Advances in Meteorology The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. An Integrated Model for Simulating Regional Water Resources Based on Total Evapotranspiration Control Approach Mon, 14 Jul 2014 12:00:08 +0000 Total evapotranspiration and water consumption (ET) control is considered an efficient method for water management. In this study, we developed a water allocation and simulation (WAS) model, which can simulate the water cycle and output different ET values for natural and artificial water use, such as crop evapotranspiration, grass evapotranspiration, forest evapotranspiration, living water consumption, and industry water consumption. In the calibration and validation periods, a “piece-by-piece” approach was used to evaluate the model from runoff to ET data, including the remote sensing ET data and regional measured ET data, which differ from the data from the traditional hydrology method. We applied the model to Tianjin City, China. The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (Ens) of the runoff simulation was 0.82, and its regression coefficient was 0.92. The Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (Ens) of regional total ET simulation was 0.93, and its regression coefficient was 0.98. These results demonstrate that ET of irrigation lands is the dominant part, which accounts for 53% of the total ET. The latter is also a priority in ET control for water management. Jianhua Wang, Xuefeng Sang, Zhengli Zhai, Yang Liu, and Zuhao Zhou Copyright © 2014 Jianhua Wang et al. All rights reserved. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Precipitation in Haihe River Basin, China: Characterization and Management Implications Mon, 14 Jul 2014 08:26:50 +0000 Data analysis and characterization of precipitation in the Haihe River Basin (HRB) of China are required for management practices for the purpose of flood water control and utilization. In the companion paper, we presented precipitation data in the HRB during 1951–2010 and reported its basic statistics such as temporal trend and spatial variability. In this study, spatiotemporal variability on the precipitation was further investigated comprehensively for the underlying physics and the implication to water resource management. During the summer flood season of the study area, basin-wide precipitation was negatively correlated to average NINO3.4 index. Spatially, summer precipitation was correlated with gridded sea surface temperature (SST) observed in the eastern tropic Pacific Ocean and the western tropic Indian Ocean. SST in two representative areas was identified as potential predictors for precipitation in the HRB. No spatial or temporal correlations were confirmed between precipitation and soil moisture as annual averages in the study area. Copula analysis suggested about 40% possibility in a year with a potential for cross-watershed water diversion within HRB. Yuzhou Luo, Zhonggen Wang, Xiaomang Liu, and Minghua Zhang Copyright © 2014 Yuzhou Luo et al. All rights reserved. Statistical Downscaling of ERA-Interim Forecast Precipitation Data in Complex Terrain Using LASSO Algorithm Thu, 10 Jul 2014 12:01:59 +0000 Precipitation is an essential input parameter for land surface models because it controls a large variety of environmental processes. However, the commonly sparse meteorological networks in complex terrains are unable to provide the information needed for many applications. Therefore, downscaling local precipitation is necessary. To this end, a new machine learning method, LASSO algorithm (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator), is used to address the disparity between ERA-Interim forecast precipitation data (0.25° grid) and point-scale meteorological observations. LASSO was tested and validated against other three downscaling methods, local intensity scaling (LOCI), quantile-mapping (QM), and stepwise regression (Stepwise) at 50 meteorological stations, located in the high mountainous region of the central Alps. The downscaling procedure is implemented in two steps. Firstly, the dry or wet days are classified and the precipitation amounts conditional on the occurrence of wet days are modeled subsequently. Compared to other three downscaling methods, LASSO shows the best performances in precipitation occurrence and precipitation amount prediction on average. Furthermore, LASSO could reduce the error for certain sites, where no improvement could be seen when LOCI and QM were used. This study proves that LASSO is a reasonable alternative to other statistical methods with respect to the downscaling of precipitation data. Lu Gao, Karsten Schulz, and Matthias Bernhardt Copyright © 2014 Lu Gao et al. All rights reserved. Improving Regional Dynamic Downscaling with Multiple Linear Regression Model Using Components Principal Analysis: Precipitation over Amazon and Northeast Brazil Thu, 10 Jul 2014 09:16:10 +0000 In the current context of climate change discussions, predictions of future scenarios of weather and climate are crucial for the generation of information of interest to the global community. Due to the atmosphere being a chaotic system, errors in predictions of future scenarios are systematically observed. Therefore, numerous techniques have been tested in order to generate more reliable predictions, and two techniques have excelled in science: dynamic downscaling, through regional models, and ensemble prediction, combining different outputs of climate models through the arithmetic average, in other words, a postprocessing of the output data species. Thus, this paper proposes a method of postprocessing outputs of regional climate models. This method consists in using the statistical tool multiple linear regression by principal components for combining different simulations obtained by dynamic downscaling with the regional climate model (RegCM4). Tests for the Amazon and Northeast region of Brazil (South America) showed that the method provided a more realistic prediction in terms of average daily rainfall for the analyzed period prescribed, after comparing with the prediction made by set through the arithmetic averages of the simulations. This method photographed the extreme events (outlier) that the prediction by averaging failed. Data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) were used to evaluate the method. Aline Gomes da Silva and Claudio Moises Santos e Silva Copyright © 2014 Aline Gomes da Silva and Claudio Moises Santos e Silva. All rights reserved. Atmospheric Deposition of Inorganic Elements and Organic Compounds at the Inlets of the Venice Lagoon Mon, 07 Jul 2014 10:01:22 +0000 The Venice Lagoon is subjected to long-range transport of contaminants via aerosol from the near Po Valley. Moreover, it is an area with significant local anthropogenic emissions due to the industrial area of Porto Marghera, the urban centres, and the glass factories and with emissions by ships traffic within the Lagoon. Furthermore, since 2005, the Lagoon has also been affected by the construction of the MOSE (Modulo Sperimentale Elettromeccanico—Electromechanical Experimental Module) mobile dams, as a barrier against the high tide. This work presents and discusses the results from chemical analyses of bulk depositions, carried out in different sites of the Venice Lagoon. Fluxes of pollutants were also statistically analysed on PCA with the aim of investigating the spatial variability of depositions and their correlation with precipitations. Fluxes of inorganic pollutants depend differently on precipitations, while organic compounds show a more seasonal trend. The statistical analysis showed that the site in the northern Lagoon has lower and almost homogeneous fluxes of pollutants, while the other sites registered more variable concentrations. The study also provided important information about the annual trend of pollutants and their evolution over a period of about five years, from 2005 to 2010. E. Morabito, D. Contini, F. Belosi, A. M. Stortini, L. Manodori, and A. Gambaro Copyright © 2014 E. Morabito et al. All rights reserved. Air Pollution, Air Quality, and Climate Change Sun, 06 Jul 2014 11:59:34 +0000 Sachin D. Ghude, Pavan S. Kulkarni, D. M. Chate, Mrinal Biswas, Samir Pokhrel, and Anne Boynard Copyright © 2014 Sachin D. Ghude et al. All rights reserved. Meteorological Influences on Seasonal Variation of Fine Particulate Matter in Cities over Southern Ontario, Canada Sun, 06 Jul 2014 08:49:41 +0000 This study examines meteorological impacts on seasonal variation of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in southern Ontario, Canada. After analyzing PM2.5 data at 12 cities in the region in 2006, we found that PM2.5 concentrations were 30–40% higher in summer (7–15 μg/m3) than in winter (4–11 μg/m3). High PM2.5 episodes occurred more frequently in warmer seasons. Analyses of surface meteorology, weather maps, and airflow trajectories suggest that these PM2.5 episodes were often related to synoptic transport of pollutants from highly polluted areas in the United States. The southerly or southwesterly winds associated with midlatitude cyclones play an important role in such transport. A typical weather pattern favoring the transport is suggested. When it was hot, humid, and stagnant with southerly or southwesterly winds, the likelihood of high PM2.5 occurrences was high. The Greater Golden Horseshoe and Southwestern Ontario regions had higher PM2.5 (6–12 μg/m3 annually) than the northern region (4–6 μg/m3), reflecting combined effects of meteorology, regional transport, and local emissions. In the future, PM2.5 transport from the United States will likely increase in abundance because of possible prolonged accumulation at the pollution sources as the frequency of the midlatitude cyclones may reduce under climate change. Jane Liu and Siliang Cui Copyright © 2014 Jane Liu and Siliang Cui. All rights reserved. Climate Change Impact on Photovoltaic Energy Output: The Case of Greece Wed, 02 Jul 2014 10:08:09 +0000 Solar power is the third major renewable energy, constituting an increasingly important component of global future—low carbon—energy portfolio. Accurate climate information is essential for the conditions of solar energy production, maximization, and stable regulation and planning. Climate change impacts on energy output projections are thus of crucial importance. In this study the effect of projected changes in irradiance and temperature on the performance of photovoltaic systems in Greece is examined. Climate projections were obtained from 5 regional climate models (RCMs) under the A1B emissions scenario, for two future periods. The RCM data present systematic errors against observed values, resulting