Advances in Materials Science and Engineering The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Influence of Heat Treatment on Residual Stress in Cold-Forged Parts Thu, 30 Oct 2014 07:25:00 +0000 Residual stresses are those stresses that remain in a body when there is no external load applied. Numerous factors can induce residual stresses in the material, including cold forming. Thermal treatments of steel are widely used because they can improve the mechanical properties of the steel, such as toughness, tenacity, and resistance; however, thermal treatments can also produce residual stresses. This study aims to analyze the residual stresses present in a cold-forged part after heat treatments. Half-cylinder samples of AISI 1045 steel were cold-forged, and a wedge tool was pressed into their surface, causing a strain gradient. The samples were then heat-treated by annealing, normalizing, quenching, or quenching and tempering. A numerical simulation was also performed to aid in choosing the measurement points in the samples. The results show that residual stresses are dependent on the heat treatment and on the intensity and nature of previous residual stresses in the body. Frederico Ozanan Neves, Thiago Luis Lara Oliviera, Durval Uchoas Braga, and Alex Sander Chaves da Silva Copyright © 2014 Frederico Ozanan Neves et al. All rights reserved. Prediction of Three-Dimensional Milling Forces Based on Finite Element Tue, 28 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The model of milling force is mainly proposed to predict and analyze the cutting process based on finite element method in this paper. Firstly, milling finite element model is given based on orthogonal cutting principle, and then the influence laws of cutting parameters on chip formation are analyzed by using different simulation parameters. In addition, the three-dimensional milling forces are obtained from finite element models. Finally, the values of milling force by the milling experiment are also compared and analyzed with the simulation values to verify the feasibility and reasonability. It can be shown that milling forces match well between simulation and experiment results, which can provide many good basic data and analysis methods to optimize the machining parameters, reduce tool wear, and improve the workpiece surface roughness and adapt to the programming strategy of high speed machining. Lida Zhu, Chunxia Zhu, Jiaying Pei, Xuebing Li, and Wei Wang Copyright © 2014 Lida Zhu et al. All rights reserved. Biochar Preparation, Characterization, and Adsorptive Capacity and Its Effect on Bioavailability of Contaminants: An Overview Mon, 27 Oct 2014 08:36:51 +0000 This paper provides an updated review on the subjects, the available alternative to produce biochar from biomass, quantification and characterization of biochar, the adsorptive capacity for the adsorption of contaminants, and the effect of biochar addition to agricultural soils on contaminant bioavailability. The property of biochar produced is much dependent upon the composition and type of biomass and the conditions at which biomass is carbonized. The physical and chemical characterizations are necessary to identify the basic structure and property of biochar and to predict its potential in various environmental application. Biochar is a promising alternative to remedy the soils contaminated with heavy metals and organic compounds through adsorption and immobilization due to its large surface area, charged surface, and functional groups. Overall, the bioavailability of heavy metals and organic compounds decreases when biochar is amended into soils. Obemah D. Nartey and Baowei Zhao Copyright © 2014 Obemah D. Nartey and Baowei Zhao. All rights reserved. Mechanical Behavior of Interface between Composite Geomembrane and Permeable Cushion Material Wed, 22 Oct 2014 12:54:11 +0000 An accurate description of composite geomembrane-cushion interface behavior is of great importance for stress-deformation analysis and stability assessment of geomembrane surface barrier of rock-fill dam. A series of direct shear tests were conducted to investigate the friction behaviors of interfaces between composite geomembrane and two different permeable cushion materials (crushed stones and polyurethane mixed crushed stones). The shear stress-displacement relationships of the two interfaces show different characteristics and were described by the nonlinear-elastic model and nonlinear-elastic perfectly plastic model, respectively. Then the two models were implemented into the Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua in Three Dimensions () procedure correctly. By verification of a numerical example, numerical calculation results showed a good agreement with the theoretical solutions and test results. Haimin Wu, Yiming Shu, Linjun Dai, and Zhaoming Teng Copyright © 2014 Haimin Wu et al. All rights reserved. The Influence of Aggregate