About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 671481, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/671481
Research Article

Effect of Environmental Degradation on Mechanical Properties of Kenaf/Polyethylene Terephthalate Fiber Reinforced Polyoxymethylene Hybrid Composite

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak, 31750 Tronoh, Malaysia

Received 21 July 2013; Accepted 30 September 2013

Academic Editor: Yousuf El-Shekeil

Copyright © 2013 Mohamad Zaki Abdullah et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. K. Liang, S. Q. Shi, D. D. Nicholas, and L. Sites, “Accelerated weathering test of kenaf fiber unsaturated polyester sheet molding compounds,” Wood and Fiber Science, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 42–48, 2013.
  2. T. Lundin, S. M. Cramer, R. H. Falk, and C. Felton, “Accelerated weathering of natural fiber-filled polyethylene composites,” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 547–555, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. K. Krasowska, J. Brzeska, M. Rutkowska et al., “Environmental degradation of ramie fibre reinforced biocomposites,” Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 937–945, 2010. View at Scopus
  4. A. Mohamed, H. Bhardwaj, A. Hamama, and C. Webber III, “Chemical composition of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed oil,” Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 157–165, 1995. View at Scopus
  5. J. Sahari and S. M. Sapuan, “Natural fibre reinforced biodegradable polymer composites,” Reviews on Advanced Materials Science, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 166–174, 2012. View at Scopus
  6. G. Cristaldi, A. Latteri, G. Recca, and G. Cicala, “Composites based on natural fibre fabrics,” in Woven Fabric Engineering, pp. 317–342, InTech, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. S. Nunna, P. R. Chandra, S. Shrivastava, and A. K. Jalan, “A review on mechanical behavior of natural fiber based hybrid composites,” Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, vol. 31, no. 11, pp. 759–769, 2012.
  8. S. Venkatachalam, S. G. Nayak, J. V. Labde, P. R. Gharal, K. Rao, and A. K. Kelkar, “Polyester,” Degradation and Recyclability of Poly (Ethylene Terephthalate), InTech, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. D. R. Fagerburg and H. Clauberg, “Photodegradation of poly (ethylene terephthalate) and poly (ethylene/1, 4-cyclohexylenedimethylene terephthalate),” in Modern Polyesters: Chemistry and Technology of Polyesters and Copolyesters, pp. 609–641, 2004.
  10. A. Pegoretti and A. Penati, “Recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) and its short glass fibres composites: effects of hygrothermal aging on the thermo-mechanical behaviour,” Polymer, vol. 45, no. 23, pp. 7995–8004, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. Y. W. Leong, M. B. Abu Bakar, Z. A. Mohd Ishak, and A. Ariffin, “Characterization of talc/calcium carbonate filled polypropylene hybrid composites weathered in a natural environment,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 83, no. 3, pp. 411–422, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. X. Lu, M. Q. Zhang, M. Z. Rong, D. L. Yue, and G. C. Yang, “Environmental degradability of self-reinforced composites made from sisal,” Composites Science and Technology, vol. 64, no. 9, pp. 1301–1310, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. B. N. Dash, A. K. Rana, H. K. Mishra, S. K. Nayak, and S. S. Tripathy, “Novel low-cost jute-polyester composites. III. Weathering and thermal behavior,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 78, no. 9, pp. 1671–1679, 2000.
  14. L. M. Matuana, D. P. Kamdem, and J. Zhang, “Photoaging and stabilization of rigid PVC/wood-fiber composites,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 80, no. 11, pp. 1943–1950, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. Y. A. El-Shekeil, M. S. Salit, K. Abdan, and E. S. Zainudin, “Development of a new kenaf bast fiber-reinforced thermoplastic polyurethane composite,” BioResources, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 4662–4672, 2011. View at Scopus
  16. J. Hodgkinson, Ed., Mechanical Testing of Advanced Fibre Composites, Woodhead Publishing, 2000.
