Table 3: The properties of IPN PVA/GE hydrogels after three freezing-thawing cycles.

SamplesIPN-1IPN-2IPN-3IPN-4

Gel fraction (%)44 ± 1.3058 ± 1.6067 ± 1.7074 ± 1.90
EDS (%)165 ± 3.50158 ± 3.10149 ± 2.80142 ± 2.40
EWC (%)62 ± 1.9861 ± 1.9260 ± 1.8759 ± 1.82
Stress (MPa)0.25 ± 0.120.43 ± 0.200.64 ± 0.340.67 ± 0.38
Strain (%)25.50 ± 6.4031.85 ± 10.5048.64 ± 14.0068.70 ± 17.50
Elastic modulus (MPa)0.45 ± 0.600.45 ± 0.600.87 ± 1.750.98 ± 2.45
Tensile strength (MPa)0.41 ± 0.070.66 ± 0.120.74 ± 0.160.75 ± 0.18
Solid density ( ) (Mg m−3)1.271.451.471.49