Table 3: Effects of substituting Sc and gp with NS on the ash content of handsheets.

Nanoparticle concentrationc-PAMa
Ash content (%)
A1A2A3

Sc
 2000 ppm16.4921.9921.92
 3000 ppm18.0621.3921.62
 4000 ppm18.1222.1319.77
NS
 3000 ppm17.0419.9623.39
 4500 ppm18.8523.2223.75
 6000 ppm19.9121.1524.01

Nanoparticle concentrationc-PAMb
Ash content (%)
B1B2B3

gp
 100 ppm15.8517.2520.35
 200 ppm17.6717.7421.68
 300 ppm18.9419.0322.32
NS
 400 ppm16.1618.3321.90
 800 ppm17.2617.9820.94
 1200 ppm18.0919.3523.10