  17. N.-J. Lee and J. Jang, “Effect of fibre content on the mechanical properties of glass fibre mat/polypropylene composites,” Composites Part A, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 815–822, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. N. Boualem and Z. Sereir, “Accelerated aging of unidirectional hybrid composites under the long-term elevated temperature and moisture concentration,” Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 68–75, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. A. Panigrahi, Characterization of hybrid FRP composite with hydrothermal exposure under varied ambient conditions [Doctoral dissertation], 2009.
  20. Y. Dan-mallam, M. Z. Abdullah, and P. S. Megat Yusoff, “Impact strength, microstructure, and water absorption properties of kenaf/polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fiber-reinforced polyoxymethylene (POM) hybrid composites,” Journal of Materials Research, vol. 28, no. 16, pp. 2142–2146, 2013.
  21. H. K. Webb, J. Arnott, R. J. Crawford, and E. P. Ivanova, “Plastic degradation and its environmental implications with special reference to poly (ethylene terephthalate),” Polymers, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1–18, 2012.
  22. Y. Dan-mallam, M. Z. Abdullah, and P. S. M. M. Yusoff, “Mechanical properties of recycled kenaf/polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fiber reinforced polyoxymethylene (POM) hybrid composite,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. G. Cicala, G. Cristaldi, G. Recca, and A. Latteri, “Composites based on natural fiber fabrics,” in Woven Fabric Engineering, P. D. Dubrovski, Ed., pp. 978–953, InTech, 2010.
  24. T. H. Nam, S. Ogihara, N. H. Tung, and S. Kobayashi, “Effect of alkali treatment on interfacial and mechanical properties of coir fiber reinforced poly(butylene succinate) biodegradable composites,” Composites Part B, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 1648–1656, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. Le Duigou, P. Davies, and C. Baley, “Interfacial bonding of Flax fibre/Poly(l-lactide) bio-composites,” Composites Science and Technology, vol. 70, no. 2, pp. 231–239, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. L. Beyler and M. M. Hirschler, “Thermal decomposition of polymers,” in SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering, vol. 2, 2002.
  27. S. Lüftl, V.-M. Archodoulaki, and S. Seidler, “Thermal-oxidative induced degradation behaviour of polyoxymethylene (POM) copolymer detected by TGA/MS,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 91, no. 3, pp. 464–471, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. G. C. Furneaux, K. J. Ledbury, and A. Davis, “Photo-oxidation of thick polymer samples-Part I: the variation of photo-oxidation with depth in naturally and artificially weathered low density polyethylene,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 431–442, 1981. View at Scopus
  29. G. E. Schoolenberg and P. Vink, “Ultra-violet degradation of polypropylene: 1. Degradation profile and thickness of the embrittled surface layer,” Polymer, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 432–437, 1991. View at Scopus
  30. Y. Dan-Mallam, M. Z. Abdullah, and P. S. Megat Yusoff, “Predicting the tensile properties of woven kenaf/PET reinforced POM hybrid laminate composite,” IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 6–13, 2012.
  31. K. Yamada-Onodera, H. Mukumoto, Y. Katsuyaya, A. Saiganji, and Y. Tani, “Degradation of polyethylene by a fungus, Penicillium simplicissimum YK,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 323–327, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. Bonhomme, A. Cuer, A.-M. Delort, J. Lemaire, M. Sancelme, and G. Scott, “Environmental biodegradation of polyethylene,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 81, no. 3, pp. 441–452, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. Y. Zheng, E. K. Yanful, and A. S. Bassi, “A review of plastic waste biodegradation,” Critical Reviews in Biotechnology, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 243–250, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. R.-J. Müller, I. Kleeberg, and W.-D. Deckwer, “Biodegradation of polyesters containing aromatic constituents,” Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 86, no. 2, pp. 87–95, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. K. Renken, D. M. Mchaina, and E. K. Yanful, “Geosynthetics research and applications in the mining and mineral processing environment,” in North American Geosynthetic Society (NAGS)-Geosynthetic Institute (GSI) Conference, pp. 14–16, December 2005.