- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Recently Accepted Articles ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 607436, 9 pages
Traditional Herbal Management of Sickle Cell Anemia: Lessons from Nigeria
1Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Quality Control, National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD), PMB 21, Garki, Idu Industrial Area, Abuja, Nigeria
2Department of Pharmaceutics & Medicinal Chemistry, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Amassoma, Nigeria
Received 6 March 2012; Revised 8 August 2012; Accepted 9 August 2012
Academic Editor: Aurelio Maggio
Copyright © 2012 Sunday J. Ameh et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- F. E. G. Cox, “History of the discovery of the malaria parasites and their vectors,” Parasites & Vectors, vol. 3, article 5, 2010.
- N. Etkin, Edible Medicines: An Ethnopharmacology of Food, University of Arizona Press, 2006.
- G. Jones, Dictionary of Mythology Folklore and Symbols, The Scarecrow Press, New York, NY, USA, 1962.
- E. Nzewi, “Malevolent ogbanje: recurrent reincarnation or sickle cell disease?” Social Science & Medicine, vol. 52, no. 9, pp. 1403–1416, 2001.
- C. Achebe, Things Fall Apart, William Heinemann limited, London, UK, 1958.
- “Sickle-cell anaemia—Report by the Secretariat,” 2006, http://apps.who.int/gb/ebwha/pdf_files/WHA59/A59_9-en.pdf.
- W. Jastaniah, “Epidemiology of sickle cell disease in Saudi Arabia,” Annals of Saudi Medicine, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 289–293, 2011.
- C. Steiner and J. Miller, “Sickle cell disease patients in U.S. hospitals, 2004 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP),” Statistical Brief No. 21, December 2006. Rockville, Md: Agency for Health-care Research and Quality, http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/reports/statbriefs/sb21.pdf.
- N. Awasthy, K. C. Aggarwal, P. C. Goyal, M. S. Prasad, S. Saluja, and M. Sharma, “Sickle cell disease: experience of a tertiary care center in a nonendemic area,” Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1–4, 2008.
- J. Bardakdjian-Michau, M. Bahuau, D. Hurtrel et al., “Neonatal screening for sickle cell disease in France,” Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 31–33, 2009.
- “Genes and Human Disease. Genomic Resource Centre”, Health Topic, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland, 2011.
- F. B. Piel, A. P. Patil, R. E. Howes et al., “Global distribution of the sickle cell gene and geographical confirmation of the malaria hypothesis,” Nature Communications, vol. 1, no. 8, article 104, 2010.
- A. C. Allison, “The distribution of the sickle-cell trait in East Africa and elsewhere, and its apparent relationship to the incidence of subtertian malaria,” Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 312–318, 1954.
- S. J. Ameh, O. O. Obodozie, U. S. Inyang, M. S. Abubakar, and M. Garba, “Climbing black pepper (Piper guineense) seeds as an antisickling remedy,” in Nuts & Seeds in Health and Disease Prevention, V. R. Preedy, R. R. Watson, and V. B. Patel, Eds., pp. 333–343, Academic Press, London, UK, 1st edition, 2011.
- D. C. Camerino, D. Tricarico, and J. F. Desaphy, “Ion channel pharmacology,” Neurotherapeutics, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 184–198, 2007.
- S. J. Ameh, O. O. Obodozie, P. C. Babalola, and K. S. Gamaniel, “Medical herbalism and herbal clinical research—a global perspective,” British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 99–123, 2011.
- S. J. Ameh, O. O. Obodozie, B. A. Chindo, P. C. Babalola, and K. S. Gamaniel, “Herbal clinical trials—historical development and application in the 21st Century,” Pharmacologia, vol. 3, pp. 121–131, 2012.
- R. Swift, “Formulation and standardization of a sickle cell disease drug for clinical trial,” SBIR/ STTR of the United States of America. Agency: department of Health and Human Services, Agency Tracking Number:HL099190, Contact: 1R43HL099190-01, Principal Investigator: Robert Swift.
- Fred Senese, “General Chemistry Online. Fire and spices,” http://antoine.frostburg.edu/chem/senese/101/features/capsaicin.shtml.
- R. Planells-Cases, C. García-Martínez, M. Royo et al., “Small molecules targeting the vanilloid receptor complex as drugs for inflammatory pain,” Drugs of the Future, vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 787–795, 2003.