in the need of bias adjustment. The projected change in photovoltaic energy output was then estimated, considering changes in temperature and insolation. The spatiotemporal analysis indicates significant increase in mean annual temperature (up to 3.5°C) and mean total radiation (up to 5 W/m2) by 2100. The performance of photovoltaic systems exhibits a negative linear dependence on the projected temperature increase which is outweighed by the expected increase of total radiation resulting in an up to 4% increase in energy output. Ioanna S. Panagea, Ioannis K. Tsanis, Aristeidis G. Koutroulis, and Manolis G. Grillakis Copyright © 2014 Ioanna S. Panagea et al. All rights reserved. Atmospheric Deposition: Sampling Procedures, Analytical Methods, and Main Recent Findings from the Scientific Literature Thu, 19 Jun 2014 16:12:02 +0000 The atmosphere is a carrier on which some natural and anthropogenic organic and inorganic chemicals are transported, and the wet and dry deposition events are the most important processes that remove those chemicals, depositing it on soil and water. A wide variety of different collectors were tested to evaluate site-specificity, seasonality and daily variability of settleable particle concentrations. Deposition fluxes of POPs showed spatial and seasonal variations, diagnostic ratios of PAHs on deposited particles, allowed the discrimination between pyrolytic or petrogenic sources. Congener pattern analysis and bulk deposition fluxes in rural sites confirmed long-range atmospheric transport of PCDDs/Fs. More and more sophisticated and newly designed deposition samplers have being used for characterization of deposited mercury, demonstrating the importance of rain scavenging and the relatively higher magnitude of Hg deposition from Chinese anthropogenic sources. Recently biological monitors demonstrated that PAH concentrations in lichens were comparable with concentrations measured in a conventional active sampler in an outdoor environment. In this review the authors explore the methodological approaches used for the assessment of atmospheric deposition, from the analysis of the sampling methods, the analytical procedures for chemical characterization of pollutants and the main results from the scientific literature. M. Amodio, S. Catino, P. R. Dambruoso, G. de Gennaro, A. Di Gilio, P. Giungato, E. Laiola, A. Marzocca, A. Mazzone, A. Sardaro, and M. Tutino Copyright © 2014 M. Amodio et al. All rights reserved. Seasonal Prediction of Surface Air Temperature across Vietnam Using the Regional Climate Model Version 4.2 (RegCM4.2) Wed, 18 Jun 2014 13:00:16 +0000 To investigate the ability of dynamical seasonal climate predictions for Vietnam, the RegCM4.2 is employed to perform seasonal prediction of 2 m mean (T2m), maximum (Tx), and minimum (Tn) air temperature for the period from January 2012 to November 2013 by downscaling the NCEP Climate Forecast System (CFS) data. For model bias correction, the model and observed climatology is constructed using the CFS reanalysis and observed temperatures over Vietnam for the period 1980–2010, respectively. The RegCM4.2 forecast is run four times per month from the current month up to the next six months. A model ensemble prediction initialized from the current month is computed from the mean of the four runs within the month. The results showed that, without any bias correction (CTL), the RegCM4.2 forecast has very little or no skill in both tercile and value predictions. With bias correction (BAS), model predictions show improved skill. The experiment in which the results from the BAS experiment are further successively adjusted (SUC) with model bias at one-month lead time of the previous run showed further improvement compared to CTL and BAS. Skill scores of the tercile probability forecasts were found to exceed 0.3 for most of the target months. Tan Phan Van, Hiep Van Nguyen, Long Trinh Tuan, Trung Nguyen Quang, Thanh Ngo-Duc, Patrick Laux, and Thanh Nguyen Xuan Copyright © 2014 Tan Phan Van et al. All rights reserved. Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of Meteorological Drought in Shandong Province, China, from 1961 to 2008 Sun, 15 Jun 2014 05:08:13 +0000 Shandong province is located in the northern part of China and tends to be a drought-prone region. This study is dedicated to making a comprehensive and quantitative analysis of the spatial patterns of drought frequency and its climate trend coefficient, drought grades, and temporal characteristics of drought coverage area, drought duration, and drought intensity from 1961 to 2008 by using the meteorological drought composite index (CI). The results indicated that the occurrence frequency of meteorological drought in Shandong province was generally high and some part of this region such as Jiaodong peninsula had suffered drought pressure with an evident ascending trend. The drought extent and influence were very severe in 1980s and 1990s but very slight in 1964; large-area drought mainly occurred after the 1970s and the yearly and seasonally interdecadal drought duration both showed a fluctuation of 10a periodic cycle approximately. Furthermore, the slight drought mainly appeared in the northwest and southwest while the other grades of drought exhibited much significant spatial and temporal variability. Besides, drought in spring was more serious