Advances in Materials Science and Engineering http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Influence of Temperature on Typical Texture Distribution in Primary Recrystallization Matrix of 3% Si CGO Silicon Steel Thu, 30 Jun 2016 15:31:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/8936805/ OM (optical microscopy) and EBSD (electron backscatter diffraction) techniques were used to study microstructure and texture distribution during primary recrystallization under different intermediate annealing temperatures in CGO silicon steels. The effect of intermediate annealing temperature on texture distribution in 3% Si electrical steel was analyzed. The results indicate that the microstructure in primary recrystallization matrix of CGO silicon steel is comprised of equiaxed ferrite grains. Mean grain size of primary recrystallization increases with the rising of intermediate annealing temperature. γ-fiber texture is the dominant component in primary recrystallization matrix. With higher intermediate annealing temperature, texture and texture increase and texture is stronger than texture. Goss texture was observed to be decreased firstly and then increased. The content of high angle grain boundaries in primary recrystallization matrix are affected by intermediate annealing temperature. When intermediate annealing temperature is increased, high angle grain boundaries are increased firstly and then decreased. Misorientation distribution in primary recrystallized matrix is affected by primary recrystallization annealing temperature either. The content of high angle grain boundaries are increased owing to higher primary recrystallization annealing temperature, which can be a benefit to the abnormal growth of Goss grains in secondary recrystallization. Zhi-chao Li, Ning Dang, and Zhen-li Mi Copyright © 2016 Zhi-chao Li et al. All rights reserved. Effect of a Deep Cryogenic Treatment on Wear and Microstructure of a 6101 Aluminum Alloy Thu, 30 Jun 2016 13:24:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/1582490/ The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of a deep cryogenic treatment (DCT) on the wear behavior and on the microstructure of an aluminum alloy. In order to compare the level of improvement on the wear resistance provided by the DCT with a more traditional technique, a test matrix which included DCT, CrN coated specimens, and combinations of both modification methods was conducted. The wear behavior was investigated using microabrasive wear tests. The cryogenic treated specimens proved to have similar low wear rates as the specimens coated with CrN. The most distinct improvement was reached with a combination of both techniques. In the case of the DCT, the performed microstructural analysis identified the generation of additional GP-zones as the reason for the improved wear resistance. Volker Franco Steier, Edgar Sobral Ashiuchi, Lutz Reißig, and José Alexander Araújo Copyright © 2016 Volker Franco Steier et al. All rights reserved. Advanced Materials and Technologies for Structural Performance Improvement Thu, 30 Jun 2016 08:25:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/1854839/ Stefano Sorace, Bert Blocken, Claudio Borri, Luca Caracoglia, Francisco Javier Molina, and Gerhardt Müller Copyright © 2016 Stefano Sorace et al. All rights reserved. Energy-Dissipation Performance of Combined Low Yield Point Steel Plate Damper Based on Topology Optimization and Its Application in Structural Control Wed, 29 Jun 2016 14:56:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/5654619/ In view of the disadvantages such as higher yield stress and inadequate adjustability, a combined low yield point steel plate damper involving low yield point steel plates and common steel plates is proposed. Three types of combined plate dampers with new hollow shapes are proposed, and the specific forms include interior hollow, boundary hollow, and ellipse hollow. The “maximum stiffness” and “full stress state” are used as the optimization objectives, and the topology optimization of different hollow forms by alternating optimization method is to obtain the optimal shape. Various combined steel plate dampers are calculated by finite element simulation, the results indicate that the initial stiffness of the boundary optimized damper and interior optimized damper is lager, the hysteresis curves are full, and there is no stress concentration. These two types of optimization models made in different materials rations are studied by numerical simulation, and the adjustability of yield stress of these combined dampers is verified. The nonlinear dynamic responses, seismic capacity, and damping effect of steel frame structures with different combined dampers are analyzed. The results show that the boundary optimized damper has better energy-dissipation capacity and is suitable for engineering