Advances in Meteorology The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Anomalous Propagation Echo Classification of Imbalanced Radar Data with Support Vector Machine Sun, 07 Feb 2016 14:22:13 +0000 A number of technologically advanced devices, such as radars and satellites, are used in an actual weather forecasting process. Among these devices, the radar is essential equipment in this process because it has a wide observation area and fine resolution in both the time and the space domains. However, the radar can also observe unwanted nonweather phenomena. Anomalous propagation echo is one of the representative nonprecipitation echoes generated by an abnormal refraction phenomenon of a radar beam. Abnormal refraction occurs when the temperature and the humidity change dramatically. In such a case, the radar recognizes either the ground or the sea surface as an atmospheric object. This false observation decreases the accuracy of both quantitative precipitation estimation and weather forecasting. Therefore, a system that can automatically recognize an anomalous propagation echo from the radar data needs to be developed. In this paper, we propose a classification method for separating anomalous propagation echoes from the rest of the weather data by using a combination of a support vector machine classifier and the synthetic minority oversampling technique, to solve the problem of imbalanced data. By using actual cases of anomalous propagation we have confirmed that the proposed method provides good classification results. Hansoo Lee, Eun Kyeong Kim, and Sungshin Kim Copyright © 2016 Hansoo Lee et al. All rights reserved. Research on Historical and Future Spatial-Temporal Variability of Precipitation in China Thu, 04 Feb 2016 08:19:27 +0000 Based on observed data and data simulated by climate models, temporal variation and spatial distribution of precipitation in China from 1961 to 2050 were investigated. The slope of annual precipitation and Mann-Kendall statistical test were applied to quantify the trend magnitude and detect the significant trend, respectively. Besides, decadal and interannual variations of different rain belts were analyzed to reveal the spatial changing pattern of precipitation. Results indicated the following. (1) During 1961–2011, annual precipitation in Haihe River Basin decreased significantly while the annual precipitation in river basins in the northwest increased significantly. Although the annual precipitation of Yangtze River Basin has an indistinctive decreasing trend, that in the middle and lower reaches has increased and that in the upper reaches has decreased. Arid zone and humid zone are shrinking while semiarid and semihumid zone are expanding. Transformation between semiarid and arid zones, humid and semihumid zones is frequent. During 2011–2050, annual precipitation will not change much (−6~12%) except river basins in the southwest (more than 40%) compared with the baseline. Besides, the area of arid zone will decrease and humid zone area will increase. Transformation area between semiarid and arid zone and humid and semihumid zone is small. Jun Yin, Denghua Yan, Zhiyong Yang, Zhe Yuan, Yong Yuan, Hao Wang, and Xiaoliang Shi Copyright © 2016 Jun Yin et al. All rights reserved. Flood Hazard Mapping by Using Geographic Information System and Hydraulic Model: Mert River, Samsun, Turkey Wed, 03 Feb 2016 14:05:00 +0000 In this study, flood hazard maps were prepared for the Mert River Basin, Samsun, Turkey, by using GIS and Hydrologic Engineering Centers River Analysis System (HEC-RAS). In this river basin, human life losses and a significant amount of property damages were experienced in 2012 flood. The preparation of flood risk maps employed in the study includes the following steps: (1) digitization of topographical data and preparation of digital elevation model using ArcGIS, (2) simulation of flood lows of different return periods using a hydraulic model (HEC-RAS), and (3) preparation of flood risk maps by integrating the results of (1) and (2). Vahdettin Demir and Ozgur Kisi Copyright © 2016 Vahdettin Demir and Ozgur Kisi. All rights reserved. An Algorithm for Retrieving Precipitable Water Vapor over Land Based on Passive Microwave Satellite Data Wed, 03 Feb 2016 13:51:19 +0000 Precipitable water vapor (PWV) is one of the most variable components of the atmosphere in both space and time. In this study, a passive microwave-based retrieval algorithm for PWV over land without land surface temperature (LST) data was developed. To build the algorithm, two assumptions exist: (1) land surface emissivities (LSE) at two adjacent frequencies are equal and (2) there are simple parameterizations