Size and Binder Material on the Properties of Pervious Concrete Tue, 21 Oct 2014 07:50:47 +0000 Specimens were prepared by altering parameters such as aggregate sizes, binder materials, and the amounts of binder used and were subsequently tested by using permeability, porosity, mechanical strength, and soundness tests. The results indicated that the water permeability coefficient and connected porosity decreased as the amount of binder used increased and increased with increasing aggregate size. In the mechanical strength test, the compressive, splitting tensile, and flexural strengths increased as the amount of binder used increased and decreased with the increase of aggregate size. Highly viscous binder enhanced compressive strength, water permeability, and the resistance to sulfate attacks. In the mechanics and sulfate soundness tests, the mix proportion of alkali-activated slag paste used in this study exhibited a superior performance than the Portland cement pervious concrete (the control) did, but the difference in water permeability between the two types of concrete was insignificant. The mix proportions of cement paste containing 20% and 30% silica fume exhibited less mechanical strength than the control did. Moreover, compared with the control, the cement paste containing silica fume demonstrated poor resistance to sulfate attacks, and the difference in the water permeability between such specimen and the control was not noticeable. Tun Chi Fu, Weichung Yeih, Jiang Jhy Chang, and Ran Huang Copyright © 2014 Tun Chi Fu et al. All rights reserved. Fiber Bragg Grating-Based Performance Monitoring of Piles Fiber in a Geotechnical Centrifugal Model Test Tue, 21 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 In centrifugal tests, conventional sensors can hardly capture the performance of reinforcement in small-scale models. However, recent advances in fiber optic sensing technologies enable the accurate and reliable monitoring of strain and temperature in laboratory geotechnical tests. This paper outlines a centrifugal model test, performed using a 60 g ton geocentrifuge, to investigate the performance of pipe piles used to reinforce the loess foundation below a widened embankment. Prior to the test, quasidistributed fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensors were attached to the surface of the pipe piles to measure the lateral friction resistance in real time. Via the centrifuge actuator, the driving of pipe piles was simulated. During testing, the variations of skin friction distribution along the pipe piles were measured automatically using an optical fiber interrogator. This paper represents the presentation and detailed analysis of monitoring results. Herein, we verify the reliability of the fiber optic sensors in monitoring the model piles without affecting the integrity of the centrifugal model. This paper, furthermore, shows that lateral friction resistance developed in stages with the pipe piles being pressed in and that this sometimes may become negative. Xiaolin Weng, Jianxun Chen, and Jun Wang Copyright © 2014 Xiaolin Weng et al. All rights reserved. Microstructural Characterization and Wear Properties of Fe-Based Amorphous-Crystalline Coating Deposited by Twin Wire Arc Spraying Mon, 20 Oct 2014 08:54:56 +0000 Twin wire arc spraying (TWAS) was used to produce an amorphous crystalline Fe-based coating on AISI 1018 steel substrate using a commercial powder (140MXC) in order to improve microhardness and wear properties. The microstructures of coating were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) as well as the powder precursor. Analysis in the coating showed the formation of an amorphous matrix with boron and tungsten carbides randomly dispersed. At high amplifications were identified boron carbides at interface boron carbide/amorphous matrix by TEM. This kind of carbides growth can be attributed to partial crystallization by heterogeneous nucleation. These interfaces have not been reported in the literature by thermal spraying process. The measurements of average microhardness on amorphous matrix and boron carbides were 9.1 and 23.85 GPa, respectively. By contrast, the microhardness values of unmelted boron carbide in the amorphous phase were higher than in the substrate, approaching 2.14 GPa. The relative wear resistance of coating was 5.6 times that of substrate. These results indicate that the twin wire arc spraying is a promising technique to prepare amorphous crystalline coatings. Ana Arizmendi-Morquecho, Araceli Campa-Castilla, C. Leyva-Porras, Josué Almicar Aguilar Martinez, Gregorio Vargas Gutiérrez, Karla Judith Moreno Bello, and L. López López Copyright © 2014 Ana Arizmendi-Morquecho et al. All rights reserved. Dynamic Recrystallization Behavior of TA15 Titanium Alloy under Isothermal Compression during Hot Deformation Sun, 19 Oct 2014 13:21:39 +0000 In order to improve the understanding of the