application. Haoxiang He, Xiaobing Wang, and Xiaofu Zhang Copyright © 2016 Haoxiang He et al. All rights reserved. Structural Stability and Dynamics of FGM Plates Using an Improved 8-ANS Finite Element Wed, 29 Jun 2016 14:50:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/2821473/ I investigate the vibration and buckling analysis of functionally graded material (FGM) structures, using a modified 8-node shell element. The properties of FGM vary continuously through the thickness direction according to the volume fraction of constituents defined by sigmoid function. The modified 8-ANS shell element has been employed to study the effect of power law index on dynamic analysis of FGM plates with various boundary conditions and buckling analysis under combined loads, and interaction curves of FGM plates are carried out. To overcome shear and membrane locking problems, the assumed natural strain method is employed. In order to validate and compare the finite element numerical solutions, the reference results of plates based on Navier’s method, the series solutions of sigmoid FGM (S-FGM) plates are compared. Results of the present study show good agreement with the reference results. The solutions of vibration and buckling analysis are numerically illustrated in a number of tables and figures to show the influence of power law index, side-to-thickness ratio, aspect ratio, types of loads, and boundary conditions in FGM structures. This work is relevant to the simulation of wing surfaces, aircrafts, and box structures under various boundary conditions and loadings. Weon-Tae Park Copyright © 2016 Weon-Tae Park. All rights reserved. Properties of a Laminated Wood Composite Produced with Thermomechanically Treated Veneers Wed, 29 Jun 2016 12:10:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/8458065/ The paper aimed at evaluating the properties of plywood made from thermomechanically treated wood veneers. Veneers from Amescla (Trattinnickia burseraefolia) wood were treated in a hydraulic press with electric resistance heating. Two temperature levels were applied, 140°C and 180°C, for 1 and 2 minutes with 2.7 N/mm2 of pressure. A total of 30 plywood boards were produced, including six boards produced from untreated veneers. The results showed that the thermomechanical treatment did not have any deleterious effect on glue line strength and most of the mechanical properties of plywood made from treated veneers were improved. On the other hand, plywood made from untreated veneers presented better dimensional stability. Dimensional stability properties were most affected by the temperature of the treatment, while mechanical stability, represented by the glue line shear strength, was positively affected by temperature and duration of the treatment. Larissa M. Arruda and Cláudio H. S. Del Menezzi Copyright © 2016 Larissa M. Arruda and Cláudio H. S. Del Menezzi. All rights reserved. Elastic Properties and the Band Gap of Semiconductor Alloy: A Comparative Study of Various Ab Initio Approaches Wed, 29 Jun 2016 09:46:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/1429023/ Structural and elastic properties of , a novel semiconductor alloy, are studied from the first principles in both zinc-blende and wurtzite structures. Performances of the finite difference (FD) method and the density functional perturbation theory (DFPT) are tested and compared. Both of these methods are applied to two different approaches of alloy simulation, a supercell of 16 and 32 atoms (for zinc-blende and wurtzite structures, resp.) and the alchemical mixing (AM) method, where the pseudopotentials are mixed in an appropriate way to form an alloy. All elastic properties, including the elastic tensors, elastic moduli, Poisson’s ratio, B/G, and relaxation coefficient, as well as lattice parameters are calculated using all said methods. Conclusions about the use of the approaches investigated in this paper and about their performance are drawn. In addition, in both crystal structures, the band gap is studied in the whole composition range using the MBJLDA functional. The band gap bowings are unusually high, which confirms earlier reports. M. P. Polak, M. J. Winiarski, K. Wittek, and P. Scharoch Copyright © 2016 M. P. Polak et al. All rights reserved. Kinetics of the Leaching Process of an Australian Gibbsitic Bauxite by Hydrochloric Acid Wed, 29 Jun 2016 09:15:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/5813542/ Gibbsitic bauxite from Australia was leached by hydrochloric acid in this work. Analysis on kinetics for the extraction of Al2O3 was quantitatively studied. It was concluded that the hydrochloric acid leaching process of gibbsitic bauxite was controlled by chemical reaction. Moreover, the mechanism for the dissolution followed the equation, , with an apparent activation energy of 137.90 kJ/mol, according to the equation of . This work aims