that relate transmittance, atmospheric effective radiating temperature, and PWV. Error analyses were performed using radiosonde sounding observations from Zhangye, China, and CE318 measurements of Dalanzadgad (43°34′37′′N, 104°25′8′′E) and Singapore (1°17′52′′N, 103°46′48′′E) sites from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), respectively. In Zhangye, the algorithm had a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 4.39 mm and a bias of 0.36 mm on cloud-free days, while on cloudy days there was an RMSE of 4.84 mm and a bias of 0.52 mm because of the effect of liquid water in clouds. The validations in Dalanzadgad and Singapore sites showed that the retrieval algorithm had an RMSE of 4.73 mm and a bias of 0.84 mm and the bigger errors appeared when the water vapor was very dry or very moist. Fang-Cheng Zhou, Xiaoning Song, Pei Leng, Hua Wu, and Bo-Hui Tang Copyright © 2016 Fang-Cheng Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Spatial Combination Modeling Framework of Saturation-Excess and Infiltration-Excess Runoff for Semihumid Watersheds Wed, 03 Feb 2016 10:23:34 +0000 There exist two types of direct runoff generation mechanisms in semihumid watersheds: saturation-excess mechanism and infiltration-excess mechanism. It has always been a difficult problem for event hydrological simulation to distinguish the two types of runoff processes. Based on the concept of dominant runoff processes, combined with GIS and RS techniques, this paper proposed an event-based spatial combination modeling framework and built two spatial combination models (SCMs) accordingly. The CN parameter and topographic index, both of which are widely used in hydrological researches, are adopted by the SCM to divide the entire watershed into infiltration-excess dominated (IED) areas and saturation-excess dominated (SED) areas. Dongwan watershed was taken as an example to test the performances of infiltration-excess model, saturation-excess model, and SCM, respectively. The results of parameter optimization showed that the parameter values and state variables of SCM are much more realistic than those of infiltration-excess model and saturation-excess model. The more accurate the divisions of infiltration-excess and saturation-excess dominated areas, the more realistic the SCM parameter values. The simulation results showed that the performance of SCM was improved in both calibration and validation periods. The framework is useful for flood forecasting in semihumid watersheds. Pengnian Huang, Zhijia Li, Cheng Yao, Qiaoling Li, and Meichun Yan Copyright © 2016 Pengnian Huang et al. All rights reserved. Projection in Future Drought Hazard of South Korea Based on RCP Climate Change Scenario 8.5 Using SPEI Wed, 03 Feb 2016 06:19:24 +0000 The Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) analysis was conducted using monthly precipitation data and temperature data on a 12.5 km × 12.5 km resolution based on a Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 8.5 climate change scenario, and the characteristics of drought were identified by the threshold. In addition, the changes in drought severity and intensity were projected using the threshold based on the run-length concept and frequency analysis. As a result of the analysis, the probability density function of the total drought and maximum drought intensity moved the upper tail for the upcoming years, and the average drought intensity was also projected to become stronger in the future than in the present to the right side. Through this, it could be projected that the drought scale and frequency and the drought intensity will become severer over South Korea because of future climate change. Byung Sik Kim, In Gi Chang, Jang Hyun Sung, and Hae Jin Han Copyright © 2016 Byung Sik Kim et al. All rights reserved. Accuracy Improvement of Discharge Measurement with Modification of Distance Made Good Heading Sun, 31 Jan 2016 14:02:32 +0000 Remote control boats equipped with an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) are widely accepted and have been welcomed by many hydrologists for water discharge, velocity profile, and bathymetry measurements. The advantages of this technique include high productivity, fast measurements, operator safety, and high accuracy. However, there are concerns about controlling and operating a remote boat to achieve measurement goals, especially during extreme events such as floods. When performing river discharge measurements, the main error source stems from the boat path. Due to the rapid flow in a flood condition, the boat path is not regular and this can cause errors in discharge measurements. Therefore, improvement of discharge