dynamic recrystallization (DRX) behaviors of TA15 titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-2Zr-1Mo-1V), a series of experiments were conducted on a TMTS thermal simulator at temperatures of 1173 K, 1203 K, 1223 K, and 1273 K with the strain rates of 0.005 s−1, 0.05 s−1, 0.5 s−1, and 1 s−1. By the regression analysis for conventional hyperbolic sine equation, the activation energy of DRX in two-phase region is and in region is , and a dimensionless parameter controlling the stored energy was determined as in two-phase region and as in region. The DRX behaviors of TA15 titanium alloy were proposed on the strength of the experiment results. Finally, the theoretical prediction results of DRX volume fraction were shown to be in agreement with experimental observations. Yuanxin Luo, Yuqing Heng, Yongqin Wang, and Xingchun Yan Copyright © 2014 Yuanxin Luo et al. All rights reserved. Performance of BFRP Retrofitted RCC Piles Subjected to Axial Loads Sun, 19 Oct 2014 13:05:45 +0000 This paper deals with the behaviour of basalt fibre reinforced polymer (BFRP) composites retrofitted RCC piles subjected to axial compression loads. Currently the awareness of using FRP increases rapidly in engineering fields and also among public. Retrofitting becomes vital for aged and damaged concrete structures, piles, and so forth, to improve its load carrying capacity and to extend the service life. The load carrying capacity of piles retrofitted with basalt unidirectional fabric was studied experimentally. 15 nos. of RCC end bearing pile elements were cast with same reinforcement for axial compression experiment. Three piles were used as conventional elements, another 3 piles were used as double BFRP wrapped pile elements, and remaining 9 piles were used as retrofitted piles with BFRP double wrapping after preloaded to 30%, 60%, and 90% of ultimate load of conventional element. The effects of retrofitting of RCC pile elements were observed and a mathematical prediction was developed for calculation of retrofitting strength. The stress vs. strain relationship curve, load vs. deformation curve, preloaded elements strength losses are tabulated and plotted. Besides, crack patterns of conventional elements and tearing BFRP wrapped elements were also observed. The BFRP wrapped elements and retrofitted elements withstand more axial compressive load than the conventional elements. Anandakumar Ramaswamy, Selvamony Chachithanantham, and Seeni Arumugam Copyright © 2014 Anandakumar Ramaswamy et al. All rights reserved. Experimental Study of Ultralight (<300 kg/m3) Foamed Concrete Wed, 15 Oct 2014 11:26:15 +0000 A type of ultralight (<300 kg/m3) foamed concrete (FC), which can be used as a new energy-conservation and environmental-protection building material and is particularly suitable for the thermal-insulation engineering of building external walls, was produced. The influences of different mixing amounts of fly ash, fly ash activator, WC (WC) ratio, and foaming agent (FA) on the compressive strength of FC were reported. The experimental study indicated that (1) the addition of fly ash reduced the strength of the FC and that the appropriate mixing amount of fly ash in this ultralight FC system should not exceed 45%; (2) with the increasing of fly ash activator, the strength of the FC sample is notably enhanced and the appropriate mixing amount of fly ash activator is 2.5%; (3) the optimized proportion of WC ratio is 0.45, and the FC that was produced according to this proportion has relatively high compressive strength; (4) by increasing the mixing amount of FA, the compressive strength of the FC notably decreases, and the optimal mixing amount of FA in this experiment is 3.5%. Xianjun Tan, Weizhong Chen, Yingge Hao, and Xu Wang Copyright © 2014 Xianjun Tan et al. All rights reserved. Preparation of Flame Retardant Modified with Titanate for Asphalt Binder Wed, 15 Oct 2014 09:55:52 +0000 Improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt is a difficult task due to the complex nature of the materials. This study explores a low dosage compound flame retardant and seeks to improve the compatibility between flame retardants and asphalt. An orthogonal experiment was designed taking magnesium hydroxide, ammonium polyphosphate, and melamine as factors. The oil absorption and activation index were tested to determine the effect of titanate on the flame retardant additive. The pavement performance test was conducted to evaluate the effect of the flame retardant additive. Oxygen index test was conducted to confirm the effect of flame retardant on flame ability of asphalt binder. The results of this study showed that the new composite flame retardant is more effective in improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt and reducing the limiting oxygen index of asphalt binder tested in this study. Bo Li, Jianxun Liu, Feng Han, Xiaoling Li, Liangying Li, Yanbo Li, and