to provide a good theory support for the process control by using a new method of alumina production from the low grade bauxite. Aichun Zhao, Ting-an Zhang, Guozhi Lv, and Wenyan Tian Copyright © 2016 Aichun Zhao et al. All rights reserved. Performance Comparison between Neutralization Tailings and Flotation Tailings Used for Backfill Mix and Mechanism Analysis Mon, 27 Jun 2016 11:34:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/1087269/ A comparison test of different tailings used for underground backfill was conducted, using neutralized tailings from BIOX and flotation tailings of Jinfeng Mine. Laboratory comparison test results show that, with neutralized tailings, when the cement dosage is at 19%, backfill UCS after 7 days, 14 days, and 28 days are 105%–163%, 80%–102%, and 33%–43%, respectively, which are higher than those of flotation tailings. When the cement dosage is at 12%, backfill UCS after 7 days, 14 days, and 28 days are 58%–77%, 50%–60%, and 28%–51%, respectively, which are higher than those of flotation tailings. Slurry fluidity of neutralized tailings is lower than that of flotation tailings, while, in these two tailings, the difference of slump and diffusivity values is less than 6%, which is not a significant difference in slurry fluidity. The reason for neutralized tailings showing higher UCS is as follows: during backfill curing, neutralization tailings produce abundant crystals of CaSO4·2H2O in interlaced structure which helps in combining aggregates closely; CaSO4·2H2O hydrates with C3A C4AF contained in the cement and forms clavate cement bacillus which works as a micro reinforcing steel bar. The test proved that neutralized tailings are more optimal for backfilling. Bin Han, Wei Sun, Shaofeng Yu, Chao Liu, Song Yao, and Jianxun Wu Copyright © 2016 Bin Han et al. All rights reserved. A New Microstructure Development Model for the Evaluation of Concrete Setting Time Mon, 27 Jun 2016 09:10:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/2619895/ Concrete is an exceptionally attractive construction material, with stable material supply, adequate fire resistance, and high durability. Its plasticity can be both an advantage and a disadvantage from an engineering point of view, providing versatile shapes via casting and hardening but also requiring a relatively long period of time to reach its design strength. The setting time, or hardening period, needed before the freshly poured concrete can carry a load, which begins once the hydration reaction has commenced, is a key parameter for durability since it directly affects cracking resistance in early-aged concrete. The new analysis technique for calculating setting time that was developed for this study utilizes both percolation theory and the strength development model. To verify the analytical results obtained using the new model, a critical volume ratio of hydrates was determined and a series of final setting times in concrete were experimentally investigated for different temperatures, mineral admixtures (FA: fly ash; GGBFS: ground granulated blast furnace slag), and a chemical admixture (superplasticizer). The results were found to be in good agreement with the model predictions, confirming its potential utility. Ho-Jin Cho, Joo-Won Kang, Yong Han Ahn, Sunkook Kim, and Xiao-Yong Wang Copyright © 2016 Ho-Jin Cho et al. All rights reserved. A Fire-Retardant Composite Made from Domestic Waste and PVA Mon, 27 Jun 2016 07:54:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/7516278/ We report the synthesis of a composite from domestic waste with the strength of wood building materials. We used original domestic waste with only a simple pretreatment to reduce the processing cost. The wastes were composed of organic components (generally originating from foods), paper, plastics, and clothes; the average fraction of each type of waste mirrored the corresponding fractions of wastes in the city of Bandung, Indonesia. An initial survey of ten landfills scattered through Bandung was conducted to determine the average fraction of each component in the waste. The composite was made using a hot press. A large number of synthesis parameters were tested to determine the optimum ones. The measured mechanical strength of the produced composite approached the mechanical properties of wood building materials. A fire-retardant powder was added to retard fire so that the composite could be useful for the construction of residential homes of lower-income people who often have problems with fire. Fire tests showed that the composites were more resistant to fire than widely used wood building materials. Neni Surtiyeni, Raidha Rahmadani, Neny Kurniasih, Khairurrijal, and Mikrajuddin Abdullah Copyright © 2016 Neni Surtiyeni et al. All rights reserved. Experimental Study on Detection of Deterioration in Concrete Using Infrared Thermography Technique Thu, 