measurements requires modification of boat path. As a result, the measurement errors in flood flow conditions are 12.3–21.8% before the modification of boat path, but 1.2–3.7% after the DMG modification of boat path. And it is considered that the modified discharges are very close to the observed discharge in the flood flow conditions. In this study, through the distance made good (DMG) modification of the boat path, a comprehensive discharge measurement with high accuracy can be achieved. Jongkook Lee, Hongjoon Shin, Jeonghwan Ahn, and Changsam Jeong Copyright © 2016 Jongkook Lee et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Statistical Downscaling Methods for Monthly Total Precipitation: Case Study for the Paute River Basin in Southern Ecuador Sun, 31 Jan 2016 11:19:10 +0000 Downscaling improves considerably the results of General Circulation Models (GCMs). However, little information is available on the performance of downscaling methods in the Andean mountain region. The paper presents the downscaling of monthly precipitation estimates of the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis 1 applying the statistical downscaling model (SDSM), artificial neural networks (ANNs), and the least squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) approach. Downscaled monthly precipitation estimates after bias and variance correction were compared to the median and variance of the 30-year observations of 5 climate stations in the Paute River basin in southern Ecuador, one of Ecuador’s main river basins. A preliminary comparison revealed that both artificial intelligence methods, ANN and LS-SVM, performed equally. Results disclosed that ANN and LS-SVM methods depict, in general, better skills in comparison to SDSM. However, in some months, SDSM estimates matched the median and variance of the observed monthly precipitation depths better. Since synoptic variables do not always present local conditions, particularly in the period going from September to December, it is recommended for future studies to refine estimates of downscaling, for example, by combining dynamic and statistical methods, or to select sets of synoptic predictors for specific months or seasons. L. Campozano, D. Tenelanda, E. Sanchez, E. Samaniego, and J. Feyen Copyright © 2016 L. Campozano et al. All rights reserved. Meteorological Impacts on Landform Changes Sun, 31 Jan 2016 06:01:01 +0000 Hongming He, Zhongping Lai, and Steffen Mischke Copyright © 2016 Hongming He et al. All rights reserved. Rainfall and Cloud Dynamics in the Andes: A Southern Ecuador Case Study Tue, 26 Jan 2016 09:40:59 +0000 Mountain regions worldwide present a pronounced spatiotemporal precipitation variability, which added to scarce monitoring networks limits our understanding of the generation processes involved. To improve our understanding of clouds and precipitation dynamics and cross-scale generation processes in mountain regions, we analyzed spatiotemporal rainfall patterns using satellite cloud products (SCP) in the Paute basin (900–4200 m a.s.l. and 6481 km2) in the Andes of Ecuador. Precipitation models, using SCP and GIS data, reveal the spatial extension of three regimes: a three-modal (TM) regime present across the basin, a bimodal (BM) regime, along sheltered valleys, and a unimodal (UM) regime at windward slopes of the eastern cordillera. Subsequently, the spatiotemporal analysis using synoptic information shows that the dry season of the BM regime during boreal summer is caused by strong subsidence inhibiting convective clouds formation. Meanwhile, in UM regions, low advective shallow cap clouds mainly cause precipitation, influenced by water vapor from the Amazon and enhanced easterlies during boreal summer. TM regions are transition zones from UM to BM and zones on the windward slopes of the western cordillera. These results highlight the suitability of satellite and GIS data-driven statistical models to study spatiotemporal rainfall seasonality and generation processes in complex terrain, as the Andes. Lenin Campozano, Rolando Célleri, Katja Trachte, Joerg Bendix, and Esteban Samaniego Copyright © 2016 Lenin Campozano et al. All rights reserved. Forecasting of Surface Currents via Correcting Wind Stress with Assimilation of High-Frequency Radar Data in a Three-Dimensional Model Wed, 20 Jan 2016 13:14:45 +0000 This paper details work in assessing the capability of a hydrodynamic model to forecast surface currents and in applying data assimilation techniques to improve model forecasts. A three-dimensional model Environment Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) was forced with tidal boundary data and onshore wind data, and so forth. Surface