Xiaofeng Duan Copyright © 2014 Bo Li et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Aerogel Particle Concentration on Mechanical Behavior of Impregnated RTV 655 Compound Material for Aerospace Applications Wed, 15 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Aerogels are a unique class of materials with superior thermal and mechanical properties particularly suitable for insulating and cryogenic storage applications. It is possible to overcome geometrical restrictions imposed by the rigidity of monolithic polyurea cross-linked silica aerogels by encapsulating micrometer-sized particles in a chemically resistant thermally insulating elastomeric “sleeve.” The ultimate limiting factor for the compound material’s performance is the effect of aerogel particles on the mechanical behavior of the compound material which needs to be fully characterized. The effect of size and concentration of aerogel microparticles on the tensile behavior of aerogel impregnated RTV655 samples was explored both at room temperature and at 77 K. Aerogel microparticles were created using a step-pulse pulverizing technique resulting in particle diameters between 425 μm and 90 μm and subsequently embedded in an RTV 655 elastomeric matrix. Aerogel particle concentrations of 25, 50, and 75 wt% were subjected to tensile tests and behavior of the compound material was investigated. Room temperature and cryogenic temperature studies revealed a compound material with rupture load values dependent on (1) microparticle size and (2) microparticle concentration. Results presented show how the stress elongation behavior depends on each parameter. Firouzeh Sabri, Jeffrey G. Marchetta, K. M. Rifat Faysal, Andrew Brock, and Esra Roan Copyright © 2014 Firouzeh Sabri et al. All rights reserved. Finite Element Modeling of Crack Generation in Laser Shock Peening Processed Airfoils Mon, 13 Oct 2014 12:22:57 +0000 Laser shock peening (LSP) is a surface treatment process for airfoils that is achieved by the induction of compressive stress. While LSP is a mature and reliable surface treatment process, slight anomalies during the process, or variations in material ductility and geometries, may cause unintended formation of small subsurface cracks in the resultant LSP processed material. In this study, we developed a 3D FEM model to simulate the formation and predict the sizes of cracks generated by inappropriate LSP processing in airfoil specimens in order to avoid producing such subsurface cracks. The Johnson-Cook plastic material model along with the consideration of effects of high strain rate was used to describe the plasticity of Ti alloys. The constants in this plastic model have been optimized with experimental data. The FEM model also includes both damage initiation and evolution criteria to simulate cracks generated by LSP process in the specimens. The simulated crack sizes and locations in the specimens have been validated by the experimental results. Fang Li, Xue Qi, and Dan Xiang Copyright © 2014 Fang Li et al. All rights reserved. Structural Modification of Sol-Gel Synthesized V2O5 and TiO2 Thin Films with/without Erbium Doping Mon, 13 Oct 2014 11:59:06 +0000 Comparative work of with/without erbium- (Er-) doped vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films were carried out via sol-gel technique by dissolving erbium (III) nitrate pentahydrate (Er(NO3)3·5H2O) in vanadium (V) oxoisopropoxide (OV[OCH(CH3)2]3) and titanium (IV) isopropoxide (Ti[OCH(CH3)2]4). Effect of Er doping was traced by Fourier transform IR (FTIR), thermogravimetric/differential thermal (TG/DTA), and photoluminescence measurements. UV-Vis transmission/absorption measurement indicated a blue shift upon Er doping in V2O5 film due to the softening of V=O bond while appearance of typical absorption peaks in Er-doped TiO2 film. Granule size of the films increased (reduced) upon Er substitution on host material compared to undoped V2O5 and TiO2 films, respectively. Fatma Pınar Gökdemir, Ayşe Evrim Saatci, Orhan Özdemir, and Kubilay Kutlu Copyright © 2014 Fatma Pınar Gökdemir et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Chopped Basalt Fibers on the Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete Mon, 13 Oct 2014 09:07:09 +0000 This paper presents the mechanical properties and the microstructure of the high performance fiber reinforced concrete (HPFRC) containing up to 3% volume fraction of chopped Basalt fibers. Three types of the concrete were prepared, out of which, the first type was prepared by utilizing 100% cement content. The other two types of the concrete were prepared by replacing 10% cement content with silica fume and the locally produced metakaolin. Using each concrete type, four mixes were prepared in which Basalt fibers were added in the range of 0–3%; that is, total twelve mixes of the HPFRC concrete were prepared. From each of the twelve concrete mixes, total twelve specimens