Advances in Materials Science and Engineering The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Spectroscopic Analysis of Au-Cu Alloy Nanoparticles of Various Compositions Synthesized by a Chemical Reduction Method Sun, 29 Mar 2015 13:54:57 +0000 Au-Cu alloy nanoparticles were synthesized by a chemical reduction method. Five samples having different compositions of Au and Cu (Au-Cu 3 : 1, Au-Cu 2 : 1, Au-Cu 1 : 1, Au-Cu 1 : 2, and Au-Cu 1 : 3) were prepared. The newly synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by electronic absorption, fluorescence, and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD). These alloy nanoparticles were also analyzed by SEM and TEM. The particle size was determined by SEM and TEM and calculated by Debye Scherrer’s equation as well. The results revealed that the average diameter of nanoparticles gets lowered from 80 to 65 nm as the amount of Cu is increased in alloy nanoparticles. Some physical properties were found to change with change in molar composition of Au and Cu. Most of the properties showed optimum values for Au-Cu alloy nanoparticles of 1 : 3. Cu in Au-Cu alloy caused decrease in the intensity of the emission peak and acted as a quencher. The fluorescence data was utilized for the evaluation of number of binding sites, total number of atoms in alloy nanoparticle, binding constant, and free energy of binding while morphology was deduced from SEM and TEM. Latif-ur-Rahman, Afzal Shah, Rumana Qureshi, Sher Bahadar Khan, Abdullah M. Asiri, Anwar-ul-Haq Ali Shah, Muhammad Ishaq, Mohammad Saleem Khan, Suzanne Kay Lunsford, and Muhammad Abid Zia Copyright © 2015 Latif-ur-Rahman et al. All rights reserved. A Survival Analysis on Fuel Cell Technology Patent Maintenance and Values Exploration between 1976 and 2001 Sun, 29 Mar 2015 13:02:55 +0000 Fuel cell R&D activities desirably arrive in patents; the costly maintenance fee challenges managers as well as researchers to whether or not renew existing patents. The key is, will the fuel cell patent’s value be worth renewing? Thus assessment of patent value is essential. Our study focus online searching was made available after 1976, as the initial year to conduct the patent search. Up to 2001, there are 2269 patents classified in the H01M 008/00~H01M 008/24 category, which is the category concerning fuel cell under the classification of the International Patent Classification. Effective exploitation of technology values is subject to the complementarities of organizational resources. The present study used the emerging technology of Fuel Cells as an example to show that firms may commercialize the values of technology according to their organizational resources. By aligning firms’ patenting strategies and the imparities between book values and market values this study concludes a technological ambidexterity with respect to firms’ technology development. The exploitative firms tend to file patents to defend their leadership in the product market as a result their technology is constrained within a firm’s boundaries. The results show that patent renewing decisions are consequence of firm’s constraints of complementary resources. Seng-Su Tsang, Feng-Chen Chang, and Wen-Cheng Wang Copyright © 2015 Seng-Su Tsang et al. All rights reserved. Ultrafine Resveratrol Particles: Supercritical Antisolvent Preparation and Evaluation In Vitro and In Vivo Sun, 29 Mar 2015 11:07:33 +0000 Ultrafine resveratrol (u-Res) particles were prepared through the SAS process. The orthogonal method was used to optimize the factors of the SAS process. The size of u-Res reached 0.68 μm under the optimum conditions. The characterization of the u-Res particles was tested by many analysis methods. The chemical structure of Res was unaffected by the SAS process. The degree of crystallinity of the u-Res particles greatly reduced. The purity of the u-Res particles increased from 98.5% to 99.2% during the SAS process. The u-Res particles had greater saturation solubility and dissolution rate than the raw-Res (r-Res) particles. The radical scavenging activity and bioavailability of the u-Res in vivo were 1.9 times of the r-Res. Kunlun Wang, Xiuhua Zhao, Yuangang Zu, Jialei Li, Xiaonan Zhang, Wei Sun, and Xinyang Yu Copyright © 2015 Kunlun Wang et al. All rights reserved. The Study for Saving Energy and Optimization of LED Street Light Heat Sink Design Thu, 26 Mar 2015 12:23:01 +0000 LED lamps are characterized by high energy efficiency, high luminance, and long lifespans. However, the heat radiation problem caused by the extra high power shortens the lifespan and reduces the luminous efficiency of such lamps. This study introduced the development of a