current data from a high-frequency (HF) radar system in Galway Bay were used for model intercomparisons and as a source for data assimilation. The impact of bottom roughness was also investigated. Having developed a “good” water circulation model the authors sought to improve its forecasting ability through correcting wind shear stress boundary conditions. The differences in surface velocity components between HF radar measurements and model output were calculated and used to correct surface shear stresses. Moreover, data assimilation cycle lengths were examined to extend the improvements of surface current’s patterns during forecasting period, especially for north-south velocity component. The influence of data assimilation in model forecasting was assessed using a Data Assimilation Skill Score (DASS). Positive magnitude of DASS indicated that both velocity components were considerably improved during forecasting period. Additionally, the improvements of RMSE for vector direction over domain were significant compared with the “free run.” Lei Ren, Stephen Nash, and Michael Hartnett Copyright © 2016 Lei Ren et al. All rights reserved. Hydrological Processes in Changing Climate, Land Use, and Cover Change Wed, 20 Jan 2016 07:07:48 +0000 Yongqiang Zhang, Fubao Sun, Ming Pan, Tom Van Niel, and Martin Wegehenkel Copyright © 2016 Yongqiang Zhang et al. All rights reserved. SPEI-Based Spatiotemporal Analysis of Drought in Haihe River Basin from 1961 to 2010 Mon, 18 Jan 2016 13:05:36 +0000 Under the background of climate change, the monthly accumulated precipitation and monthly averaged temperature of 47 meteorological stations in and around Haihe River Basin (HRB) were analyzed using Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Indices (SPEI) to obtain the temporal variability and spatial distribution of different drought levels during the last 50 years with the support of GIS. The results show that from 1961 to 2010 the drought frequency and degree in annual and seasonal scale are rising and the affecting areas of all degrees of drought have a temporal variability of increasing trend. The ratios that the influencing area of drought, light drought, moderate drought, severe drought, and extreme drought account for the whole HRB area are increasing with gradients of 0.64%/, 0.18%/, 0.31%/, 0.14%/, and 0.01%/, respectively, and there is a climate break point which occurred in 1990; after the comparison of the drought happening probability between 1961 and 1990 and between 1991 and 2010, all degrees of drought occurrence probability have a remarkable rising trend, and the drought concentrating regions moved from the north HRB to the central HRB. Meijian Yang, Denghua Yan, Yingdong Yu, and Zhiyong Yang Copyright © 2016 Meijian Yang et al. All rights reserved. Earth Observations and Societal Impacts 2015 Mon, 18 Jan 2016 11:31:53 +0000 Yuei-An Liou, Chung-Ru Ho, Yuriy Kuleshov, and Jean-Pierre Barriot Copyright © 2016 Yuei-An Liou et al. All rights reserved. Variability of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Hydrological Phenomena Mon, 18 Jan 2016 06:14:49 +0000 Leonard J. Pietrafesa, Alan Blumberg, and Xiaofeng Li Copyright © 2016 Leonard J. Pietrafesa et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Initial Drivers and Land Use on WRF Modeling for Near-Surface Fields and Atmospheric Boundary Layer over the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau Sun, 17 Jan 2016 13:20:42 +0000 To improve the simulation performance of mesoscale models in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau, two reanalysis initial datasets (NCEP FNL and ERA-Interim) and two MODIS (Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) land-use datasets (from 2001 and 2010) are used in WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) modeling. The model can reproduce the variations of 2 m temperature (T2) and 2 m relative humidity (RH2), but T2 is overestimated and RH2 is underestimated in the control experiment. After using the new initial drive and land use data, the simulation precision in T2 is improved by the correction of overestimated net energy flux at surface and the RH2 is improved due to the lower T2 and larger soil moisture. Due to systematic bias in WRF modeling for wind speed, we design another experiment that includes the Jimenez subgrid-scale orography scheme, which reduces the frequency of low wind speed and increases the frequency of high wind speed and that is more consistent with the observation. Meanwhile, the new drive and land-use data lead to lower boundary layer height and influence the potential temperature and wind speed in both the lower atmosphere and the upper layer, while