were cast to determine the mechanical properties of the HPFRC including compressive strength (cube and cylinder), splitting tensile strength, and the flexural strength. In this way, a total of 108 specimens were cast and tested in this study. Test results showed that the addition of the Basalt fibers significantly increased the tensile splitting strength and the flexural strength of the HPFRC, while there was slight improvement in the compressive strength with the addition of Basalt fibers. The microstructure of HPFRC was examined to determine the interfacial transition zone (ITZ) between the aggregates and the paste by using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), which showed the improvement of the ITZ due to the addition of the Basalt fibers. Tehmina Ayub, Nasir Shafiq, and M. Fadhil Nuruddin Copyright © 2014 Tehmina Ayub et al. All rights reserved. Compressive Behaviour of RC Column with Fibre Reinforced Concrete Confined by CFRP Strips Mon, 13 Oct 2014 09:01:44 +0000 The structural application of synthetic fibre reinforced concrete (FRC) has become widespread in the construction industry in order to satisfy the requirement of the earthquake resistant structures. Research conducted so far are focused on the structural behaviour of RC column externally confined with FRP composites, while studies are needed to address the behaviour of FRP strengthened RC column fabricated using fibre reinforced concrete. With the intention that the experimental investigation was carried out to evaluate the feasibility use of CFRP composite strips in strengthening of RC column made with fibre reinforced concrete. Circular synthetic Polypropylene fibre was used in the rate of 0.50% in the volume of concrete. CFRP strips having a width of 50 mm were used to confine the column and the experimental parameters were effective spacing between the CFRP strips (20 mm and 30 mm) and the number of CFRP layers (one, two and three). The externally bonded CFRP strips counteract the lateral expansion of the concrete significantly by providing restraining effect and thus effect enhanced the stiffness of the column. The column strengthened with CFRP strips showed a maximum of 198.87% and 91.75% enhancement in axial deformation control and ultimate strength, respectively, compared to that of reference column. From the test results obtained, it is suggested that CFRP strips with the spacing of 20 mm and 30 mm can be used in strengthening of RC column made with FRC; however the column confined with 30 mm spacing provides an economical advantage compared to that of 20 mm spacing. A. M. Vasumathi, K. Rajkumar, and G. Ganesh Prabhu Copyright © 2014 A. M. Vasumathi et al. All rights reserved. Material Characterization of Strontium Ferrite Powders for Producing Sintered Magnets by Ceramic Injection Molding (MagnetPIM) Mon, 13 Oct 2014 08:06:29 +0000 For this study, different strontium ferrite powders were mixed with a filling ratio of about 60 vol% in a binder system and formed into green compacts. During the process of injection molding, a magnetic field was generated in the tool via a magnetic coil, which enables magnetization and orientation of the ceramic particles. All powders were successfully processed by MagnetPIM. The investigations identified that it is impossible to extrapolate from the magnetic properties of a green compact to the magnetic properties of a sintered part. It became obvious, though, that, when producing very strong magnetic parts by MagnetPIM, the best results can be obtained by using powders with small particle sizes. Dietmar Drummer and Susanne Messingschlager Copyright © 2014 Dietmar Drummer and Susanne Messingschlager. All rights reserved. Development of Pd Alloy Hydrogen Separation Membranes with Dense/Porous Hybrid Structure for High Hydrogen Perm-Selectivity Mon, 13 Oct 2014 07:29:51 +0000 For the commercial applications of hydrogen separation membranes, both high hydrogen selectivity and permeability (i.e., perm-selectivity) are required. However, it has been difficult to fabricate thin, dense Pd alloy composite membranes on porous metal support that have a pore-free surface and an open structure at the interface between the Pd alloy films and the metal support in order to obtain the required properties simultaneously. In this study, we fabricated Pd alloy hydrogen separation membranes with dense/porous hybrid structure for high hydrogen perm-selectivity. The hydrogen selectivity of this membrane increased owing to the dense and pore-free microstructure of the membrane surface. The hydrogen permeation flux also was remarkably improved by the formation of an open microstructure with numerous open voids at the interface and by an effective reduction in the membrane thickness as a result of the porous structure formed within the Pd alloy films. Jae-Yun Han, Chang-Hyun Kim, Sang-Ho Kim, and Dong-Won Kim Copyright © 2014 Jae-Yun Han et al. All rights