than that in winter. This study is anticipated to support the mitigation of drought hazards and to improve the management practices of environment system in Shandong province. Xiaoli Wang, Xiyong Hou, Zhi Li, and Yuandong Wang Copyright © 2014 Xiaoli Wang et al. All rights reserved. A Probabilistic Rain Diagnostic Model Based on Cyclone Statistical Analysis Wed, 11 Jun 2014 11:48:03 +0000 Data from a dense network of 69 daily precipitation gauges over the island of Crete and cyclone climatological analysis over middle-eastern Mediterranean are combined in a statistical approach to develop a rain diagnostic model. Regarding the dataset, 0.5 × 0.5, 33-year (1979–2011) European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis (ERA-Interim) is used. The cyclone tracks and their characteristics are identified with the aid of Melbourne University algorithm (MS scheme). The region of interest is divided into a grid mesh and for each grid the probability of rain occurrence from passing cyclones is estimated. Such probability maps are estimated for three rain intensity categories. The probability maps are evaluated for random partitions of the data as well as for selected rain periods. Cyclones passing south of Italy are found to have greater probability of producing light rain events in Crete in contrast to medium and heavy rain events which are mostly triggered by cyclones of southern trajectories. The performance of the probability maps is very satisfactory, recognizing the majority of “affecting” cyclones and rejecting most cyclones that do not trigger rain events. Statistical measures of sensitivity and specificity range between 0.5 and 0.8 resulting in effective forecasting potential. V. Iordanidou, A. G. Koutroulis, and I. K. Tsanis Copyright © 2014 V. Iordanidou et al. All rights reserved. The Review of GRACE Data Applications in Terrestrial Hydrology Monitoring Thu, 05 Jun 2014 10:56:09 +0000 The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite provides a new method for terrestrial hydrology research, which can be used for improving the monitoring result of the spatial and temporal changes of water cycle at large scale quickly. The paper presents a review of recent applications of GRACE data in terrestrial hydrology monitoring. Firstly, the scientific GRACE dataset is briefly introduced. Recently main applications of GRACE data in terrestrial hydrological monitoring at large scale, including terrestrial water storage change evaluation, hydrological components of groundwater and evapotranspiration (ET) retrieving, droughts analysis, and glacier response of global change, are described. Both advantages and limitations of GRACE data applications are then discussed. Recommendations for further research of the terrestrial water monitoring based on GRACE data are also proposed. Dong Jiang, Jianhua Wang, Yaohuan Huang, Kang Zhou, Xiangyi Ding, and Jingying Fu Copyright © 2014 Dong Jiang et al. All rights reserved. Earth Observations and Societal Impacts Thu, 05 Jun 2014 07:50:13 +0000 Yuei-An Liou, Chung-Ru Ho, Yuriy Kuleshov, and Jean-Pierre Barriot Copyright © 2014 Yuei-An Liou et al. All rights reserved. Impact of a Detailed Urban Parameterization on Modeling the Urban Heat Island in Beijing Using TEB-RAMS Thu, 05 Jun 2014 07:16:20 +0000 The Town Energy Budget (TEB) model coupled with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) is applied to simulate the Urban Heat Island (UHI) phenomenon in the metropolitan area of Beijing. This new model with complex and detailed surface conditions, called TEB-RAMS, is from Colorado State University (CSU) and the ASTER division of Mission Research Corporation. The spatial-temporal distributions of daily mean 2 m air temperature are simulated by TEB-RAMS during the period from 0000 UTC 01 to 0000 UTC 02 July 2003 over the area of 116°E~116.8°E, 39.6°N~40.2°N in Beijing. The TEB-RAMS was run with four levels of two-way nested grids, and the finest grid is at 1 km grid increment. An Anthropogenic Heat (AH) source is introduced into TEB-RAMS. A comparison between the Land Ecosystem-Atmosphere Feedback model (LEAF) and the detailed TEB parameterization scheme is presented. The daily variations and spatial distribution of the 2 m air temperature agree well with the observations of the Beijing area. The daily mean 2 m air temperature simulated by TEB-RAMS with the AH source is 0.6 K higher than that without specifying TEB and AH over the metropolitan area of Beijing. The presence of urban underlying surfaces plays an important role in the UHI formation. The geometric morphology of an urban area characterized by road, roof, and wall also seems to have notable effects on the UHI intensity. Furthermore, the land-use dataset from USGS is replaced in the model by a new land-use map for the year 2010 which is produced by the Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth (RADI), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). The simulated regional mean 2 m air temperature is 0.68 K higher from 01 to 02 July 2003 with the new land cover map. Lei Jiang, Lixin Lu, Lingmei Jiang, Yuanyuan Qi, and Aqiang Yang Copyright © 2014 Lei Jiang et al. All rights reserved. Forest Phenology Dynamics and Its Responses to Meteorological Variations in Northeast China Wed, 04 Jun 2014 07:18:32 +0000 Based on time series