast skill. This study indicates that regional ensemble prediction with a suitably fine model resolution (≤5 km) would be a useful tool for forecasting heavy rainfall over New Zealand. Yang Yang, Phillip Andrews, Trevor Carey-Smith, Michael Uddstrom, and Mike Revell Copyright © 2015 Yang Yang et al. All rights reserved. Impact of Argo Observation on the Regional Ocean Reanalysis of China Coastal Waters and Adjacent Seas: A Twin-Experiment Study Thu, 06 Aug 2015 07:32:27 +0000 A regional ocean reanalysis system of China coastal waters and adjacent seas, called CORA (China ocean reanalysis), has been recently developed at the National Marine Data and Information Service (NMDIS). In this study, based on CORA, the impact of Argo profiles on the regional reanalysis is evaluated using a twin-experiment approach. It is found that, by assimilating Argo observations, the reanalysis quality is much improved: the root mean square (RMS) error of temperature and salinity can be further reduced by about 10% and the RMS error of current can be further reduced by 18%, compared to the case only assimilating conventional in situ temperature and salinity observations. Consistent with the unique feature of Argo observations, the temperature is improved in all levels and the largest improvement of salinity happens in the deep ocean. Argo profile data have a significant impact on the regional ocean reanalysis through improvements of both hydrographic and dynamic fields. Caixia Shao, Lili Xuan, Yingzhi Cao, Xiaojian Cui, and Siyu Gao Copyright © 2015 Caixia Shao et al. All rights reserved. Upper Ocean Thermal Responses to Sea Spray Mediated Turbulent Fluxes during Typhoon Passage Thu, 06 Aug 2015 07:19:08 +0000 A one-dimensional turbulent model is used to investigate the effect of sea spray mediated turbulent fluxes on upper ocean temperature during the passage of typhoon Yagi over the Kuroshio Extension area in 2006. Both a macroscopical sea spray momentum flux algorithm and a microphysical heat and moisture flux algorithm are included in this turbulent model. Numerical results show that the model can well reproduce the upper ocean temperature, which is consistent with the data from the Kuroshio Extension Observatory. Besides, the sea surface temperature is decreased by about 0.5°C during the typhoon passage, which also agrees with the sea surface temperature dataset derived from Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing and Reynolds. Diagnostic analysis indicates that sea spray acts as an additional source of the air-sea turbulent fluxes and plays a key role in increasing the turbulent kinetic energy in the upper ocean, which enhances the temperature diffusion there. Therefore, sea spray is also an important factor in determining the upper mixed layer depth during the typhoon passage. Lianxin Zhang, Changlong Guan, Chunjian Sun, Siyu Gao, and Shaomei Yu Copyright © 2015 Lianxin Zhang et al. All rights reserved. A Review on Land Surface Processes Modelling over Complex Terrain Wed, 05 Aug 2015 15:21:12 +0000 Complex terrain, commonly represented by mountainous region, occupies nearly one-quarter of the Earth’s continental areas. An accurate understanding of water cycle, energy exchange, carbon cycle, and many other biogeophysical or biogeochemical processes in this area has become more and more important for climate change study. Due to the influences from complex topography and rapid variation in elevation, it is usually difficult for field measurements to capture the land-atmosphere interactions well, whereas land surface model (LSM) simulation provides a good alternative. A systematic review is introduced by pointing out the key issues for land surface processes simulation over complex terrain: (1) high spatial heterogeneity for land surface parameters in horizontal direction, (2) big variation of atmospheric forcing data in vertical direction related to elevation change, (3) scale effect on land surface parameterization in LSM, and (4) two-dimensional modelling which considers the gravity influence. Regarding these issues, it is promising for better simulation at this special region by involving higher spatial resolution atmospheric forcing data which can reflect the influences from topographic changes and making necessary improvements on model structure related to topographic factors. In addition, the incorporation of remote sensing techniques will significantly help to reduce uncertainties in model initialization, simulation, and validation. Wei Zhao and Ainong Li Copyright © 2015 Wei Zhao and Ainong Li. All rights reserved. Study of Aerosols’ Characteristics and Dynamics over the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Using a Multisensor Approach Combined with Ground Observations Wed, 05 Aug 2015 14:29:51 +0000 This study covers various aspects of the aerosol distribution and characteristics, namely, optical depth climatology, absorption characteristics, and their microphysical properties over four regions in Saudi Arabia using satellite and ground observations including MODIS/Terra and Aqua, OMI, MISR/Terra, AERONET, and CALIPSO for the period April 2003–January 2013. The study includes cities in the North Western, Western, Eastern provinces of Saudi Arabia and in the Rub al Khali desert or Empty Quarter. Satellite and ground observations showed that the dust season extends from April to August with prominent peaks yet with high anthropogenic contribution late summer and early fall. Analysis shows an increase in the aerosol concentration during March 2009 which could be attributed to a major dust storm during that time. Comparing the AOD time series over regions 1–3 and region 4 (desert) we observe monthly and annual variability with no recurrence pattern over the years. The Aqua Deep Blue AOD550 data shows a single peak pattern that occurs over region 4 during the spring season known for its frequent dust events. OMI data shed the light on the presence of higher air pollution levels over region 3, representing the oil rich eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Ashraf Farahat, Hesham El-Askary, and Abdulaziz Al-Shaibani Copyright © 2015 Ashraf Farahat et al. All rights reserved.