reserved. Cyclic Load Responses of GFRP-Strengthened Hollow Rectangular Bridge Piers Mon, 13 Oct 2014 07:06:45 +0000 This study investigated the seismic behavior of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) strengthened hollow rectangular bridge piers. Cyclic testing of reinforced concrete (RC) piers retrofitted with GFRP was carried out under constant axial loading and lateral bending. The failure characteristics, flexural ductility, dissipated energy, and hysteretic behaviors, were analyzed based on experimental results. A simplified GFRP-confined concrete model is developed by considering effective strength coefficient and area distribution ratio of GFRP sheets. The results indicate that the failure modes and damage region would be changed and the ductility and dissipated energy of the GFRP-strengthened hollow rectangular bridge piers were improved greatly but not much improvement for the lateral load capacity. The analytical results of the force-displacement hysteretic loops based on the GFRP-confined concrete model developed in this paper agreed well with the experimental data. Junfeng Jia, Qiang Han, Zigang Xu, and Dongjie Zhang Copyright © 2014 Junfeng Jia et al. All rights reserved. Research on Static Triaxial Mechanical Properties of New CementSoil Reinforced with Polypropylene Fiber Sun, 12 Oct 2014 09:46:20 +0000 Through the laboratory test, the mechanical properties of cementsoil with adding desulfurization gypsum, fly ash, and polypropylene fiber were studied. Three different percentages (0%, 0.5%, and 1.0%) of polypropylene fiber were mixed into new cementsoil for which the cement content is 15% of the dry soil weight, the desulfurization gypsum content is 2% of the dry soil weight, and the fly ash content is 1.0% of the dry soil weight. The new cementsoil strength reinforced with polypropylene fiber was studied by triaxial test under different polypropylene fiber mixing ratio, different age, and different confining pressure. The experimental results show that, compared with ordinary soil, the deviatoric stress and the peak shear strength reinforced with polypropylene fiber have different amplitude increase. At the same time, the internal friction angle of new cementsoil with polypropylene fiber increases slightly with the growth of the age. The stress-strain curve of the polypropylene fiber cementsoil has the typical work hardening characteristic and has the characteristics of bulge fracture. Qiang Wang, Rui Tang, Qun Cheng, Xiankun Wang, and Fang-ling Liu Copyright © 2014 Qiang Wang et al. All rights reserved. Current Development in Lead-Free -Based Piezoelectric Materials Sun, 21 Sep 2014 11:37:52 +0000 The lead-free piezoelectric ceramics display good piezoelectric properties which are comparable with Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) and these materials overcome the hazard to the environment and human health. The Bi0.5(Na,K)0.5TiO3 (BNKT) is rapidly developed because of good piezoelectric, ferroelectric, and dielectric properties compared to PZT. The origin of giant strain of BNKT piezoelectric materials was found at morphotropic phase boundary due to crystal change from tetragonal to orthorhombic and/or precipitation of cubic phases, in addition to domain switching mechanism. The dopants or secondary phases with ABO3 structure as solid solution are expected to change the crystal structure and create the vacancies which results in enhancement of the piezoelectric properties. In this work, we reviewed the current development of BNKT by dopants and secondary phase as solid solution. Our discussion will focus on role of dopants and secondary phase to piezoelectric properties of BNKT. This result will open the direction to control the properties of lead-free piezoelectric materials. Ngo Duc Quan, Luong Huu Bac, Duong Van Thiet, Vu Ngoc Hung, and Dang Duc Dung Copyright © 2014 Ngo Duc Quan et al. All rights reserved. Palm Olein as Renewable Raw Materials for Industrial and Pharmaceutical Products Applications: Chemical Characterization and Physicochemical Properties Studies Thu, 18 Sep 2014 07:27:51 +0000 Palm olein (P) is widely produced as edible oil in tropical countries. P is considered as renewable raw material for the new industrial and pharmaceutical products synthesis based on its characterization. Palm olein was good on its viscosity index, oxidative stability, and flash and fire point. P contained unsaturated triacylglycerols (TAGs): POO (33.3%); POP (29.6%) which plays an important role in chemical modification process to produce new industrial products. The double bond was detected on 1H-NMR (5.3 ppm) and 13C-NMR (130 ppm) spectra. The chemical compositions of P were tested by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC) techniques. This unsaturated oil is potentially to be used as renewable raw materials in chemical modification process to synthesise polyols, polyurethane, and biolubricant