Table 1: Capture cross-section of surface states at the oxide/Si interface.

Oxide materialCapture cross-sectionDeposition methodMeasurement technique

SiO2 1–4 × 10−16 cm2Thermal oxidationCharge pumping [2224]
ZrO25.8 × 10−16 cm2rf sputteringGated diode [25]
Al2O31.7 × 10−15 cm2PECVDDLTS [26]
CeO28.7 × 10−15 cm2rf sputteringGated diode [27]
CeO29.0 × 10−15 cm2rf sputteringCharge pumping [28]
HfO29.4 × 10−15 cm2ALDCharge pumping [29]
HfO2 2.4 × 10−15 cm2rf sputteringGated diode (this work)

PECVD: plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, DLTS: deep-level transient spectroscopy, and ALD: atomic layer deposition.