- R. Iannone, K. Ohene-Frempong, E. J. Fuchs, J. F. Casella, and A. R. Chen, “Bone marrow transplantation for sickle cell anemia: progress and prospects,” Pediatric Blood and Cancer, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 436–440, 2005.
- “PRICKLY ASH BARK (Zanthoxylum species),” An mhtm document by Dr. Tillotson of Tillotson Institute of Natural Health, 2011.
- B. Modell and M. Darlison, Global Epidemiology of Haemoglobin Disorders and Derived Service Indicators, Bulletin of the World Health Organization, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland, 2008.
- C. Wambebe, H. Khamofu, J. A. Momoh et al., “Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised cross-over clinical trial of NIPRISAN in patients with sickle cell disorder,” Phytomedicine, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 252–261, 2001.
- O. O. Obodozie, S. J. Ameh, E. K. Afolabi, et al., “Standardization of the components of Niprisan: a phytomedicine for treating sickle cell disease,” Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 284–289, 2009.
- P. J. Nietert, M. D. Silverstein, and M. R. Abboud, “Sickle cell anaemia: epidemiology and cost of illness,” Pharmacoeconomics, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 357–366, 2002.
- E. A. Sofowora and W. A. Isaacs, “Reversal of sickling and crenation in erythrocytes by the root extract of Fagara zanthoxyloides,” Lloydia, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 383–385, 1971.
- E. A. Sofowora, “Isolation and characterization of an antisickling agent from the root of Fagara zanthoxyloides,” in Proceedings of a Symposium Fagara and the Red Blood Cell, A. Sofowora and A. I. Sodeye, Eds., pp. 79–87, University of Ife Press, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, 1979.
- K. D. Thomas and B. Ajani, “Antisickling agent in an extract of unripe pawpaw fruit (Carica papaya),” Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 81, no. 3, pp. 510–511, 1987.
- C. M. Ogunyemi, A. A. Elujoba, and M. A. Durosimi, “Antisickling properties of Carica papaya Linn,” Journal of Natural Products, vol. 1, pp. 56–66, 2008.
- N. O. Imaga, G. O. Gbenle, V. I. Okochi et al., “Antisickling property of Carica papaya leaf extract,” African Journal of Biochemistry Research, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 102–106, 2009.
- S. T. Ohnishi, T. Ohnishi, and G. B. Ogunmola, “Sickle cell anemia: a potential nutritional approach for a molecular disease,” Nutrition, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 330–338, 2000.
- P. T. Mpiana, V. Mudogo, Y. F. Kabangu et al., “Antisickling activity and thermostability of anthocyanins extract from a congolese plant, Hymenocardia acida Tul. (Hymenocardiaceae),” International Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 65–70, 2009.
- G. I. Ekeke and F. O. Shode, “Phenylalanine is the predominant antisickling agent in Cajanus cajan seed extract,” Planta Medica, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 41–43, 1990.
- A. O. Akinsulie, E. O. Temiye, A. S. Akanmu, F. E. A. Lesi, and C. O. Whyte, “Clinical evaluation of extract of Cajanus cajan (Ciklavit) in sickle cell anaemia,” Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 200–205, 2005.
- A. B. Fall, R. Vanhaelen-Fastré, M. Vanhaelen et al., “In vitro antisickling activity of a rearranged limonoid isolated from Khaya senegalensis,” Planta Medica, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 209–212, 1999.
- C. O. C. Mojisola, E. A. Anthony, and D. M. Alani, “Antisickling properties of the fermented mixture of Carica papaya Linn and Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench,” African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 140–143, 2009.
- A. A. Awodogan, C. Wambebe, K. Gamaniel, J. Okogun, A. Orisadipe, and P. Akah, “Acute and short-term toxicity of NIPRISAN in rats I: biochemical Study,” Journal of Pharmaceutical Research & Development, vol. 2, pp. 39–45, 1996.
- K. Gamaniel, S. Amos, P. Akah et al., “Pharmacological profile of NIPRD 94/002/1-0: a novel herbal antisickling agent,” Journal of Pharmaceutical Research & Development, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 89–94, 1998.
- O. O. Obodozie, S. J. Ameh, E. K. Afolabi et al., “A normative study of the components of niprisan—an herbal medicine for sickle cell anemia,” Journal of Dietary Supplements, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 21–30, 2010.
- J. Herrick, “Peculiar elongated and sickle-shaped red blood corpuscles in a case of severe anemia,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 6, pp. 517–521, 1910.
