Anemia http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Determinants of Anemia among Children Aged 6–59 Months Living in Kilte Awulaelo Woreda, Northern Ethiopia Mon, 15 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/anemia/2014/245870/ Introduction. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and determinant factors among children aged 6–59 months living in Kilte Awulaelo Woreda, eastern zone. Method. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted during February 2013 among 6 tabias of Kilte Awulaelo Woreda, northern Ethiopia. A total of 568 children were selected by systematic random sampling method. Anthropometric data and blood sample were collected. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors related to anemia. Result. The mean hemoglobin level was 11.48 g/dl and about 37.3% of children were anemic. Children who were aged 6–23 months [AOR = 1.89: 95% CI (1.3, 2.8)], underweight [AOR = 2.05: 95% CI (1.3, 3.3)], having MUAC less than 12 cm [AOR = 3.35: 95% CI (2.1, 5.3)], and from households with annual income below 10,000 Ethiopian birr [AOR = 4.86: 95% CI (3.2, 7.3)] were more likely to become anemic. Conclusion. The prevalence of anemia among the children is found to be high. It was associated with annual household income, age, and nutritional status of the child. So, improving family income and increasing awareness of the mother/caregiver were important intervention. Gebremedhin Gebreegziabiher, Belachew Etana, and Daniel Niggusie Copyright © 2014 Gebremedhin Gebreegziabiher et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence of Anemia and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women in an Urban Area of Eastern Ethiopia Mon, 25 Aug 2014 11:06:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/anemia/2014/561567/ This research work presents the magnitude of anemia and its determinant factors among pregnant women. As far as this research is done in the eastern part of Ethiopia, where there is a different cultural issue related to pregnancy and dietary habit, it will help the researchers to know the problem in different parts of the country. Kefyalew Addis Alene and Abdulahi Mohamed Dohe Copyright © 2014 Kefyalew Addis Alene and Abdulahi Mohamed Dohe. All rights reserved. Assessment of Serum Zinc Levels of Patients with Thalassemia Compared to Their Siblings Thu, 14 Aug 2014 11:06:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/anemia/2014/125452/ Zinc (Zn) is essential for appropriate growth and proper immune function, both of which may be impaired in thalassemia children. Factors that can affect serum Zn levels in these patients may be related to their disease or treatment or nutritional causes. We assessed the serum Zn levels of children with thalassemia paired with a sibling. Zn levels were obtained from 30 children in Islamabad, Pakistan. Serum Zn levels and anthropometric data measures were compared among siblings. Thalassemia patients’ median age was 4.5 years (range 1–10.6 years) and siblings was 7.8 years (range 1.1–17 years). The median serum Zn levels for both groups were within normal range: 100 μg/dL (10 μg/dL–297 μg/dL) for patients and 92 μg/dL (13 μg/dL–212 μg/dL) for siblings. There was no significant difference between the two groups. Patients’ serum Zn values correlated positively with their corresponding siblings (, ). There were no correlations between patients’ Zn levels, height for age Z-scores, serum ferritin levels, chelation, or blood counts (including both total leukocyte and absolute lymphocyte counts). Patients’ serum Zn values correlated with their siblings’ values. In this study, patients with thalassemia do not seem to have disease-related Zn deficiency. Mohamed El Missiry, Mohamed Hamed Hussein, Sadaf Khalid, Naila Yaqub, Sarah Khan, Fatima Itrat, Cornelio Uderzo, and Lawrence Faulkner Copyright © 2014 Mohamed El Missiry et al. All rights reserved. Presence and Characterisation of Anaemia in Diabetic Foot Ulceration Wed, 23 Jul 2014 09:32:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/anemia/2014/104214/ Introduction. Diabetic foot ulceration (DFU) is the commonest cause of severe limb ischaemia in the western world. In diabetes mellitus, anaemia is frequently unrecognized, yet studies have shown that it is twice as common in diabetics compared with nondiabetics. We aimed to assess the incidence of anaemia and further classify the iron deficiency seen in a high-risk DFU patient group. Methods. An observational study was undertaken in a multidisciplinary diabetic foot clinic setting. All patients with DFU attending over a four-month period were included. Anaemia was defined as haemoglobin (Hb) levels <12 g/dL. Iron deficiency was classified according to definitions of AID (absolute iron deficiency) and FID (functional iron deficiency). Results. 