novel cooling fin structure for LED lamps and compared its performance with those of commercially available products. The objective of the design was to reduce the maximum temperature and temperature difference on the fin, the amount of aluminum required for fin manufacturing, and CO2 emissions to save energy. The study employed the Taguchi method for experiment planning and used gray relational analysis and principal component analysis to determine the optimal parameter combination for cooling fins. The results showed that the maximum temperature on the fin surface dropped by 2.62°C in environments without forced convection, which indicated improved lighting efficiency. Furthermore, the amount of aluminum used per unit volume for fins was reduced by 15%, which effectively reduced CO2 emissions during the manufacturing process. Chi-Chang Hsieh and Yan-Huei Li Copyright © 2015 Chi-Chang Hsieh and Yan-Huei Li. All rights reserved. Effect of NaNO2 and C6H15NO3 Synergistic Admixtures on Steel-Rebar Corrosion in Concrete Immersed in Aggressive Environments Thu, 26 Mar 2015 11:56:54 +0000 This paper studies effect of different combinations of NaNO2 (sodium nitrite) and C6H15NO3 (triethanolamine (TEA)), as synergistic admixtures in concrete immersed in NaCl and in H2SO4 test environments, on the corrosion of the concrete reinforcing steel (rebar). Although statistically analysed electrochemical test results confirmed NaNO2 effectiveness, synergistic combinations of 4 g NaNO2 + 4 g C6H15NO3 in NaCl medium and of 2 g NaNO2 + 6 g C6H15NO3 in H2SO4 medium were also highly effective at inhibiting rebar corrosion. Synergistic parameter analyses showed that the effective synergistic admixtures that inhibited concrete steel-rebar corrosion in their respective medium were the NaNO2 and C6H15NO3 combinations that exhibited synergistic interactions of cooperative adsorption on steel-rebar. These support the suitability of requisite concentration of triethanolamine as additive admixture with sodium nitrite for steel-rebar corrosion mitigation, which is potent with reduced environmental effects, in concrete immersed in NaCl and in H2SO4 corrosive media. Joshua Olusegun Okeniyi, Abimbola Patricia Idowu Popoola, Cleophas Akintoye Loto, Olugbenga Adeshola Omotosho, Stanley Okechukwu Okpala, and Idemudia Joshua Ambrose Copyright © 2015 Joshua Olusegun Okeniyi et al. All rights reserved. The Experimental Studies on Behavior of Ultrahigh-Performance Concrete Confined by Hybrid Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Tubes Thu, 26 Mar 2015 07:39:15 +0000 This paper conducts axial compression test of ultrahigh performance concrete- (UHPC-) filled hybrid FRP (HFRP) tubes, using the alternating hybrid technology to improve the deformation capacity of FRP tube and measure the axial compressive responses of ultimate strength, strains, and stress-strain curve of confined specimens. The test results show that the local rupture of HFRP tubes did not lead to explosive failure of UHPC cylinder, and its ductility is better than that of UHPC confined by only one type of FRP tube; HFRP tube can effectively improve the compressive strength and ultimate strain of UHPC specimens; the stress-strain curves divide into three distinct regions: linear phase, transition phase, and linear strengthening phase. None of the models provided a reasonable prediction for strength and strain of HFRP-confined UHPC specimen; therefore, a new ultimate strength and strain perdition model considering the confinement effectiveness of different hybrid FRP series was proposed. The new proposed model presented the best fitting results. The stress-strain responses predicted by the existing models are all below the experimental curves; therefore, a new three-stage constitutive model was proposed, which relatively fits the test curves better than the existing models. Zong-cai Deng and Jiu-ling Qu Copyright © 2015 Zong-cai Deng and Jiu-ling Qu. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Sintering Behavior of Premix Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy Powder Thu, 26 Mar 2015 07:33:39 +0000 Sintering of light aluminium alloys powder has been investigated as a way to substitute steels in automotive and aerospace industries. Premix Al-5.5Zn-2.5Mg-0.5Cu composite powder called Alumix 431D was analyzed in this research. Sintering was carried out under ultra high purity nitrogen gas and before reaching sintering temperature, green samples were delubricated at 400°C for 30 min. The powder possesses high sinterability by reaching 96% relative density at 580°C sintering temperature. Formation of liquid phase seems to support achieving high sintering density. Optimum