Table 1: Summary of the structural and optical properties of TiO2 films characterized by XRD, AFM, SE, and spectrophotometry. Crystallite size for annealed samples calculated through the Scherrer equation. Roughness values for 1 μm × 1 μm AFM scans for TiO2 samples, as deposited and annealed at various temperatures. Layer thickness obtained from the single layer Cauchy model.

SamplePrimary crystallite size (nm)Surface roughness (nm)Layer thickness from SE (nm)Reflectivity %Minimum reflectance wavelength (nm)

TAD0.7396.1 ± 0.20.64758
T50013.40.7487.3 ± 0.10.40706
T60015.10.8886.8 ± 0.10.41712
T70018.70.7788.1 ± 0.10.43718
T80026.62.7479.5 ± 0.12.49744