the impact on water vapor mixing ratio is primarily concentrated in the lower atmosphere. Junhua Yang and Keqin Duan Copyright © 2016 Junhua Yang and Keqin Duan. All rights reserved. Simulating the Energy and Water Fluxes from Two Alkaline Desert Ecosystems over Central Asia Sun, 17 Jan 2016 08:32:39 +0000 The Central Asia region is covered by vast desert ecosystems, where the characteristic of energy and water fluxes is different from other humid ecosystems. The application of land surface models (LSMs) in arid and semiarid ecosystems was largely limited. This paper presents a detailed evaluation of Common Land Model (CoLM) at two eddy covariance (EC) sites in alkaline desert ecosystems over Central Asia. Simulations of the net radiation (), latent heat flux (), sensible heat flux (), and soil temperature showed that refined estimate of roughness length () significantly improved the performance of CoLM in simulating turbulent heat fluxes. was increased but was decreased, which were in better agreement with the observations from EC system. The results indicated that accurate parameterization of is of crucial importance for predicting energy and water fluxes in LSM when applied in Central Asia desert ecosystems. Sensitivity analysis regarding leaf area index (LAI), , and albedo () showed that is very sensitive to but , , and soil temperature () are sensitively varying with the estimate of at the two EC sites over Central Asia. Chang-Qing Jing and Long-Hui Li Copyright © 2016 Chang-Qing Jing and Long-Hui Li. All rights reserved. Assessing the Added Value of Dynamical Downscaling Using the Standardized Precipitation Index Thu, 14 Jan 2016 13:20:37 +0000 In this study, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) is used to ascertain the added value of dynamical downscaling over the contiguous United States. WRF is used as a regional climate model (RCM) to dynamically downscale reanalysis fields to compare values of SPI over drought timescales that have implications for agriculture and water resources planning. The regional climate generated by WRF has the largest improvement over reanalysis for SPI correlation with observations as the drought timescale increases. This suggests that dynamically downscaled fields may be more reliable than larger-scale fields for water resource applications (e.g., water storage within reservoirs). WRF improves the timing and intensity of moderate to extreme wet and dry periods, even in regions with homogenous terrain. This study also examines changes in SPI from the extreme drought of 1988 and three “drought busting” tropical storms. Each of those events illustrates the importance of using downscaling to resolve the spatial extent of droughts. The analysis of the “drought busting” tropical storms demonstrates that while the impact of these storms on ending prolonged droughts is improved by the RCM relative to the reanalysis, it remains underestimated. These results illustrate the importance and some limitations of using RCMs to project drought. Jared H. Bowden, Kevin D. Talgo, Tanya L. Spero, and Christopher G. Nolte Copyright © 2016 Jared H. Bowden et al. All rights reserved. The Sensitivity of Heavy Precipitation to Horizontal Resolution, Domain Size, and Rain Rate Assimilation: Case Studies with a Convection-Permitting Model Thu, 14 Jan 2016 11:57:07 +0000 The Australian Community Climate and Earth-System Simulator (ACCESS) is used to test the sensitivity of heavy precipitation to various model configurations: horizontal resolution, domain size, rain rate assimilation, perturbed physics, and initial condition uncertainties, through a series of convection-permitting simulations of three heavy precipitation (greater than 200 mm day−1) cases in different synoptic backgrounds. The larger disparity of intensity histograms and rainfall fluctuation caused by different model configurations from their mean and/or control run indicates that heavier precipitation forecasts have larger uncertainty. A cross-verification exercise is used to quantify the impacts of different model parameters on heavy precipitation. The dispersion of skill scores with control run used as “truth” shows that the impacts of the model resolution and domain size on the quantitative precipitation forecast are not less than those of perturbed physics and initial field uncertainties in these not intentionally selected heavy precipitation cases. The result indicates that model resolution and domain size should be considered as part of probabilistic precipitation forecasts and ensemble prediction system design besides the model initial field uncertainty. Xingbao Wang, Peter Steinle, Alan Seed, and Yi Xiao Copyright © 2016 Xingbao