mechanical properties also were obtained under those conditions. T6 heat treatment was done to improve the mechanical properties by formation of precipitation strengthening, and MgZn2 appears to be dominant strengthening precipitate. X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, and SEM-EDS were used to characterize powder, and sintered and heat treated samples. Haris Rudianto, Gwang Joo Jang, Sang Sun Yang, Yong Jin Kim, and Ivo Dlouhy Copyright © 2015 Haris Rudianto et al. All rights reserved. Novel Approaches in Designing Natural/Synthetic Materials for Environmental Applications Wed, 25 Mar 2015 12:22:03 +0000 George Z. Kyzas, Saeid Azizian, and Margaritis Kostoglou Copyright © 2015 George Z. Kyzas et al. All rights reserved. A Nonlinear Creep Model of Rock Salt and Its Numerical Implement in FLAC3D Wed, 25 Mar 2015 12:08:31 +0000 Creep characteristics are integral mechanical properties of rock salt and are related to both long-term stability and security of rock salt repository. Rock salt creep properties are studied in this paper through employing combined methods of theoretical analysis and numerical simulation with a nonlinear creep model and the secondary development in FLAC3D software. A numerical simulation of multistage loading creep was developed with the model and resulting calculations were found consequently to coincide with previously tested data. Xinrong Liu, Xin Yang, and Junbao Wang Copyright © 2015 Xinrong Liu et al. All rights reserved. Size Effects in Residual Stress Formation during Quenching of Cylinders Made of Hot-Work Tool Steel Wed, 25 Mar 2015 09:42:40 +0000 The present work investigates the residual stress formation and the evolution of phase fractions during the quenching process of cylindrical specimens of different sizes. The cylinders are made of hot-work tool steel grade X36CrMoV5-1. A phase transformation kinetic model in combination with a thermomechanical model is used to describe the quenching process. Two phase transformations are considered for developing a modelling scheme: the austenite-to-martensite transformation and the austenite-to-bainite transformation. The focus lies on the complex austenite-to-bainite transformation which can be observed at low cooling rates. For an appropriate description of the phase transformation behaviour nucleation and growth of bainite are taken into account. The thermomechanical model contains thermophysical data and flow curves for each phase. Transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) is modelled by considering phase dependent Greenwood-Johnson parameters for martensite and bainite, respectively. The influence of component size on residual stress formation is investigated by the finite element package Abaqus. Finally, for one cylinder size the simulation results are validated by X-ray stress measurements. Manuel Schemmel, Petri Prevedel, Ronald Schöngrundner, Werner Ecker, and Thomas Antretter Copyright © 2015 Manuel Schemmel et al. All rights reserved. Experimental Study on the Feasibility of Using Water Glass and Aluminum Sulfate to Treat Complications in High Liquid Limit Soil Subgrade Tue, 24 Mar 2015 13:50:38 +0000 The feasibility of using water glass and aluminum sulfate to treat high liquid limit soil subgrade diseases is studied through laboratory experiments, and the following results were observed. After improving the high liquid limit clay with water glass and aluminum sulfate, the liquid limit decreases, the plastic limit increases, and the plasticity index decreases. Compared with untreated soil, the clay content of the improved soil decreases, while the silt and coarse contents increase. The absolute and relative expansion rates of the improved soil are both lower than those of the untreated soil. With the same number of dry and wet cycles, the decreased degrees of cohesion and internal friction angle of the improved soil are, respectively, one-half and one-third of those of the untreated soil. After three dry and wet cycles, the California bearing ratio (CBR) of the untreated soil does not meet the requirements of specifications. However, after being cured for seven days and being subjected to three dry and wet cycles, the CBR of the improved soil, with 4% water glass solution and 0.4% aluminum sulfate, meets the requirements of specifications. Wen-hui Zhang, Hua-wen Zheng, Jia-wei Qi, and Bao-tian Wang Copyright © 2015 Wen-hui Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Earth Materials and Environmental Applications Tue, 24 Mar 2015 08:52:14 +0000 Zhaohui Li, Hanlie Hong, and Guocheng Lv Copyright © 2015 Zhaohui Li et al. All rights reserved. Research on Wetting-Drying Cycles’ Effect