23 Jun 2016 05:51:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/1053856/ Concrete is certainly prone to internal deteriorations or defects during the construction and operating periods. Compared with other nondestructive techniques, infrared thermography can easily detect the subsurface delamination in a very short period of time, but accurately identifying its size and depth in concrete is a very challenging task. In this study, experimental testing was carried out on a concrete specimen having internal delaminations of various sizes and at varying depths. Delaminations at 1 and 2 cm deep showed a good temperature contrast after only 5-minute heating, but delaminations at 3 cm practically identified the value of the temperature contrast from heating of 15 minutes. In addition, the size of the delamination at 3 cm deep could be estimated with a difference of 10% to 28% for 20 minutes of heating. The depth of the delamination was linearly correlated with the increase in its size. Jungwon Huh, Quang Huy Tran, Jong-Han Lee, DongYeob Han, Jin-Hee Ahn, and Solomon Yim Copyright © 2016 Jungwon Huh et al. All rights reserved. Transformation Mechanism of Fluormica to Fluoramphibole in Fluoramphibole Glass Ceramics Wed, 22 Jun 2016 09:28:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/5640545/ During isothermal sintering at 820°C, the transformation mechanism of fluormica to fluoramphibole in powder compacts of fluormica and soda-lime glass was investigated using differential thermal analysis, infrared reflection spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and so forth. Results show that an interaction between fluormica and glass occurred during isothermal heating; O2−, Na+, and Ca2+ ions were diffused from glass to fluormica. This diffusion facilitates the transformation of the sheet structures of fluormica crystals to double-chain structures by the breakage of bridge oxygen bonds in the sheet. Subsequently, the broken two parallel double chains were rearranged by relative displacement along the -axis direction of the fluormica crystal and were linked by Na+ and Ca2+ ions to form fluoramphibole. A crystallography model of fluormica-fluoramphibole transformation was established in this study. Wei Si, Hua-Shen Xu, Ming Sun, Chao Ding, and Wei-Yi Zhang Copyright © 2016 Wei Si et al. All rights reserved. A Sensitive Method Approach for Chromatographic Analysis of Gas Streams in Separation Processes Based on Columns Packed with an Adsorbent Material Mon, 20 Jun 2016 11:02:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/3216267/ A sensitive method was developed and experimentally validated for the in-line analysis and quantification of gaseous feed and product streams of separation processes under research and development based on column chromatography. The analysis uses a specific mass spectrometry method coupled to engineering processes, such as Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) and Simulated Moving Bed (SMB), which are examples of popular continuous separation technologies that can be used in applications such as natural gas and biogas purifications or carbon dioxide sequestration. These processes employ column adsorption equilibria on adsorbent materials, thus requiring real-time gas stream composition quantification. For this assay, an internal standard is assumed and a single-point calibration is used in a simple mixture-specific algorithm. The accuracy of the method was found to be between 0.01% and 0.25% (-mol) for mixtures of CO2, CH4, and N2, tested as case-studies. This makes the method feasible for streams with quality control levels that can be used as a standard monitoring and analyzing procedure. I. A. A. C. Esteves, G. M. R. P. L. Sousa, R. J. S. Silva, R. P. P. L. Ribeiro, M. F. J. Eusébio, and J. P. B. Mota Copyright © 2016 I. A. A. C. Esteves et al. All rights reserved. Chloride Transport in Undersea Concrete Tunnel Mon, 20 Jun 2016 09:34:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/1085934/ Based on water penetration in unsaturated concrete of underwater tunnel, a diffusion-advection theoretical model of chloride in undersea concrete tunnel was proposed. The basic parameters including porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, chloride diffusion coefficient, initial water saturation, and moisture retention function of concrete specimens with two water-binder ratios were determined through lab-scale experiments. The variation of chloride concentration with pressuring time, location, solution concentration, initial saturation, hydraulic pressure, and water-binder ratio was investigated through chloride transport tests under external water pressure. In addition, the change and distribution of chloride concentration of isothermal horizontal flow were numerically analyzed using TOUGH2 software. The results show that chloride transport in