of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) data (2000–2009), we extracted forest phenological variables in Northeast China using a threshold-based method, which included the start of the growing season (SOS), end of the growing season (EOS), and length of the growing season (LOS). The spatial variation of phenological trends was analyzed using the linear regression method. In Northeast China, SOS was delayed at the rate of <1.5 days per year. The delay trend of EOS was well distributed in the entire region with almost the same rates. LOS increased slightly. The analysis of the relationship between forest phenology and meteorological variations shows that SOS was mainly affected by spring temperature, whereas SOS had a negative relationship with precipitation in the warm-temperate deciduous broadleaf forest region. The EOS in temperate steppe region was affected by temperature and precipitation in August, whereas the others were significantly affected by temperature. Because of the increased temperature in spring, the LOS of the temperate steppe region and temperate mixed forest region increased, and the LOS was positively correlated with the mean temperature of summer in the cool-temperate needleleaf forest region. Xinfang Yu, Qiankun Wang, Huimin Yan, Yong Wang, Kege Wen, Dafang Zhuang, and Qiao Wang Copyright © 2014 Xinfang Yu et al. All rights reserved. Correlation of Dry Deposition Velocity and Friction Velocity over Different Surfaces for PM2.5 and Particle Number Concentrations Sun, 01 Jun 2014 11:16:48 +0000 Dry deposition of particles is an important way of aerosol removal from the atmosphere and a key process in surface-atmosphere exchanges. The deposition velocities, Vd, are often parameterised in air quality and climate modelling as function of the friction velocity, , atmospheric stability, and particle size (if size-segregated information is available). In this work, a study of the correlation between Vd and over different surfaces is presented for both PM2.5 and particle number fluxes. Results indicate an almost linear increase of Vd with with slopes similar for PM2.5 fluxes and particle number fluxes over the different surfaces analysed. This means that the ratios Vd/ tend to collapse over similar values even if Vd and are significantly different because take into account most of the surface effects. There is a limited difference between stable cases and unstable/neutral cases with slightly lower deposition velocities in stable cases for fixed values of . The average value of Vd/ is 0.010 ± 0.0017 (median 0.0062 ± 0.0015) (considering all stabilities) and 0.0097 ± 0.002 (median 0.005 ± 0.001) for stable cases. This could be the base for an empirical parameterisation of deposition velocities in air quality models. Antonio Donateo and Daniele Contini Copyright © 2014 Antonio Donateo and Daniele Contini. All rights reserved. Climate Projections for South America: RegCM3 Driven by HadCM3 and ECHAM5 Thu, 29 May 2014 12:59:51 +0000 This study shows climate projections of air temperature and precipitation over South America (SA) from the Regional Climate Model version 3 (RegCM3) nested in ECHAM5 and HadCM3 global models. The projections consider the A1B scenario from Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and three time-slices: present (1960–1990), near- (2010–2040), and far-future (2070–2100) climates. In the future, RegCM3 projections indicate general warming throughout all SA and seasons, which is more pronounced in the far-future period. In this late period the RegCM3 projections indicate that the negative trend of precipitation over northern SA is also higher. In addition, a precipitation increase over southeastern SA is projected, mainly during summer and spring. The lifecycle of the South American monsoon (SAM) was also investigated in the present and future climates. In the near-future, the projections show a slight delay (one pentad) of the beginning of the rainy season, resulting in a small reduction of the SAM length. In the far-future, there is no agreement between projections related to the SAM features. Michelle Simões Reboita, Rosmeri Porfírio da Rocha, Cássia Gabriele Dias, and Rita Yuri Ynoue Copyright © 2014 Michelle Simões Reboita et al. All rights reserved. Carbonaceous Particles in the Atmosphere: Experimental and Modelling Issues Mon, 26 May 2014 13:39:43 +0000 Giulia Pavese, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, Junji Cao, and S. K. Satheesh Copyright © 2014 Giulia Pavese et al. All rights reserved. The Impact of Urbanization on the Annual Average Temperature of the Past 60 Years in Beijing Wed, 21 May 2014 08:59:20 +0000 Global warming, which is representatively caused by CO2-based greenhouse gases, has caused widespread concern in the global scientific community and gets the high attention of each government in the world. Human activities impact climate change through greenhouse gas emissions and land use changes. The current study on the impact of urbanization on the annual average temperature of the recent 60 years in Beijing was conducted using 1951–2012 temperature data. Anomaly analysis, quadratic polynomial trend method, and moving average method were employed to indicate the temporal variation of temperature. The results showed that average temperature increased both in urban and rural areas. The temperature of urban