on the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Expansive Soil Improved by OTAC-KCl Mon, 23 Mar 2015 13:32:52 +0000 Expansive soil experiences periodic swelling and shrinkage during the alternate wet and dry environments, which will result in severe damage to the slope stability. In this study, a promising modifier OTAC-KCl is introduced, which has a good diffusivity and is soluble in water or other solvents easily. Firstly, a reasonable combination of ameliorant 0.3% STAC and 3% KCl is chosen referring to the free swell test. Then, the best curing period, 14 days, is gotten from UCS tests. The effect of wetting and drying cycles on engineering properties of expansive soil improved by OTAC-KCl admixtures after 14-day curing is also studied accordingly. Both treated and untreated expansive soil samples are prepared for the cyclic wetting-drying tests which mainly include cyclic swelling potential and cyclic strength tests. Experimental results show that the swelling potential of expansive soil samples stabilized with OTAC-KCl is suppressed efficiently, and the untreated soil specimens will collapse when immersed in water while the treated specimens keep in good conditions. Moreover, expansive soil samples modified with 0.3% OTAC + 3% KCl show enough durability on the swelling ability, shear strength, and unconfined compressive strength, which means, that both the physical and the mechanical properties of stabilized expansive soil have been improved effectively. Bao-tian Wang, Can-hong Zhang, Xue-lian Qiu, En-yue Ji, and Wen-hui Zhang Copyright © 2015 Bao-tian Wang et al. All rights reserved. Dissolution Behavior of Cellulose in IL + DMSO Solvent: Effect of Alkyl Length in Imidazolium Cation on Cellulose Dissolution Mon, 23 Mar 2015 13:16:28 +0000 Four cellulose solvents including [C2mim][CH3COO] + DMSO, [C4mim][CH3COO] + DMSO, [C6mim][CH3COO] + DMSO, and [C8mim][CH3COO] + DMSO were prepared by adding dimethyl sulfoxide DMSO in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [C2mim][CH3COO], 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [C4mim][CH3COO], 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [C6mim][CH3COO], and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [C8mim][CH3COO], respectively. The solubilities of cellulose in these solvents were determined at 25°C. The effect of the alkyl chain length in imidazolium cation on cellulose solubility was investigated. With increasing alkyl chain length in imidazolium cation, the solubility of cellulose increases, but further increase in alkyl chain length results in decreases in cellulose. Airong Xu, Lili Cao, Bingjun Wang, and Junying Ma Copyright © 2015 Airong Xu et al. All rights reserved. Preparation and Characterization of Barite/TiO2 Composite Particles Mon, 23 Mar 2015 12:35:43 +0000 To make full use of barite mineral and obtain a kind of composite particles material which has the property of both barite and TiO2, the composite particles material with TiO2 coated on the surface of barite particle was prepared by the method of TiOSO4 solution chemical hydrolysis and precipitation to form hydrolysis composite, removing the impurities of hydrolysis composite, drying, and calcination in this study. The results were evaluated by the covering power of composites. Composite structure and properties were characterized by means of XRD, SEM, FTIR, and XPS. The results showed that the surface of barite had been coated with rutile TiO2 uniformly and compactly and the hiding power value and oil absorption value of the composite powder were 18.50 g/m2 and 15.5 g/100 g, respectively, which had similar pigment performances to TiO2. The results also showed that it was mainly the strong chemical bond between barite and TiO2 that combined them firmly in barite/TiO2 composite particle (B/TCP). Hong Zhou, Mengmeng Wang, Hao Ding, and Gaoxiang Du Copyright © 2015 Hong Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Triaxial Test and Mechanical Analysis of Rock-Soil Aggregate Sampled from Natural Sliding Mass Mon, 23 Mar 2015 11:28:07 +0000 Rock-soil aggregate, as a specific geomaterial, exhibits complicated mechanical behavior. The rock-soil aggregate sampled from the deep layer of sliding mass at Jinpingzi area of Wudongde hydropower plant on Yangtze River is investigated to understand its mechanical behavior. Large-scale laboratory triaxial tests are conducted considering different gradations, stone contents and confining pressures. The results show that variation of stone content and gradation considerably affects the mechanical characteristics of rock-soil aggregate. Further, the influences of stone content, and gradation variation on stress-strain