Table 4: Sources of series resistance.

Resistance sourceElectroless NiBias-Assisted LIP Ni
Rs cm2) (%)Rs cm2) (%)

Lateral resistance through the emitter0.1520.60.1520.6
Line resistance along the fingers*0.1120.40.1120.4
Resistance through the base*0.0720.30.0720.3
Spreading resistance**0.5602.20.5602.2
Front contact resistance0.0904.60.1075.5
Rear contact resistance***0.02828.70.0044.1
Total4.936.72.713.0
Total measured from IV4.11.48
Total measured from Rs-PL5.32.9

*[14, 15].
**[16, 17].
***From [18].