for industrial and pharmaceutical products application. Darfizzi Derawi, Bashar Mudhaffar Abdullah, Hasniza Zaman Huri, Rahimi M. Yusop, Jumat Salimon, Nany Hairunisa, and Nadia Salih Copyright © 2014 Darfizzi Derawi et al. All rights reserved. Assessment of Size-Dependent Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Properties of Silver Nanoparticles Mon, 15 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Nanoscale silver has been increasingly applied to commercial products for their antimicrobial function as antibiotics and disinfectants. In this work, the different sizes of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were studied not only in Methylobacterium spp. for their antimicrobial potential but also in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) for their cytotoxicity in order to determine responses dependent on their particle size. Size controlled silver particles were prepared by chemical reduction of silver cations (Ag+) and then dispersed in water for their physicochemical characterization using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and zeta potential measurements. To ascertain antimicrobial response, water-soluble silver nanoparticles were mixed into Methylobacterium spp. cultured for two days and the sample from the broth was spread on the agar plate for colony counting. 10 nm nanoparticles showed more antimicrobial activity than 100 nm particles at which concentrations were equivalently controlled. Increased cytotoxic effect of smaller silver nanoparticles was also observed in PBMCs cocultured with particles. Silver ions released from 10 nm particles might be correlated with upregulated antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties of AgNPs. Yoon Jeong, Dong Woo Lim, and Jonghoon Choi Copyright © 2014 Yoon Jeong et al. All rights reserved. A Study of Antibioactivity of Nanosilver Colloid and Silver Ion Solution Sun, 14 Sep 2014 12:52:49 +0000 The colloidal silver solution was successfully prepared in dielectric fluid by using electrical spark discharge (ESD) without any surfactants. It does not require the toxic chemical agents in the process, which may affect the effectiveness of nanosilver colloid as an antibacterial agent. Nanocolloidal silver produced by ESD is characterized as low cost, zero environmental pollution, continuous, and rapid mass production process. In order to test the effect of antibioactivity, nanosilver dough was tested; the silver nanofluid was prepared by ESD machine, made into dough at different concentrations, and fermented for three hours in order to observe changes in the diameter of the dough. The results showed that the effect of effectiveness of nanosilver at the concentration of 100 ppm was weak, whereas the effect of 60 ppm silver ion (100 ppm AgNO3) was significant, as the dissociation rate of silver ion concentration correlates to the antibioactivity. Kuo-Hsiung Tseng, Heng-Lin Lee, Der-Chi Tien, Ya-Lan Tang, and Yi-Syuan Kao Copyright © 2014 Kuo-Hsiung Tseng et al. All rights reserved. Growth and Device Performance of AlGaN/GaN Heterostructure with AlSiC Precoverage on Silicon Substrate Thu, 11 Sep 2014 12:32:40 +0000 A crack-free AlGaN/GaN heterostructure was grown on 4-inch Si (111) substrate with initial dot-like AlSiC precoverage layer. It is believed that introducing the AlSiC layer between AlN wetting layer and Si substrate is more effective in obtaining a compressively stressed film growth than conventional Al precoverage on Si surface. The metal semiconductor field effect transistor (MESFET), fabricated on the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure grown with the AlSiC layer, exhibited normally on characteristics, such as threshold voltage of −2.3 V, maximum drain current of 370 mA/mm, and transconductance of 124 mS/mm. Jae-Hoon Lee and Jung-Hee Lee Copyright © 2014 Jae-Hoon Lee and Jung-Hee Lee. All rights reserved. Evaluation Technique of Chloride Penetration Using Apparent Diffusion Coefficient and Neural Network Algorithm Thu, 11 Sep 2014 07:10:09 +0000 Diffusion coefficient from chloride migration test is currently used; however this cannot provide a conventional solution like total chloride contents since it depicts only ion migration velocity in electrical field. This paper proposes a simple analysis technique for chloride behavior using apparent diffusion coefficient from neural network algorithm with time-dependent diffusion phenomena. For this work, thirty mix proportions of high performance concrete are prepared and their diffusion coefficients are obtained after long term-NaCl submerged test. Considering time-dependent diffusion coefficient based on Fick’s 2nd Law and NNA (neural network algorithm), analysis technique for chloride penetration is proposed. The applicability of the proposed technique is verified through the results from accelerated test, long term submerged test, and field investigation