curve, Mohr-Coulomb criterion based shear strength parameters, Duncan-Chang model based deformation parameters, and internal friction angle are analyzed. A modified Rowe’s stress-dilatancy equation describing the mechanical response of rock-soil aggregate is then suggested. Shuling Huang, Xiuli Ding, Yuting Zhang, and Wei Cheng Copyright © 2015 Shuling Huang et al. All rights reserved. The Application of Mechanical-Chemical Corrosion Theory in Downhole Tubing CO2 Corrosion Research Mon, 23 Mar 2015 08:35:36 +0000 Indoor simulating experiment is a main method for oil field CO2 corrosion research. Experimental parameters are very important for an accurate simulation. Based on the mechanical-chemical corrosion theory, the external load may be possible to accelerate the corrosion rate. However, the influence of N2 pressure on CO2 corrosion during the simulating experiment is negligible. Because the coupon stress induced by additional N2 pressure is very low, therefore, the N2 adding procedure can be cancelled and a more safety working space for researchers will be created. However, it does not mean that mechanical-chemical corrosion influence can be ignored. For downhole tubing, the hoop stress generated from the formation compress or liquid column internal pressure is remarkable; stress effect on corrosion has to be taken into consideration. When pit cavity especially occurred on the internal tubing surface, the stress concentration effect will induce a much higher local stress. Mechanical-chemical corrosion will become significant and more study should be performed on this topic. Peike Zhu, Wei Yan, Liyu Deng, and Jingen Deng Copyright © 2015 Peike Zhu et al. All rights reserved. Preparation of Cementitious Material Using Smelting Slag and Tailings and the Solidification and Leaching of Pb2+ Sun, 22 Mar 2015 12:33:37 +0000 The composite cementitious materials were prepared with lead-zinc tailings, lead-zinc smelting slag, and cement clinker. The effect of material ratio on the mechanical properties, the phase analysis, and microstructures were investigated. The effect of the pH and stripping time on the leaching amount of lead ion was discussed. The results show that the additive amount of the tailings should be minimized for the cementitious materials meeting the strength requirements, controlled within 10%. The leaching amount of cementitious materials remains low in a larger range of pH, which can effectively reduce the leaching of heavy metal lead. The leaching kinetics of lead ions in the three kinds of samples could be better described by the pseudo-second-model. Dan Zhang, Shiliu Shi, Chengbiao Wang, Xiaocong Yang, Lijie Guo, and Shanshan Xue Copyright © 2015 Dan Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Raw Materials Synthesis from Heavy Metal Industry Effluents with Bioremediation and Phytomining: A Biomimetic Resource Management Approach Sun, 22 Mar 2015 11:29:42 +0000 Heavy metal wastewater poses a threat to human life and causes significant environmental problems. Bioremediation provides a sustainable waste management technique that uses organisms to remove heavy metals from contaminated water through a variety of different processes. Biosorption involves the use of biomass, such as plant extracts and microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, algae, yeast), and represents a low-cost and environmentally friendly method of bioremediation and resource management. Biosorption-based biosynthesis is proposed as a means of removing heavy metals from wastewaters and soils as it aids the development of heavy metal nanoparticles that may have an application within the technology industry. Phytomining provides a further green method of managing the metal content of wastewater. These approaches represent a viable means of removing toxic chemicals from the effluent produced during the process of manufacturing, and the bioremediation process, furthermore, has the potential to save metal resources from depletion. Biomimetic resource management comprises bioremediation, biosorption, biosynthesis, phytomining, and further methods that provide innovative ways of interpreting waste and pollutants as raw materials for research and industry, inspired by materials, structures, and processes in living nature. Salmah B. Karman, S. Zaleha M. Diah, and Ille C. Gebeshuber Copyright © 2015 Salmah B. Karman et al. All rights reserved. Enhanced Viscosity of Aqueous Palygorskite Suspensions through Physical and Chemical Processing Sun, 22 Mar 2015 11:27:50 +0000 Palygorskite has remarkable rheological properties and was used to increase the stability and viscosity of aqueous suspensions. The effects of