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Advances in Materials Science and Engineering
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 574738, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/574738
Research Article

The Effect of Annealing on the Structural and Optical Properties of Titanium Dioxide Films Deposited by Electron Beam Assisted PVD

1Electrical Engineering Department, College of Engineering & Petroleum, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969, Safat 13060, Kuwait
2Kuwait University Nanotechnology Research Facility, College of Engineering & Petroleum, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969, Safat 13060, Kuwait
3Kuwait University Semiconductor Research Facility, College of Engineering & Petroleum, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969, Safat 13060, Kuwait

Received 8 December 2012; Revised 1 April 2013; Accepted 2 April 2013

Academic Editor: Pavel Lejcek

Copyright © 2013 Yaser M. Abdulraheem et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Titanium dioxide thin films were deposited on crystalline silicon substrates by electron beam physical vapor deposition. The deposition was performed under vacuum ranging from 10−5 to 10−6 Torr without process gases, resulting in homogeneous layers with a thickness of around 100 nm. Samples were then annealed at high temperatures ranging from C to C for 4 hours under nitrogen, and their structural and optical properties along with their chemical structure were characterized before and after annealing. The chemical and structural characterization revealed a substoichiometric film with oxygen vacancies, voids, and an interface oxide layer. It was found from X-ray diffraction that the deposited films were amorphous and crystallization to anatase phase occurred for annealed samples and was more pronounced for annealing temperatures above C. The refractive index obtained through spectroscopic ellipsometry ranged between 2.09 and 2.37 in the wavelength range, 900 nm to 400 nm for the as-deposited sample, and jumped to the range between 2.23 and 2.65 for samples annealed at C. The minimum surface reflectance changed from around 0.6% for the as-deposited samples to 2.5% for the samples annealed at C.