Wang et al. All rights reserved. Time-Series Mapping of PM10 Concentration Using Multi-Gaussian Space-Time Kriging: A Case Study in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea Wed, 13 Jan 2016 13:11:40 +0000 This paper presents space-time kriging within a multi-Gaussian framework for time-series mapping of particulate matter less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) concentration. To account for the spatiotemporal autocorrelation structures of monitoring data and to model the uncertainties attached to the prediction, conventional multi-Gaussian kriging is extended to the space-time domain. Multi-Gaussian space-time kriging presented in this paper is based on decomposition of the PM10 concentrations into deterministic trend and stochastic residual components. The deterministic trend component is modelled and regionalized using the temporal elementary functions. For the residual component which is the main target for space-time kriging, spatiotemporal autocorrelation information is modeled and used for space-time mapping of the residual. The conditional cumulative distribution functions (ccdfs) are constructed by using the trend and residual components and space-time kriging variance. Then, the PM10 concentration estimate and conditional variance are empirically obtained from the ccdfs at all locations in the study area. A case study using the monthly PM10 concentrations from 2007 to 2011 in the Seoul metropolitan area, Korea, illustrates the applicability of the presented method. The presented method generated time-series PM10 concentration mapping results as well as supporting information for interpretations, and led to better prediction performance, compared to conventional spatial kriging. No-Wook Park Copyright © 2016 No-Wook Park. All rights reserved. Atmospheric Contributors to Heavy Rainfall Events in the Arkansas-Red River Basin Wed, 13 Jan 2016 07:08:41 +0000 This study analyzed the top 1% 24-hour rainfall events from 1994 to 2013 at eight climatological sites that represent the east to west precipitation gradient across the Arkansas-Red River Basin in North America. A total of 131 cases were identified and subsequently classified on the synoptic-scale, mesoscale, and local-scale to compile a climatological analysis of these extreme, heavy rainfall events based on atmospheric forcings. For each location, the prominent midtropospheric pattern, mesoscale feature, and predetermined thermodynamic variables were used to classify each 1% rainfall event. Individual events were then compared with other cases throughout the basin. The most profound results were that the magnitudes of the thermodynamic variables such as convective available potential energy and precipitable water values were poor predictors of the amount of rainfall produced in these extreme events. Further, the mesoscale forcings had more of an impact during the warm season and for the westernmost locations, whereas synoptic forcings were extremely prevalent during the cold season at the easternmost locations in the basin. The implications of this research are aimed at improving the forecasting of heavy precipitation at individual weather forecasts offices within the basin through the identified patterns at various scales. Taylor A. McCorkle, Skylar S. Williams, Timothy A. Pfeiffer, and Jeffrey B. Basara Copyright © 2016 Taylor A. McCorkle et al. All rights reserved. A Simple Tool to Identify Representative Wind Sites for Air Pollution Modelling Applications Tue, 12 Jan 2016 12:18:51 +0000 This paper investigates the use of the Site-Optimized Semiempirical (SOSE) air pollution model to identify the surface wind measurement site characteristics that yield the best air pollution predictions for urban locations. It compares the modelling results from twelve meteorological sites with varying anemometer heights, located at different distances from the air pollution measurements and exhibiting different land use characteristics. The results show that the index of agreement (IA) between observed and predicted concentrations can be improved from 0.4 to 0.8 by using the most compared to the least representative wind data as input to the air pollution model. Although improvements can be achieved using wind data from a site closer to the air quality monitoring site, choosing the closest wind site does not necessarily yield the best results, especially if the meteorological station is located in a region of complex land use. In addition, both the height of the anemometer and the openness of the terrain surrounding the anemometer were found to be equally important in obtaining good model predictions. The simple SOSE model can therefore be used