unsaturated concrete under external water pressure is a combined effect of diffusion and advection instead of diffusion. Chloride concentration increased with increasing solution concentration for diffusion and increased with an increase in water pressure and a decrease in initial saturation for advection. The dominant driving force converted with time and saturation. When predicting the service life of undersea concrete tunnel, it is suggested that advection is taken into consideration; otherwise the durability tends to be unsafe. Yuanzhu Zhang, Xiaozhen Li, and Guohua Yu Copyright © 2016 Yuanzhu Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Properties of Sago Particleboards Resinated with UF and PF Resin Mon, 20 Jun 2016 07:36:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/5323890/ The sago processing industry in Mukah, Sarawak, had generated huge amount of sago waste after the milling process and scientists have employed the waste into composite material. In this work, sago residues were mixed with the Phenol Formaldehyde (PF) and Urea Formaldehyde (UF) for particleboard fabrication. The fabrication and testing methods are based on JIS A 5908 Standard. A single layer particleboard using sago particles was fabricated at targeted density of 600 kg/m3. Particles with weight fractions of 90%, 85%, and 80% with two different matrices were used in the fabrication. The results demonstrated that the samples with different weight fraction and matrix have great influence on the mechanical properties such as MOR, MOE, Young’s Modulus, tensile strength, impact strength, screw test, and internal bonding. The sago UF/PF particleboard only displays single stage decomposition. All the panels underwent physical tests which are water absorption and thickness swelling. The combination of sago particles with UF/PF can be utilized for general indoor application purposes such as furniture manufacturing. Sago particleboard made by UF/PF provided the advantages like optimized performance, minimized weight and volume, cost effectiveness, chemical resistance, and resistance to biodegradation. Chen Chiang Tay, Sinin Hamdan, and Mohd Shahril B. Osman Copyright © 2016 Chen Chiang Tay et al. All rights reserved. Adsorption Cooling System Using Metal-Impregnated Zeolite-4A Sun, 19 Jun 2016 08:46:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/4283271/ The adsorption cooling systems have been developed to replace vapor compression due to their benefits of being environmentally friendly and energy saving. We prepared zeolite-4A and experimental cooling performance test of zeolite-water adsorption system. The adsorption cooling test-rig includes adsorber, evaporator, and condenser which perform in vacuum atmosphere. The maximum and minimum water adsorption capacity of different zeolites and COP were used to assess the performance of the adsorption cooling system. We found that loading zeolite-4A with higher levels of silver and copper increased COP. The Cu6%/zeolite-4A had the highest COP at 0.56 while COP of zeolite-4A alone was 0.38. Calculating the acceleration rate of zeolite-4A when adding 6% of copper would accelerate the COP at 46%. Somsuk Trisupakitti, Jindaporn Jamradloedluk, and Songchai Wiriyaumpaiwong Copyright © 2016 Somsuk Trisupakitti et al. All rights reserved. Study on Synthesis and Photocatalytic Activity of Porous Titania Nanotubes Thu, 16 Jun 2016 12:57:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/3532817/ Using the common natural cellulose substance (filter paper) and triblock copolymer (Pluronic P123) micelles as dual templates, porous titania nanotubes with enhanced photocatalytic activity have been successfully synthesized through sol-gel methods. Firstly, P123 micelles were adsorbed onto the surfaces of cellulose nanofibers of filter paper, followed by hydrolysis and condensation of tetrabutyl titanate around these micelles to form titania layer. After calcination to remove the organic templates, hierarchical titania nanotubes with pores in the walls were obtained. The sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen adsorption/desorption, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Ultraviolet-Visible Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). As compared with commercial P25 catalyst, the porous titania nanotubes prepared by this method displayed significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity for degrading methyl orange under UV irradiation. Within 10 minutes, the porous titania nanotubes are able to degrade over 70% of the original MO, while the value for the commercial Degussa P25 is only about 33%. Huang Liu, Yanhua Zhang, Hongtao Yang, Wei Xiao, and Lanlan Sun Copyright © 2016 Huang Liu et al. All rights reserved. Development of a Stable TiO2 Nanocomposite Self-Cleaning Coating for Outdoor Applications Thu, 16 Jun 2016 