results. Yun-Yong Kim, Byung-Jae Lee, and Seung-Jun Kwon Copyright © 2014 Yun-Yong Kim et al. All rights reserved. Microwave Analysis for Two-Dimensional C-V and Noise Model of AlGaN/GaN MODFET Wed, 10 Sep 2014 08:38:38 +0000 A new two-dimensional analytical model for the capacitance-voltage and noise characteristics of a AlGaN/GaN MODFET is developed. The two-dimensional electron gas density is calculated as a function of device dimensions. The model includes the spontaneous and polarization effects. The contribution of various capacitances to the performance of the device is shown. The model further predicts the transconductance, drain conductance, and frequency of operation. A high transconductance of 160 mS/mm and a cut-off frequency of 11.6 GHz are obtained for a device of 50 nm gate length. The effect of gate length on the gate length behaviour of the noise coefficients P, R, and C is also studied. The effect of parasitic source and gate resistance has also been studied to evaluate the minimum noise figure. The excellent agreement with the previously simulated results confirms the validity of the proposed model to optimize the device performance at high frequencies. Ramnish Kumar, Sandeep K. Arya, and Anil Ahlawat Copyright © 2014 Ramnish Kumar et al. All rights reserved. Reactivity and Microstructure of Al2O3-Reinforced Magnesium-Matrix Composites Wed, 10 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Performances of metal matrix composites (MMCs) rely strongly on the distribution of particles within the metal matrix but also on the chemical reaction which may occur at the liquid-solid interfaces. This paper presents the chemical reaction between aluminum based particles Al2O3 and Al2O3-AlOOH with magnesium alloys matrixes AZ91 and EL21, respectively, and studies the microstructure of these reinforced composites. Different methods such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and XRD were used to highlight these chemical reactions and to identify products. Results demonstrate the formation of MgO particles within the matrix for both composites and also the dissolution of aluminum in the eutectic region in the case of EL21. Maher Mounib, Matteo Pavese, Claudio Badini, Williams Lefebvre, and Hajo Dieringa Copyright © 2014 Maher Mounib et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Nanofillers on the Polarization and Depolarization Current Characteristics of New LLDPE-NR Compound for High Voltage Application Tue, 09 Sep 2014 11:06:32 +0000 Polymeric nanocomposites in which the nanosize fillers are evenly distributed in the polymer material attract attention as an insulating material due to their ability to enhance the materials performance properties of electrical and mechanical. For high voltage (HV) insulation application, one of the targets is to obtain new insulators with improved dielectric properties. This paper presents the outcome of an experimental study to determine the conductivity level of the linear low-density polyethylene- (LLDPE-)natural rubber (NR) compound, filled with different amount of SiO2 and TiO2 nanofiller by using the polarization and depolarization current (PDC) measurement technique. linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) and natural rubber (NR) with the ratio composition of 80 : 20 are selected as a base polymer. The experiment was conducted to find PDC pattern and conductivity variations of each of the LLDPE-NR/SiO2 and LLDPE-NR/TiO2 samples. The results show that the addition of SiO2 filler exhibited less conductivity compared to TiO2 filler with certain percentage. From the study, it can be concluded that LLDPE-NR/SiO2 is a better insulator compared with LLDPE-NR/TiO2. N. A. M. Jamail, M. A. M. Piah, N. A. Muhamad, Z. Salam, N. F. Kasri, R. A. Zainir, and Q. E. Kamarudin Copyright © 2014 N. A. M. Jamail et al. All rights reserved. Unstable Temperature Distribution in Friction Stir Welding Tue, 09 Sep 2014 09:38:26 +0000 In the friction stir welding process, a nonuniform and high generated temperature is undesirable. Unstable temperature and distribution affect thermal and residual stresses along the welding line, thus necessitating mitigation. This paper presents a simple method to prevent significant temperature difference along the welding line and also to help nullifying some defect types associated with this welding, such as end-hole, initial unwelded line, and deformed areas. In the experimental investigation, a heat and force thermocouple and dynamometer were utilized while couple-field thermomechanical models were used to evaluate temperature and its distribution, plastic strain, and material displacement. The suggested method generated uniform temperature distributions. Measurement results are discussed, showing a good correlation with predictions. Sadiq Aziz Hussein, S. Thiru, R. Izamshah, and Abd Salam Md Tahir Copyright © 2014 Sadiq Aziz Hussein et al. All rights reserved.