- L. Pauling, H. A. Itano, S. J. Singer, and I. C. Wells, “Sickle cell anemia, a molecular disease,” Science, vol. 110, no. 2865, pp. 543–548, 1949.
- V. M. Ingram, “Gene mutations in human hæmoglobin: the chemical difference between normal and sickle cell hæmoglobin,” Nature, vol. 180, no. 4581, pp. 326–328, 1957.
- V. M. Ingram, “Abnormal human haemoglobins. III the chemical difference between normal and sickle cell haemoglobins,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 402–411, 1959.
- A. Gabriel and J. Przybylski, “Sickle-cell anemia: a look at global haplotype distribution,” Nature Education, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 2–12, 2010.
- J. Okpuzor, O. Adebesin, H. Ogbunugafor, and I. Amadi, “The potential of medicinal plants in sickle cell disease control: a review,” International Journal of Biomedical and Health Sciences, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 47–55, 2008.
- V. R. Mason, “Sickle cell anemia,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 79, no. 14, pp. 1318–1320, 1922.
- “Sickle Cell Disease: History And Origin,” The Internet Journal of Haematology 1 (2), 2011, http://www.ispub.com/ostia/index.php?xmlFilePath=journals/ijhe/vol1n2/sickle.xml.
- “From 1918 Autopsy, A First Glimpse of Sickle Cell - and a Warning,” http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2010/11/from-a-1918-autopsy-a-first-glimpse-of-sickle-cell-%E2%80%94%C2%A0and-a-warning.
- D. J. Weatherall and J. B. Clegg, “Inherited haemoglobin disorders: an increasing global health problem,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 79, no. 8, pp. 704–712, 2001.
- U. A. Ndefo, A. E. Maxwell, H. Nguyen, and T. L. Chiobi, “Pharmacological management of sickle cell disease,” P and T, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 238–243, 2008.
- M. K. Safo, O. Abdulmalik, R. Danso-Danquah et al., “Structural basis for the potent antisickling effect of a novel class of five-membered heterocyclic aldehydic compounds,” Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 47, no. 19, pp. 4665–4676, 2004.
- J. A. Walder, R. H. Zaugg, R. S. Iwaoka, W. G. Watkin, and I. M. Klotz, “Alternative aspirins as antisickling agents: acetyl-3,5-dibromosalicylic acid,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 74, no. 12, pp. 5499–5503, 1977.
- D. J. Abraham, A. S. Mehanna, F. C. Wireko, J. Whitney, R. P. Thomas, and E. P. Orringer, “Vanillin, a potential agent for the treatment of sickle cell anemia,” Blood, vol. 77, no. 6, pp. 1334–1341, 1991.
- I. N. Nnamani, G. S. Joshi, R. Danso-Danquah et al., “Pyridyl derivatives of benzaldehyde as potential antisickling agents,” Chemistry and Biodiversity, vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 1762–1769, 2008.
- “Ion Channels: structure and function,” 2011, http://www.whatislife.com/reader/channels/channels.html.
- R. Vennekens, G. Owsianik, and B. Nilius, “Vanilloid transient receptor potential cation channels: an overview,” Current Pharmaceutical Design, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 18–31, 2008.
- K. Venkatachalam and C. Montell, “TRP channels,” Annual Review of Biochemistry, vol. 76, pp. 387–417, 2007.
- W. Loging, L. Harland, and B. Williams-Jones, “The vanilloid receptor TRPV1: 10 years from channel cloning to antagonist proof-of-concept,” Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 357–372, 2007.
- M. J. Caterina, M. A. Schumacher, M. Tominaga, T. A. Rosen, J. D. Levine, and D. Julius, “The capsaicin receptor: a heat-activated ion channel in the pain pathway,” Nature, vol. 389, no. 6653, pp. 816–824, 1997.
- E. S. Graham, J. C. Ashton, and M. Glass, “Cannabinoid receptors: a brief history and ‘what's hot’,” Frontiers in Bioscience, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 944–957, 2009.
- J. Gertsch, M. Leonti, S. Raduner et al., “Beta-caryophyllene is a dietary cannabinoid,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 105, no. 26, pp. 9099–9104, 2008.
- W. Eya, Nigeria: Sickle Cell—Lambo Presents Ciklavit at WHO, Daily Champion, Lagos, Nigeria, 4th edition, 2006.