09:22:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/7958152/ A convenient and low-cost approach for the elaboration of a stable superhydrophobic coating is reported, involving the use of TiO2 nanoparticles via the spray coating method. This method can be used for preparing self-cleaning superhydrophobic coatings on large areas for different kinds of substrates. The synergistic effect of the micro/nanobinary scale roughness was produced by a multilayer RTV SR/TiO2 composite. The influence of the nanofiller concentration in a specific frequency range (40 Hz to 2 MHz) on the dielectric behavior was analyzed as well. It was found that the real relative permittivity () increases as the nanofiller concentration increases. Superhydrophobic behavior is analyzed by contact angle measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and profilometer. The stability of the developed coating also has been evaluated in terms of immersion in various aqueous solutions, heating, adhesion, and exposure to UV irradiation, and the results showed good stability against these factors. The coating retained its superhydrophobicity after several days of immersion in solutions of different pH levels (2, 4, 6, and 12) and different conductivities. In addition, they also exhibited exceptional stability against UV radiation and heating, as well as good mechanical stability. F. Madidi, G. Momen, and M. Farzaneh Copyright © 2016 F. Madidi et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Alkali Treatment on the Surface Area of Aluminium Dross Wed, 15 Jun 2016 13:19:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/6306304/ Aluminium dross is an industrial waste from aluminium refining industry and classified as toxic substances. However, the disposal of dross as a waste is a burden to aluminium manufacturer industries due to its negative effects to the ecosystem, surface, and ground water. Therefore the purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) on the surface area and pore size of aluminium dross. There were 3 stages in the treatment activities, which were leaching, precipitation, and calcination process. The optimum result from this study was the surface area of aluminium dross increases from 10.1 m2/g up to 80.0 m2/g at 40°C, 1% NaOH, and 15-minute reaction time. Thus, aluminium dross has a potential to be converted into other useful material such as catalyst and absorbent. The benefit of this research is that the hazardous industrial waste can be turned into wealth to be used in other applications such as in catalytic activities and absorber in waste water treatment. Further investigation on the physicochemical of aluminium dross with different acid or alkali should be conducted to get deeper understanding on the aluminium dross as a catalyst-type material. N. S. Ahmad Zauzi, M. Z. H. Zakaria, R. Baini, M. R. Rahman, N. Mohamed Sutan, and S. Hamdan Copyright © 2016 N. S. Ahmad Zauzi et al. All rights reserved. Electrochemical Deposition of CdTe Semiconductor Thin Films for Solar Cell Application Using Two-Electrode and Three-Electrode Configurations: A Comparative Study Wed, 15 Jun 2016 12:08:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/3581725/ Thin films of CdTe semiconductor were electrochemically deposited using two-electrode and three-electrode configurations in potentiostatic mode for comparison. Cadmium sulphate and tellurium dioxide were used as cadmium and tellurium sources, respectively. The layers obtained using both configurations exhibit similar structural, optical, and electrical properties with no specific dependence on any particular electrode configuration used. These results indicate that electrochemical deposition (electrodeposition) of CdTe and semiconductors in general can equally be carried out using two-electrode system as well as the conventional three-electrode system without compromising the essential qualities of the materials produced. The results also highlight the advantages of the two-electrode configuration in process simplification, cost reduction, and removal of a possible impurity source in the growth system, especially as the reference electrode ages. O. K. Echendu, K. B. Okeoma, C. I. Oriaku, and I. M. Dharmadasa Copyright © 2016 O. K. Echendu et al. All rights reserved. Morphology of Near- and Semispherical Melted Chips after the Grinding Processes Using Sol-Gel Abrasives Based on SEM-Imaging and Analysis Wed, 15 Jun 2016 12:02:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/2573920/ Selected issues related to SEM-imaging and image analysis of spherical melted chips formed during the grinding process are presented and discussed. The general characteristics of this specific group of machining products are given. Chip formation phenomena, as well as their overall morphology, are presented using selected examples of near- and semispherical melted chips occurring singly or