different physical and chemical processing methods on the apparent viscosity and plastic viscosity of the palygorskite suspensions such as pressing, ultrasound scattering, acidification, and chemical additives have been released. The pressing and ultrasound scattering indicated that the dispersed state of palygorskite could be increased effectively after treatment, and the apparent viscosity of treated-palygorskite samples increased almost 2-3 times compared to that of before. The viscosity of the acid-treated palygorskite suspension was not increased. The viscosity increased with the content of bentonite in the mixture of bentonite and palygorskite in fresh water. It seemed to be not worthy to add a certain amount of bentonite to palygorskite in order to enhance viscosity and vice versa. Chemical additives appeared to have good effects on the rheological behavior of palygorskite suspension. Magnesium oxide revealed great contribution to viscosity enhancement. The main mechanism was the electrostatic attractive interaction between magnesium oxide particles with positive charges and the palygorskite rods with negative charges. This interacted force has an impact on the structural inversion of palygorskite rods and even caused the reinforcing of flocculation. Feng-shan Zhou, Tian-qi Li, Yun-hua Yan, Can Cao, Lin Zhou, and Yang Liu Copyright © 2015 Feng-shan Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Interactions between Phosphoric/Tannic Acid and Different Forms of FeOOH Sun, 22 Mar 2015 10:36:25 +0000 Alpha, beta, gamma, and delta hydroxyl ferric oxides (FeOOH), as the most common rust layers on iron surface, play different roles in iron preservation. Using modern surface analysis technologies such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectra (IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we studied the interactions between these four types of synthetic FeOOH and phosphoric and tannic acid of different concentrations and proportions. A 3% tannic acid + 10% phosphoric acid + FeOOH was the most suitable formula for rust stabilizer and its reaction products were made up of iron phosphate and chelate of iron and tannin. This research provided technical basis in distinguishing FeOOH and selecting rust layer stabilizer for the preservation of iron, especially iron cultural relics. Lefu Mei, Libing Liao, Zise Wang, and Chunchun Xu Copyright © 2015 Lefu Mei et al. All rights reserved. Preparation and Mechanism of a New Enhanced Flocculant Based on Bentonite for Drinking Water Sun, 22 Mar 2015 10:22:29 +0000 Bentonite is characterized by the large specific surface, good adsorption, ion exchange ability, and nontoxicity. An enhanced bentonite base composite flocculant (BTA) can be prepared from treating the calcium base bentonite and compositing various functional additives. Bentonite was firstly treated by citric acid, then the talc and activated carbon turned to be acid part and simultaneously the part that was treated by sodium bicarbonate and calcium hydroxide turned to be alkaline part, and finally the acid bentonite part and alkaline bentonite part were mixed up with preground powder of polymeric chloride aluminium (PAC), cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM), ferrous sulfate, and aluminum sulfate, and after all of the processing flocculant BTA was obtained. The optimum preparation process of flocculant BTA has shown 29.5% acid bentonite part, 29.5% alkaline bentonite part, 15% PAC, 1% CPAM, 5% ferrous sulfate, and 20% aluminum sulfate. BTA was used to treat drinking water with high turbidity and metal ion in Karamay City, Xinjiang. The treated water was surely up to the drinking water standard of China in decolorization rate, deodorization rate, heavy metal ion removal rate, and so forth, and contents of residual aluminum ions and acrylamide monomer in drinking water were considerably decreased. Feng-shan Zhou, Jie Li, Lin Zhou, and Yang Liu Copyright © 2015 Feng-shan Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Compositional Effects and Mechanical Parametric Analysis of Outwash Deposits Based on the Randomised Generation of Stone Blocks Sun, 22 Mar 2015 10:10:52 +0000 Based on the distribution of the stone blocks in outwash deposits, the paper present a modeling method for the random structure of outwash deposits, in which the long axis of the stone blocks is supposed obeying a lognormal distribution. Then numerical experiments of biaxial compression using the granular discrete element method are used in the macro- and micro parametric analysis. The influences of strength of the cementation, the sizes of stone blocks, and the content of stone blocks on the peak compressive