Beijing increased during the period from 1951 to 2012, especially from 1971 to 1994. The temperature of rural Beijing showed a faster increase than that of the urban area from 1989 to 1998. However, the rate of temperature increase slowed down in recent years. This type of change was temporally consistent with the process of land use change and urbanization in Beijing. Economic restructuring and improvement of urban planning may have been one of the reasons that the regional warming has been slowed down in the rural area. Yong Wang, Wei Ji, Xinfang Yu, Xinliang Xu, Dong Jiang, Zhangang Wang, and Dafang Zhuang Copyright © 2014 Yong Wang et al. All rights reserved. A System Dynamics Approach to Modeling Future Climate Scenarios: Quantifying and Projecting Patterns of Evapotranspiration and Precipitation in the Salton Sea Watershed Mon, 19 May 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The need for improved quantitative precipitation forecasts and realistic assessments of the regional impacts of natural climate variability and climate change has generated increased interest in regional (i.e., systems-scale) climate simulation. The Salton Sea Stochastic Simulation Model (S4M) was developed to assist planners and residents of the Salton Sea (SS) transboundary watershed (USA and Mexico) in making sound policy decisions regarding complex water-related issues. In order to develop the S4M with a higher degree of climate forecasting resolution, an in-depth analysis was conducted regarding precipitation and evapotranspiration for the semiarid region of the watershed. Weather station data were compiled for both precipitation and evapotranspiration from 1980 to 2004. Several logistic regression models were developed for determining the relationships among precipitation events, that is, duration and volume, and evapotranspiration levels. These data were then used to develop a stochastic weather generator for S4M. Analyses revealed that the cumulative effects and changes of ±10 percent in SS inflows can have significant effects on sea elevation and salinity. The aforementioned technique maintains the relationships between the historic frequency distributions of both precipitation and evapotranspiration, and not as separate unconnected and constrained variables. Michael E. Kjelland, Todd M. Swannack, and William E. Grant Copyright © 2014 Michael E. Kjelland et al. All rights reserved. The Influence of Precipitation and Consecutive Dry Days on Burned Areas in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China Sun, 18 May 2014 09:03:29 +0000 Precipitation is among the more limiting meteorological factors affecting the occurrence and extent of forest fire. We examined the correlation between burned area of individual wildfires and the rainfall amounts occurring on the day of the burn and the number of consecutive dry days for a range of limiting daily rainfall amounts (0–6mm) used to define a “dry” day. Daily threshold rainfall levels that most significantly affected area burned were determined for each ecoregion in Yunnan province, a major fire-prone area, in southwestern China. Results showed that the burned area of a wildfire decreased exponentially with increasing rainfall amounts on the day of burning. Burned area was also positively correlated to the number of consecutive dry days prior to burning. The threshold rainfall value providing the highest correlation between burned area and the number of consecutive dry days prior to a burn varied between ecoregions. Consecutive dry days with rainfall less than the specified threshold predominantly affected large fires (>100 ha) rather than more frequently occurring small fires. These results will help forest managers evaluate regionalfire danger indices for forest fire prevention, particularly for catastrophic forest wildfires causing significant economic losses and threats to human life and environment. Feng Chen, Zhaofei Fan, Shukui Niu, and Jingming Zheng Copyright © 2014 Feng Chen et al. All rights reserved. Ensemble Hydrometeorological Forecasts Using WRF Hourly QPF and TopModel for a Middle Watershed Wed, 14 May 2014 05:55:58 +0000 Quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs) were obtained from ensembles of the weather and research forecasting (WRF) model for the Iguaçu river watershed (IRW) in southern Brazil. Thirty-two rainfall events between 2005 and 2010 were simulated with ten configurations of WRF. These rainfall events range from local to synoptic scale convection and caused a significant increase in the level of the Iguaçu river. In the average, the ensembles yielded up to 20% better skill than single WRF forecasts for the events analyzed. WRF ensembles also allow estimating the predictability through the dispersion of the forecasts providing relevant information for decision-making. Phase errors of ensemble forecasts are larger than amplitude errors. More complex microphysics parameterizations yielded better QPFs with smaller phase errors. QPFs were fed to IRW hydrological model with similar phase and amplitude errors. It is suggested that lagged QPFs might reduce phase errors. Leonardo Calvetti and Augusto José Pereira Filho Copyright © 2014 Leonardo Calvetti and Augusto José Pereira Filho. All rights reserved. Influence of Biomass Burning on Temporal and Diurnal Variations of Acidic Gases, Particulate