concentrated in clusters on the grinding wheel surface after the machining process. Observation of the spherical melted chips and acquisition of their images were carried out for grinding wheel active surfaces with microcrystalline sintered corundum abrasive grains SG™ after the internal cylindrical grinding process of a 100Cr6 steel and Titanium Grade 2® alloy by use of a scanning electron microscope, JEOL JSM-5500LV. Analysis of the obtained SEM micrographs was carried out by Image-Pro® Plus 5.0 software to determine the selected geometrical parameters describing the morphological features of the assessed chips. W. Kapłonek, K. Nadolny, and W. Habrat Copyright © 2016 W. Kapłonek et al. All rights reserved. The Adsorption Capacity, Pore Structure, and Thermal Behavior of the Modified Clay Containing SSA Wed, 15 Jun 2016 08:20:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/9894657/ Sewage sludge ash (SSA) was created by burning municipal sludge. The potential of clay containing 1 or 3 or 5% SSA was assessed for use as a landfill liner-soil material. Batch adsorption, low temperature N2 adsorption, and TG-DTA tests were performed to evaluate the adsorption capacity, micropore structure, thermostability, and components of soils under Cr(VI) and Pb(II) chemical solutions. With the increasing amount of SSA in modified clay, the adsorption capacity of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) to the modified clay increases gradually. After absorption, the pore size of modified clay ranges from 2 nm to 8 nm. With the increasing amount of absorption, the pore volume decreases and the specific surface area increases. With the increasing of adsorption concentration of Cr(VI) and Pb(II), the mass loss percentage of modified clay increases to 23.4% and 12.6%, respectively. The modified clay containing SSA may be used as a good barrier material to attenuate contamination of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) in landfills. Haijun Lu, Qian Zhang, Yiqie Dong, Jixiang Li, and Xiong Zhang Copyright © 2016 Haijun Lu et al. All rights reserved. Dual Band Magnonic Crystals: Model System and Basic Spin Wave Dynamics Wed, 15 Jun 2016 08:10:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/4243817/ We investigate a special design of two-dimensional magnonic crystal, consisting of two superimposed lattices with different lattice constants, such that spin waves (SWs) can propagate either in one or the other sublattice, depending on which of the two frequency bands they belong to. The SW bands are separated by a very large bandgap (in our model system, 6 GHz), easily tunable by changing the direction of an applied magnetic field, and the overlap of their spatial distribution, for any frequency of their bands, is always negligible. These properties make the designed system an ideal test system for a magnonic dual band waveguide, where the simultaneous excitation and subsequent propagation of two independent SW signals are allowed, with no mutual interference. Federico Montoncello and Loris Giovannini Copyright © 2016 Federico Montoncello and Loris Giovannini. All rights reserved. Dimension Analysis-Based Model for Prediction of Shale Compressive Strength Tue, 14 Jun 2016 11:59:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/7948612/ The compressive strength of shale is a comprehensive index for evaluating the shale strength, which is linked to shale well borehole stability. Based on correlation analysis between factors (confining stress, height/diameter ratio, bedding angle, and porosity) and shale compressive strength (Longmaxi Shale in Sichuan Basin, China), we develop a dimension analysis-based model for prediction of shale compressive strength. A nonlinear-regression model is used for comparison. A multitraining method is used to achieve reliability of model prediction. The results show that, compared to a multi-nonlinear-regression model (average prediction error = 19.5%), the average prediction error of the dimension analysis-based model is 19.2%. More importantly, our dimension analysis-based model needs to determine only one parameter, whereas the multi-nonlinear-regression model needs to determine five. In addition, sensitivity analysis shows that height/diameter ratio has greater sensitivity to compressive strength than other factors. Xiangyu Fan, Fenglin Xu, Lin Chen, Qiao Chen, Zhiwei Liu, Guanghua Yao, and Wen Nie Copyright © 2016 Xiangyu Fan et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Sea Water and Natural Ageing on Residual Strength of Epoxy Laminates, Reinforced with Glass and Carbon Woven Fabrics Tue, 14 Jun 2016 10:59:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/3754912/ This paper reports the results of the effect of sea water, natural ageing, and cross-impact loading on flexural strength and residual flexural strength of epoxy laminates with glass woven fabrics