and shear strength are discussed. The micromechanical parameters of the outwash deposits are also analyzed. The proposed method offers a supplement to the mechanical characterization of outwash deposits and accounts for the limitation that indoor experiments cannot consider large stone blocks. Chong Shi and Jinzhou Bai Copyright © 2015 Chong Shi and Jinzhou Bai. All rights reserved. Preparation and Coagulation Behavior of a Novel Multiple Flocculant Based on Cationic Polymer, Hydroxy Aluminum, and Clay Minerals Sun, 22 Mar 2015 09:38:51 +0000 Cationic polymer, hydroxy aluminum, and clay minerals are three flocculants with different action mechanisms and a more cost-efficient multiple flocculant can be prepared by compositing them through appropriate technology. All of attapulgite (ATP), clay minerals containing magnesium, aluminum, and silicate, are porous environmental mineral material with good absorbability and have found wide applications in industrial sewage treatment. With polyaluminum chloride (PAC), poly(dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride) (PDMDAAC), and attapulgite (ATP) clay being the main raw materials, multiple flocculant CMHa (liquid) with good storage stability was prepared and its optimized blending mass percent was PDMDAAC of 2%-3%, ATP of 4%–6%, and PAC of 20%–30%. The liquid poly(dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride) (PDMDAAC) was firstly loaded on solid material in kneader and then mixed in certain proportion with PAC and ATP to prepare solid CMHa convenient for storage and transportation. The optimized mass ratio is PAC : ATP : PDMDAAC = 80 : 10 : 2.4. When this multiple flocculant was used to treat domestic sewage, coal washing sewage, dyeing wastewater, and papermaking wastewater, its equivalent dosage was just 50% of PAC, while overall production cost has been reduced to about 40%, viewing showing broad application prospect. Feng-shan Zhou, Xi Wang, Lin Zhou, and Yang Liu Copyright © 2015 Feng-shan Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Experimental Study on Low-Strength Similar-Material Proportioning and Properties for Coal Mining Sun, 22 Mar 2015 09:36:03 +0000 Similar-material simulation test is an effective tool to study the practical problems in mining and civil engineering. This paper conducts an orthogonal study on low-strength similar materials comprising sand, fly ash, and plaster and analyses the sensitivity of the materials. The mechanical properties of the similar materials strongly depend on the proportioning ratio, and they can satisfy different similar-material simulation tests. The compression strength and elastic modulus of the similar material decrease as the sand-binder ratio or cement ratio increases. There are approximately linear relations between the compression strength/elastic modulus and sand-binder ratio and approximately power relations between the compression strength/elastic modulus and sand-binder ratio. Sensitivity analysis employing the range method shows that the effects of the cement ratio on the compression strength and elastic modulus are more obvious than the effects of the sand-binder ratio. Finally, one of similar materials is used in a simulation test of coal backfill mining. Shaojie Chen, Hailong Wang, Junwen Zhang, Huilin Xing, and Huaiyuan Wang Copyright © 2015 Shaojie Chen et al. All rights reserved. Resource Distribution, Interprovincial Trade, and Embodied Energy: A Case Study of China Sun, 22 Mar 2015 09:35:55 +0000 Based on data from 2007 input-output tables for each province, we estimated the energy embodied in China’s interprovincial trade through input-output analysis. The results show that a sizable transfer of energy is embodied in China’s interprovincial trade, and the transfer goes from the central and western provinces, which have higher energy endowments, to the eastern and coastal provinces, which have more developed economies. The provinces with the greatest net inflow of embodied energy via interprovincial trade were Zhejiang, Guangdong, Beijing, Shandong, and Jiangsu. The provinces with the greatest net outflow of embodied energy were Inner Mongolia, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Xinjiang, and Heilongjiang. To effectively reduce China’s energy consumption, it is vital to adhere not only to the producer responsibility principle but also to the consumer responsibility principle. In particular, the economically developed provinces with substantial net inflows of embodied energy in interprovincial trade should provide support to the provinces from which the embodied energy outflows come. Sanmang Wu, Yalin Lei, and Li Li Copyright © 2015 Sanmang Wu et al. All rights reserved. Adsorption Mechanism of Ciprofloxacin from Water by Synthesized Birnessite Sun, 22 Mar 2015 09:34:03 +0000 The efficiency of ciprofloxacin (CIP) adsorption on synthesized birnessite was systematically studied under varying physicochemical conditions, such as solution pH, contact time, initial CIP concentration, and different average oxidation states (AOS) of Mn in birnessite. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and molecular simulations were employed to investigate the adsorption mechanism of CIP on birnessite. Experimental results showed that surface adsorption instead of cation exchange was responsible for the uptake of CIP on birnessite. The quantum mechanics simulation showed that the final energy of the interaction between CIP and birnessite was smaller under the condition when the AOS of Mn was lower, in comparison to the case when the AOS of Mn was high. The highest CIP adsorption occurred under a weak alkaline condition. Xuebing Xing, Jingwen Feng, Guocheng Lv, Kenan Song, Lefu Mei, Libing Liao, Xiaoyu Wang, and Ben Xu Copyright © 2015 Xuebing Xing et al. All rights reserved. First-Principles Study on the Structural and Electronic Properties of N Atoms Doped-Rutile TiO2 of Oxygen Vacancies Sun, 22 Mar 2015 09:26:09 +0000 For the propose of considering the actual situation of electronic neutral, a simulation has been down on the basis of choosing the position of dual N and researching the oxygen vacancy. It is found that the reason why crystal material gets smaller is due to the emergence of impurity levels. By introducing the oxygen vacancy to the structure, the results show that while the oxygen vacancy is near the two nitrogen atoms which have a back to back position, its energy gets the lowest level and its structure gets the most stable state. From its energy band structure and density, the author finds that the impurity elements do not affect the migration of Fermi level while the oxygen vacancy has been increased. Instead of that, the conduction band of metal atoms moves to the Fermi level and then forms the N-type semiconductor material, but the photocatalytic activity is not as good as the dual N-doping state. Zhong-Liang Zeng Copyright © 2015 Zhong-Liang Zeng. All rights reserved. Composition Optimization of Glass-Like Casing and Its Novel Application in Mending Instable Borehole Wall Sun, 22 Mar 2015 09:21:59 +0000 A glass-like casing was developed to mend the instable borehole due to its great similarities in compositions and structure. In order to boost the casing’s mechanical properties and lower its cost, different wt% additions of aluminum and quartz sand are added into the composition. Based on the outcomes of differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), it is suggested to be sintered at the temperature of 700°C. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) show that aluminum and SiO2 are its main crystalline phases. Its compression strength and the tensile strength range 5–14 Mpa and 0.5–4.5 Mpa, respectively, with the relative densities of between 1.00 g/cm3 and 1.19 g/cm3. In the end, a glass-based formula with 30 wt% aluminum and 40 wt% quartz sand is developed and experimentally applied. Zhi-jun Li, Yu Wang, Bao-lin Liu, and Chun Yang Copyright © 2015 Zhi-jun Li et al. All rights reserved. Seismic Earth Pressures of Retaining Wall from Large Shaking Table Tests Sun, 22 Mar 2015 09:17:51 +0000 To ascertain seismic response of retaining wall in the Wenchuan earthquake, large shaking table tests are performed and an acceleration record is acted in 3 directions. In the tests, acceleration time history recorded at Wolong station in the Wenchuan earthquake is used to excite the model wall. Results from the tests show that the location of dynamic resultant earth pressure is 0.35–0.49 H from toe of the wall for road shoulder retaining wall on rock foundation, 0.33–0.42 H for embankment retaining wall on rock foundation, and 0.46–0.77 H for road shoulder retaining wall on soil foundation. Besides, dynamic earth pressure increases with the increase of ground shaking from 0.1 g to 0.9 g and the relationship is nonlinear. The distribution is closed to for PGA less than 0.4 g but larger for PGA larger than and equal to 0.4 g, especially on the soil foundation. After the comparison of measured earth pressures and theoretical results by pseudodynamic method and pseudostatic method, results of the former are consistent with those of the shaking table test, but results of the latter method are smaller than measured. Changwei Yang, Jian Jing Zhang, Qu Honglue, Bi Junwei, and Liu Feicheng Copyright © 2015 Changwei Yang et al. All rights reserved.