to complement regulatory meteorological guidelines by providing a quantitative assessment of wind site representativeness for air quality applications in complex urban environments. M. A. Elangasinghe, K. N. Dirks, N. Singhal, J. A. Salmond, I. Longley, and V. I. Dirks Copyright © 2016 M. A. Elangasinghe et al. All rights reserved. Boundary-Layer Characteristics of Persistent Regional Haze Events and Heavy Haze Days in Eastern China Tue, 12 Jan 2016 09:23:56 +0000 This paper analyzed the surface conditions and boundary-layer climate of regional haze events and heavy haze in southern Jiangsu Province in China. There are 5 types with the surface conditions which are equalized pressure (EQP), the advancing edge of a cold front (ACF), the base of high pressure (BOH), the backside of high pressure (BAH), the inverted trough of low pressure (INT), and saddle pressure (SAP) with the haze days. At that time, 4 types are divided with the regional haze events and each of which has a different boundary-layer structure. During heavy haze, the surface mainly experiences EQP, ACF, BOH, BAH, and INT which also have different boundary-layer structures. Peng Huaqing, Liu Duanyang, Zhou Bin, Su Yan, Wu Jiamei, Shen Hao, Wei Jiansu, and Cao Lu Copyright © 2016 Peng Huaqing et al. All rights reserved. Hydrometeorological Observation and Study in High Altitude Area Tue, 12 Jan 2016 08:54:36 +0000 Yongjian Ding, Shiqiang Zhang, Fengjing Liu, Daqing Yang, Chansheng He, and Svetlana Stuefer Copyright © 2016 Yongjian Ding et al. All rights reserved. Terrain Segmentation of Greece Using the Spatial and Seasonal Variation of Reference Crop Evapotranspiration Mon, 11 Jan 2016 12:29:32 +0000 The study presents a combination of techniques for integrated analysis of reference crop evapotranspiration () in GIS environment. The analysis is performed for Greece and includes the use of (a) ASCE-standardized Penman-Monteith method for the estimation of 50-year mean monthly , (b) cross-correlation and principal components analysis for the analysis of the spatiotemporal variability of , (c) -means clustering for terrain segmentation to regions with similar temporal variability of , and (d) general linear models for the description of based on clusters attributes. Cross-correlation revealed a negative correlation of with both elevation and latitude and a week positive correlation with longitude. The correlation between and elevation was maximized during the warm season, while the correlation with latitude was maximized during winter. The first two principal components accounted for the 97.9% of total variance of mean monthly . -means segmented Greece to 11 regions/clusters. The categorical factor of cluster number together with the parameters of elevation, latitude, and longitude described satisfactorily the through general linear models verifying the robustness of the cluster analysis. This research effort can contribute to hydroclimatic studies and to environmental decision support in relation to water resources management in agriculture. Vassilis Aschonitis, George Miliaresis, Kleoniki Demertzi, and Dimitris Papamichail Copyright © 2016 Vassilis Aschonitis et al. All rights reserved. Detection of Abrupt Changes in Runoff in the Weihe River Basin Mon, 11 Jan 2016 07:17:01 +0000 Climate change and human activities are two major driving factors for variations in hydrological patterns globally, and it is of significant importance to distinguish their effects on the change of hydrological regime in order to formulate robust water management strategies. Hilbert-Huang transform-based time-frequency analysis is employed in this study to detect abrupt changes and periods of the runoff at five hydrological stations in the Weihe River Basin, China, from 1951 to 2010. The key part of the method is the empirical decomposition mode with which any complicated data set can be decomposed into small number of intrinsic mode functions that admit well adaptive Hilbert transforms. Moreover, an attempt has been made to find out the specific reason for the abrupt point at the five hydrological stations in the Weihe River Basin. The results are presented as follows: (1) annual runoff significantly declined in the basin in intervals of 8~15 years; (2) abrupt changes occurred in 1971, 1982, and 1994 at Huaxian, 1972 and 1982 at Xianyang, 1992 at Zhangjiashan, 1990 at Zhuangtou, and 1984 at Beidao; (3) changes were more frequent and complex in the mainstream and downstream reaches than in tributaries and upstream reaches, respectively. Yanling Li, Jianxia Chang, Zhiliang Wang, and Huiling Li Copyright © 2016 Yanling Li et al. All rights reserved. The Effects of Climate and Anthropogenic