Nitrate, and Sulfate in a Tropical Urban Atmosphere Tue, 13 May 2014 08:20:44 +0000 The present study investigated the temporal and diurnal distributions of atmospheric acidic gases (sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrous acid (HONO), and nitric acid (HNO3)) and those of particulate nitrate () and sulfate () through a comprehensive field campaign during the largest smoke haze episode in Singapore, a representative country in Southeast Asia (SEA). To identify the atmospheric behavior of these pollutants during the smoke haze period, the data generated from the measurement campaign were divided into three distinct periods: prehaze, during haze, and posthaze periods. The 24 hr average data indicated that ambient SO2, HONO, and HNO3 during the smoke haze episodes increased by a factor ranging from 1.2 to 2.6 compared to those during the prehaze and posthaze periods. Similarly, in the case of particulates and , the factor ranged from 2.3 to 4.2. Backward air trajectories were constructed and used to find the sources of biomass burning to the recurring smoke haze in this region. The air trajectory analysis showed that the smoke haze episodes experienced in Singapore were influenced by transboundary air pollution, caused by severe biomass burning events in the islands of Indonesia. Sailesh N. Behera and Rajasekhar Balasubramanian Copyright © 2014 Sailesh N. Behera and Rajasekhar Balasubramanian. All rights reserved. Meteorological and Back Trajectory Modeling for the Rocky Mountain Atmospheric Nitrogen and Sulfur Study II Thu, 08 May 2014 14:45:56 +0000 The Rocky Mountain Atmospheric Nitrogen and Sulfur (RoMANS II) study with field operations during November 2008 through November 2009 was designed to evaluate the composition and sources of reactive nitrogen in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA. As part of RoMANS II, a mesoscale meteorological model was utilized to provide input for back trajectory and chemical transport models. Evaluation of the model's ability to capture important transport patterns in this region of complex terrain is discussed. Previous source-receptor studies of nitrogen in this region are also reviewed. Finally, results of several back trajectory analyses for RoMANS II are presented. The trajectory mass balance (TrMB) model, a receptor-based linear regression technique, was used to estimate mean source attributions of airborne ammonia concentrations during RoMANS II. Though ammonia concentrations are usually higher when there is transport from the east, the TrMB model estimates that, on average, areas to the west contribute a larger mean fraction of the ammonia. Possible reasons for this are discussed and include the greater frequency of westerly versus easterly winds, the possibility that ammonia is transported long distances as ammonium nitrate, and the difficulty of correctly modeling the transport winds in this area. Kristi A. Gebhart, William C. Malm, Marco A. Rodriguez, Michael G. Barna, Bret A. Schichtel, Katherine B. Benedict, Jeffrey L. Collett Jr., and Christian M. Carrico Copyright © 2014 Kristi A. Gebhart et al. All rights reserved. Improving Carbon Mitigation Potential through Grassland Ecosystem Restoration under Climatic Change in Northeastern Tibetan Plateau Thu, 08 May 2014 11:29:57 +0000 To protect the water tower’s ecosystem environment and conserve biodiversity, China has been implementing a huge payment program for ecosystem services in the three rivers source region. We explored here the dynamics of grassland degradation and restoration from 1990 to 2012 and its relationships with climate mitigation in the TRSR to provide a definite answer as to the forcing and response of grassland degradation and restoration to climate change. Then we estimated its potential of climate mitigation benefits to address the question of whether ecological restoration could be effective in reversing the decline of ecosystem carbon mitigation service. The trend of average annual temperature and precipitation observed by meteorological stations were approximately increased. Compared before and after 2004, the area of grassland degradation was increased slightly. However, nearly one-third of degraded grassland showed improvement, and the grassland vegetation coverage showed significant increase. Comparing current grassland vegetation coverage with healthy vegetation cover with the same grass type, nearly half of the area still needs to further restore vegetation cover. The grassland degradation resulted in significant carbon emissions, but the restoration to its healthy status has been estimated to be technical mitigation potential. Lin Huang, Xinliang Xu, Quanqin Shao, and Jiyuan Liu Copyright © 2014 Lin Huang et al. All rights reserved. Modeling and Monitoring Terrestrial Primary Production in a Changing Global Environment: Toward a Multiscale Synthesis of Observation and Simulation Wed, 30 Apr 2014 10:02:09 +0000 There is a critical need to monitor and predict terrestrial primary production, the key indicator of ecosystem functioning, in a changing global environment. Here we provide a brief review of three major approaches to monitoring and predicting terrestrial primary production: (1) ground-based field measurements, (2) satellite-based observations, and (3) process-based ecosystem modelling. Much uncertainty exists