607436.fig.001
Figure 1: Manifestations of SCA and strategies for management including herbal treatment. The two major pathologies of SCA are hemolytic anemia and vasoocclusion with pain especially in the limbs. Acute chest syndrome, which can result from infections, is the leading cause of death. Neurologic complications such as stroke and hemorrhage can occur. Aplastic crisis is most often the result of infection with Parvovirus B19, which results from temporary cessation of RBC production. Genitourinary-hematuria, renal failure, and priapism may occur. Cholelithiasis due to severe hemolysis can develop into acute cholecystitis due to the formation of pigmented gallstones [613].