Activity on Hydrologic Features in Yanhe River Sun, 10 Jan 2016 14:04:50 +0000 This paper aims to analyze the effects of precipitation and anthropogenic activity on hydrologic features in Yanhe River so as to provide support for regional water management and evaluation of water and soil conservation measures. Thiessen Polygon was created to calculate mean values of watershed, and Mann-Kendall statistic test and Sen’s slop estimator test were adapted to analyze variation trend and interaction between precipitation, runoff, and sediment discharge. When 1961~1970 was set as reference period (ignoring human effects), the double mass curve quantified the effects of precipitation and anthropogenic activity on runoff and sediment discharge in Yanhe River during 1961~2008. The result showed that the monthly distribution of precipitation, runoff, and sediment discharge was extremely uneven. 78.1% of precipitation, 64.1% of runoff, and 98.6% of sediment discharge occurred in the flood season. Precipitation, runoff, and sediment discharge performed significant downward trends during 1961–2008. Therein, anthropogenic factors contributed 66.7% and 51.1% to sediment discharge reduction during 1971–1994 and 1995–2008, respectively. They contributed 103.8% and 82.9% to runoff reduction during these two periods, respectively. Yang Cheng, Hongming He, Nannan Cheng, and Wenming He Copyright © 2016 Yang Cheng et al. All rights reserved. Evolution of Hydrological Drought in Human Disturbed Areas: A Case Study in the Laohahe Catchment, Northern China Sun, 10 Jan 2016 13:30:31 +0000 A case study on the evolution of hydrological drought in nonstationary environments is conducted over the Laohahe catchment in northern China. Using hydrometeorological observations during 1964–2009, meteorological and hydrological droughts are firstly analyzed with the threshold level method. Then, a comprehensive analysis on the changes within the catchment is conducted on the basis of hydrological variables and socioeconomic indices, and the whole period is divided into two parts: the undisturbed period (1964–1979) and the disturbed period (1980–2009). A separating framework is further introduced to distinguish droughts induced by different causes, that is, the naturalized drought and human-induced drought. Results showed that human activities are more inclined to play a negative role in aggravating droughts. Drought duration and deficit volume in naturalized conditions are amplified two to four times and three to eight times, respectively, when human activities are involved. For the two dry decades 1980s and 2000s, human activities have caused several consecutive drought events with rather long durations (up to 29 months). These results reflect the considerable impacts of human activities on hydrological drought, which could provide some theoretical support for local drought mitigation and water resources management. Yi Liu, Liliang Ren, Ye Zhu, Xiaoli Yang, Fei Yuan, Shanhu Jiang, and Mingwei Ma Copyright © 2016 Yi Liu et al. All rights reserved. Large-Scale Dynamics, Anomalous Flows, and Teleconnections 2015 Sun, 10 Jan 2016 06:52:55 +0000 Anthony R. Lupo, Stephen J. Colucci, Igor I. Mokhov, and Yafei Wang Copyright © 2016 Anthony R. Lupo et al. All rights reserved. Impacts of Wind Stress Changes on the Global Heat Transport, Baroclinic Instability, and the Thermohaline Circulation Wed, 06 Jan 2016 07:40:23 +0000 The wind stress is a measure of momentum transfer due to the relative motion between the atmosphere and the ocean. This study aims to investigate the anomalous pattern of atmospheric and oceanic circulations due to 50% increase in the wind stress over the equatorial region and the Southern Ocean. In this paper we use a coupled climate model of intermediate complexity (SPEEDO). The results show that the intensification of equatorial wind stress causes a decrease in sea surface temperature in the tropical region due to increased upwelling and evaporative cooling. On the other hand, the intensification of wind stress over the Southern Ocean induces a regional increase in the air and sea surface temperatures which in turn leads to a reduction in Antarctic sea ice thickness. This occurs in association with changes in the global thermohaline circulation strengthening the rate of Antarctic Bottom Water formation and a weakening of the North Atlantic Deep Water. Moreover, changes in the Southern Hemisphere thermal gradient lead to modified atmospheric and oceanic heat transports reducing the storm tracks and baroclinic activity. Jeferson Prietsch Machado, Flavio Justino, and Luciano Ponzi Pezzi Copyright © 2016 Jeferson Prietsch Machado et al. All rights reserved.