in the multi-approach estimations of terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) and net primary production (NPP). To improve the capacity of model simulation and prediction, it is essential to evaluate ecosystem models against ground and satellite-based measurements and observations. As a case, we have shown the performance of the dynamic land ecosystem model (DLEM) at various scales from site to region to global. We also discuss how terrestrial primary production might respond to climate change and increasing atmospheric CO2 and uncertainties associated with model and data. Further progress in monitoring and predicting terrestrial primary production requires a multiscale synthesis of observations and model simulations. In the Anthropocene era in which human activity has indeed changed the Earth’s biosphere, therefore, it is essential to incorporate the socioeconomic component into terrestrial ecosystem models for accurately estimating and predicting terrestrial primary production in a changing global environment. Shufen Pan, Hanqin Tian, Shree R. S. Dangal, Zhiyun Ouyang, Bo Tao, Wei Ren, Chaoqun Lu, and Steven Running Copyright © 2014 Shufen Pan et al. All rights reserved. An Eigenpoint Based Multiscale Method for Validating Quantitative Remote Sensing Products Wed, 30 Apr 2014 09:07:16 +0000 This letter first proposes the eigenpoint concept for quantitative remote sensing products (QRSPs) after discussing the eigenhomogeneity and eigenaccuracy for land surface variables. The eigenpoints are located according to the á trous wavelet planes of the QRSP. Based on these concepts, this letter proposes an eigenpoint based multiscale method for validating the QRSPs. The basic idea is that the QRSPs at coarse scales are validated by validating their eigenpoints using the QRSP at fine scale. The QRSP at fine scale is finally validated using observation data at the ground based eigenpoints at instrument scale. The ground based eigenpoints derived from the forecasted QRSP can be used as the observation positions when the satellites pass by the studied area. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is manpower-and time-saving compared with the ideal scanning method and it is satisfying to perform simultaneous observation at these eigenpoints in terms of efficiency and accuracy. Shaohui Chen and Hongbo Su Copyright © 2014 Shaohui Chen and Hongbo Su. All rights reserved. Energy Budget on Various Land Use Areas Using Reanalysis Data in Florida Tue, 29 Apr 2014 13:26:31 +0000 Energy budget is closely related to the hydrological cycle through evapotranspiration (ET) or latent heat. Hence, quantifying the energy budget on different land uses is critical for understanding the water budget and providing useful land use information for decision makers. However, traditional methods, including in situ measurements and model-only approaches, have deficiencies in data availability, and we have still not yet fully realized how well the energy budgets presented in reanalysis data sets. Therefore, in this study, North American regional reanalysis (NARR) data set from 1992 to 2002 were employed to investigate the energy budget on various land uses (lake, wetland, agriculture, forest, and urban) at a regional scale in Florida. The results showed that the lake and urban areas had high values of energy budget, evaporation, and low Bowen ratio, while the wetland areas have the opposite treads because of the lowest evaporation rate. During drought periods, Bowen ratio, surface temperature, and sensible heat were becoming higher than those of normal years conditions. Finally, by comparing with the observed data, we found NARR had better assimilation of precipitation observations and demonstrated the land use effects from the different coefficient of correlation relationships. Chi-Han Cheng, Fidelia Nnadi, and Yuei-An Liou Copyright © 2014 Chi-Han Cheng et al. All rights reserved. Trajectory Calculation as Forecasting Support Tool for Dust Storms Thu, 24 Apr 2014 12:55:26 +0000 In arid and semiarid regions, dust storms are common during windy seasons. Strong wind can blow loose sand from the dry surface. The rising sand and dust is then transported to other places depending on the wind conditions (speed and direction) at different levels of the atmosphere. Considering dust as a moving object in space and time, trajectory calculation then can be used to determine the path it will follow. Trajectory calculation is used as a forecast supporting tool for both operational and research activities. Predefined dust sources can be identified and the trajectories can be precalculated from the Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) forecast. In case of long distance transported dust, the tool should allow the operational forecaster to perform online trajectory calculation. This paper presents a case study for using trajectory calculation based on NWP models as a forecast supporting tool in Oman Meteorological Service during some dust storm events. Case study validation results showed a good agreement between the calculated trajectories and the real transport path of the dust storms and hence trajectory calculation can be used at operational centers for warning purposes. Sultan Al-Yahyai and Yassine Charabi Copyright © 2014 Sultan Al-Yahyai and Yassine Charabi. All rights reserved.