and hybrid reinforcement with glass and carbon woven fabrics. The tests were conducted on samples with different fibre reinforcement both before and after low energy cross-impact loading. Carbon fabrics decreased residual strength of the composites. Andrzej Komorek, Paweł Przybyłek, and Wojciech Kucharczyk Copyright © 2016 Andrzej Komorek et al. All rights reserved. Rubber Composites Based on Polar Elastomers with Incorporated Modified and Unmodified Magnetic Filler Tue, 14 Jun 2016 09:48:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/7242891/ Rubber magnetic composites were prepared by incorporation of unmodified and surface modified strontium ferrite into rubber matrices based on NBR and NBR/PVC. Strontium ferrite was dosed to the rubber matrices in concentration scale ranging from 0 to 100 phr. The main goal was to investigate the influence of the type of ferrite on the curing process, physical-mechanical and magnetic properties of composites. The mutual interactions between the filler and rubber matrices were investigated by determination of cross-link density and SEM analysis. The incorporation of magnetic fillers leads to the increase of cross-link density and remanent magnetic induction of composites. Moreover, the improvement of physical-mechanical properties was achieved in dependence on the content of magnetic fillers. Surface modification of ferrite contributed to the enhancement of adhesion on the interphase filler-rubber. It can be stated that ferrite exhibits reinforcing effect in the composite materials and this reinforcing behavior was emphasized with the increase in polarity of the rubber matrix. Ján Kruželák, Richard Sýkora, Rastislav Dosoudil, and Ivan Hudec Copyright © 2016 Ján Kruželák et al. All rights reserved. An Investigation on Strength Development of Cement with Cenosphere and Silica Fume as Pozzolanic Replacement Tue, 14 Jun 2016 09:34:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/9367619/ In the detailed study presented in this paper, an attempt was made to study the strength of cement when cenosphere (CS) and silica fume (SF) were used as replacement. Tests were carried out on mix with cenosphere as replacement for cement which has 12% of constant replacement of silica fume to the mass of cement, and this is made to stabilize the strength which was lost due to addition of cenosphere. From the test results, it was concluded that the strength loss of binder due to replacement of cenosphere can be stabilized by silica fume and still a safe value of strength can be achieved. Furthermore, the strength reduction is due to the consumption of hydration products and cloggy microstructure as observed in this study. K. Senthamarai Kannan, L. Andal, and M. Shanmugasundaram Copyright © 2016 K. Senthamarai Kannan et al. All rights reserved. The Deformation Mechanisms in Process of Crack Propagation for Alpha Titanium with Compounding Microdefects Tue, 14 Jun 2016 09:09:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/2156936/ The multiscale analysis method based on traction-separation law (TSL) and cohesive zone law was used to describe the cross-scale defective process of alpha titanium (α-Ti) material with compounding microdefects in this paper. First, the properties of T-S curve and the reasonable range of T-S area relative to the length of defects were discussed. Next, based on the conclusions above, the molecule dynamics analysis of three models of α-Ti with compounding microdefects was conducted and cross-scaly simulated. The phenomenon, principles, and mechanisms of different compound microscale defects propagation of α-Ti were observed and explained at atomic scale, and the effects of different microdefects on macrofracture parameters of materials were studied. Ying Sheng and Xiang-guo Zeng Copyright © 2016 Ying Sheng and Xiang-guo Zeng. All rights reserved. Computational Modelling Strategies for Nonlinear Response Prediction of Corroded Circular RC Bridge Piers Tue, 14 Jun 2016 08:42:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/2738265/ A numerical model is presented that enables simulation of the nonlinear flexural response of corroded reinforced concrete (RC) components. The model employs a force-based nonlinear fibre beam-column element. A new phenomenological uniaxial material model for corroded reinforcing steel is used. This model accounts for the impact of corrosion on buckling strength, postbuckling behaviour, and low-cycle fatigue degradation of vertical reinforcement under cyclic loading. The basic material model is validated through comparison of simulated and observed responses for uncorroded RC columns. The model is used to explore the impact of corrosion on the inelastic response of corroded RC columns. Mohammad M. Kashani, Laura N. Lowes, Adam J. Crewe, and Nicholas A. Alexander Copyright © 2016 Mohammad M. Kashani et al. All rights reserved.