27 patients had DFU; 14 (51.9%) were anaemic; two (7.41%) had severe anaemia (Hb < 10 g/dL). No patient had B12 or Folate deficiency. In patients with anaemia, there was significant spread of indices. Only one patient had “textbook” absolute iron deficiency (AID) defined as low Hb, MCV, MCH, and ferritin. Functional iron deficiency (FID) was seen in a further seven patients (25.5%). Conclusion. Anaemia and iron deficiency are a common problem in patients with DFU. With current clinical markers, it is incredibly difficult to determine causal relationships and further in-depth scientific study is required. J. A. Wright, M. J. Oddy, and T. Richards Copyright © 2014 J. A. Wright et al. All rights reserved. Extent of Anaemia among Preschool Children in EAG States, India: A Challenge to Policy Makers Wed, 23 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/anemia/2014/868752/ Background. India is the highest contributor to child anemia. About 89 million children in India are anemic. The study determines the factors that contributed to child anemia and examines the role of the existing programs in reducing the prevalence of child anemia particularly in the EAG states. Methods. The data from the latest round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) is used. Simple bivariate and multinomial logistics regression analyses are used. Results. About 70% children are anemic in all the EAG states. The prevalence of severe anemia is the highest (6.7%) in Rajasthan followed by Uttar Pradesh (3.6%) and Madhya Pradesh (3.4%). Children aged 12 to 17 months are significantly seven times (, ) more likely to be severely anemic compared to children of 36 to 59 months. Children of severely anemic mothers are also found to be more severely anemic (, ) than the children of not anemic mothers. Conclusions. The study reveals that the existing government program fails to control anemia among preschool children in the backward states of India. Therefore, there is an urgent need for monitoring of program in regular interval, particularly for EAG states to reduce the prevalence of anemia among preschool children. Rakesh Kumar Singh and Shraboni Patra Copyright © 2014 Rakesh Kumar Singh and Shraboni Patra. All rights reserved. Cormic Index Profile of Children with Sickle Cell Anaemia in Lagos, Nigeria Thu, 17 Apr 2014 11:43:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/anemia/2014/312302/ Background. Sickle cell disorders are known to have a negative effect on linear growth. This could potentially affect proportional growth and, hence, Cormic Index. Objective. To determine the Cormic Index in the sickle cell anaemia population in Lagos. Methodology. A consecutive sample of 100 children with haemoglobin genotype SS, aged eight months to 15 years, and 100 age and sex matched controls (haemoglobin genotype AA) was studied. Sitting height (upper segment) and full length or height were measured. Sitting height was then expressed as a percentage of full length/height (Cormic Index). Results. The mean Cormic Index decreased with age among primary subjects (SS) and AA controls. The overall mean Cormic Index among primary subjects was comparable to that of controls (% versus %; % versus %) in boys and girls, respectively. In comparison with AA controls, female children with sickle cell anaemia who were older than 10 years had a significantly lower mean Cormic Index. Conclusion. There was a significant negative relationship between Cormic Index and height in subjects and controls irrespective of gender. Similarly, a significant negative correlation existed between age, sitting height, subischial leg length, weight, and Cormic Index in both subjects and controls. Samuel Olufemi Akodu, Olisamedua Fidelis Njokanma, and Omolara Adeolu Kehinde Copyright © 2014 Samuel Olufemi Akodu et al. All rights reserved. Validation of the WHO Hemoglobin Color Scale Method Tue, 15 Apr 2014 14:06:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/anemia/2014/531670/ This study was carried out to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of WHO color scale in screening anemia during blood donor selection in Sri Lanka. A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted by the Medical Laboratory Sciences Unit of University of Sri Jayewardenepura in collaboration with National Blood Transfusion Centre, Sri Lanka. A total of 100 subjects participated in this study. Hemoglobin value of each participant was analyzed by both WHO color scale method and cyanmethemoglobin method. Bland-Altman plot was used to determine the agreement between the two methods. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, false positive, and negative rates were calculated. The sensitivity of the WHO color scale was very low. The highest sensitivity observed was 55.55% in hemoglobin concentrations >13.1 g/dL and the lowest was 28.57% in hemoglobin concentrations between 7.1 and 9.0 g/dL. The mean difference between the WHO color scale and the cyanmethemoglobin method was 0.2 g/dL (95% confidence interval; 3.2 g/dL above and 2.8 g/dL below). Even though the WHO color scale is an inexpensive and portable method for field studies, from the overall results in this study it is concluded that WHO color scale is an inaccurate method to screen anemia during blood donations. Leeniyagala Gamaralalage Thamal Darshana and Deepthi Inoka Uluwaduge Copyright © 2014 Leeniyagala Gamaralalage Thamal Darshana and Deepthi Inoka Uluwaduge. All rights reserved. Hematological Indices for Differential Diagnosis of Beta Thalassemia Trait and Iron Deficiency Anemia Thu, 10 Apr 2014 09:08:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/anemia/2014/576738/ Background. The two most frequent types of microcytic anemia are beta thalassemia trait (β-TT) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA). We retrospectively evaluated the reliability of various indices for differential diagnosis of microcytosis and β-TT in the same patient groups. Methods. A total of 290 carefully selected children aged 1.1–16 years were evaluated. We calculated 12 discrimination indices in all patients with hemoglobin (Hb) values of 8.7–11.4 g/dL. None of the subjects had a combined case of IDA and β-TT. All children with IDA received oral iron for 16 weeks, and HbA2 screening was performed after iron therapy. The patient groups were evaluated according to red blood cell (RBC) count; red blood distribution width index; the Mentzer, Shine and Lal, England and Fraser, Srivastava and Bevington, Green and King, Ricerca, Sirdah, and Ehsani indices; mean density of hemoglobin/liter of blood; and mean cell density of hemoglobin. Results. The Mentzer index was the most reliable index, as it had the highest sensitivity (98.7%), specificity (82.3%), and Youden’s index (81%) for detecting β-TT; this was followed by the Ehsani index (94.8%, 73.5%, and 68.3%, resp.) and RBC count (94.8%, 70.5%, and 65.3%). Conclusion. The Mentzer index provided the highest reliabilities for differentiating β-TT from IDA. Aysel Vehapoglu, Gamze Ozgurhan, Ayşegul Dogan Demir, Selcuk Uzuner, Mustafa Atilla Nursoy, Serdar Turkmen, and Arzu Kacan Copyright © 2014 Aysel Vehapoglu et al. All rights reserved. Trace Element Status (Iron, Zinc, Copper, Chromium, Cobalt, and Nickel) in Iron-Deficiency Anaemia of Children under 3 Years Wed, 26 Feb 2014 12:27:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/anemia/2014/718089/ Aim. To determine trace element status and aetiologic factors for development of trace elements deficiencies in children with iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) aged 0 to 3 years. Contingent and Methods. 30 patients of the University Hospital, Pleven, Bulgaria—I group; 48 patients of the Sumy Regional Child’s Clinical Hospital, Sumy, Ukraine—II group; 25 healthy controls were investigated. Serum concentrations of iron, zinc, copper, chromium, cobalt, and nickel were determined spectrophotometrically and by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results. Because the obtained serum levels of zinc, copper, and chromium were near the lower reference limits, I group was divided into IA and IB. In IA group, serum concentrations were lower than the reference values for 47%, 57%, and 73% of patients, respectively. In IB group, these were within the reference values. In II group, results for zinc, cobalt, and nickel were significantly lower (), and results for copper were significantly higher in comparison to controls. Conclusion. Low serum concentrations of zinc, copper, cobalt, and nickel were mainly due to inadequate dietary intake, malabsorption, and micronutrient interactions in both studied groups. Increased serum copper in II group was probably due to metabolic changes resulting from adaptations in IDA. Data can be used for developing a diagnostic algorithm for IDA. Maria Georgieva Angelova, Tsvetelina Valentinova Petkova-Marinova, Maksym Vladimirovich Pogorielov, Andrii Nikolaevich Loboda, Vania Nedkova Nedkova-Kolarova, and Atanaska Naumova Bozhinova Copyright © 2014 Maria Georgieva Angelova et al. All rights reserved. An Etiologic Profile of Anemia in 405 Geriatric Patients Sun, 23 Feb 2014 09:24:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/anemia/2014/932486/ Background. Anemia is a common condition in the elderly and a significant risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality, reducing not only functional capacity and mobility but also quality of life. Currently, few data are available regarding anemia in hospitalized geriatric patients. Our retrospective study investigated epidemiology and causes of anemia in 405 hospitalized geriatric patients. Methods. Data analysis was performed using laboratory parameters determined during routine hospital admission procedures (hemoglobin, ferritin, transferrin saturation, C-reactive protein, vitamin B12, folic acid, and creatinine) in addition to medical history and demographics. Results. Anemia affected approximately two-thirds of subjects. Of 386 patients with recorded hemoglobin values, 66.3% were anemic according to WHO criteria, mostly (85.1%) in a mild form. Anemia was primarily due to iron deficiency (65%), frequently due to underlying chronic infection (62.1%), or of mixed etiology involving a combination of chronic disease and iron deficiency, with absolute iron deficiency playing a comparatively minor role. Conclusion. Greater awareness of anemia in the elderly is warranted due to its high prevalence and negative effect on outcomes, hospitalization duration, and mortality. Geriatric patients should be routinely screened for anemia and etiological causes of anemia individually assessed to allow timely initiation of appropriate therapy. Tabea Geisel, Julia Martin, Bettina Schulze, Roland Schaefer, Matthias Bach, Garth Virgin, and Jürgen Stein Copyright © 2014 Tabea Geisel et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence and Predictors of Maternal Anemia during Pregnancy in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia: An Institutional Based Cross-Sectional Study Mon, 20 Jan 2014 14:20:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/anemia/2014/108593/ Background. Anaemia is a global public health problem which has an eminence impact on pregnant mother. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and predictors of maternal anemia. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 1 to April 30, 2012, on 302 pregnant women who attended antenatal care at Gondar University Hospital. Interview-based questionnaire, clinical history, and laboratory tests were used to obtain data. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to identify predictors. Result. The prevalence of anemia was 16.6%. Majority were mild type (64%) and morphologically normocytic normochromic (76%) anemia. Anemia was high at third trimester (18.9%). Low family income (AOR [95% CI] = 3.1 [1.19, 8.33]), large family size (AOR [95% CI] = 4.14 [4.13, 10.52]), hookworm infection (AOR [95% CI] = 2.72 [1.04, 7.25]), and HIV infection (AOR [95% CI] = 5.75 [2.40, 13.69]) were independent predictors of anemia. Conclusion. The prevalence of anemia was high; mild type and normocytic normochromic anemia was dominant. Low income, large family size, hookworm infection, and HIV infection were associated with anemia. Hence, efforts should be made for early diagnosis and management of HIV and hookworm infection with special emphasis on those having low income and large family size. Mulugeta Melku, Zelalem Addis, Meseret Alem, and Bamlaku Enawgaw Copyright © 2014 Mulugeta Melku et al. All rights reserved. Iron Deficiency Anemia among Hospitalized Children in Konya, Turkey Wed, 18 Dec 2013 16:34:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/anemia/2013/514801/ The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of our hospitalized patients with the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and effects of the IDA prevention project of the Turkish Ministry of Health which was started in 2004. The recommended dose of prophylactic iron supplementation was 1-2 mg/kg/day. The files of 1519 patients who were hospitalized to Konya Education and Research Hospital Pediatrics Clinic were reviewed. A total of 50 patients consisting of 35 boys and 15 girls with the mean age of 16,59 ± 1,68 months were included into the study. The prevalence of IDA was 3.29% (boys: 4.23%, girls: 2.1%). Hgb and Hct of the patients >24 months were significantly higher than those of the patients with the age of 6–12 months. Iron supplementation receiving rates were very low. Of the 28 patients older than 12 months, only 44% of them had received a full course of iron supplementation for 8 months. In conclusion, although prophylactic iron supplementation lowered the prevalences of IDA, receiving rates of iron supplementation were not adequate. While IDA is still a public health problem, prophylactic approaches should be carried out more effectively. Fatih Akin, Ece Selma Solak, Cengizhan Kilicaslan, Saltuk Bugra Boke, and Sukru Arslan Copyright © 2013 Fatih Akin et al. All rights reserved. Beta-Thalassemia Major and Female Fertility: The Role of Iron and Iron-Induced Oxidative Stress Mon, 16 Dec 2013 09:12:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/anemia/2013/617204/ Endocrine complications due to haemosiderosis are present in a significant number of patients with beta-thalassemia major (BTM) worldwide and often become barriers in their desire for parenthood. Thus, although spontaneous fertility can occur, the majority of females with BTM is infertile due to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) and need assisted reproductive techniques. Infertility in these women seems to be attributed to iron deposition and iron-induced oxidative stress (OS) in various endocrine organs, such as hypothalamus, pituitary, and female reproductive system, but also through the iron effect on other organs, such as liver and pancreas, contributing to the impaired metabolism of hormones and serum antioxidants. Nevertheless, the gonadal function of these patients is usually intact and fertility is usually retrievable. Meanwhile, a significant prooxidants/antioxidants imbalance with subsequent increased (OS) exists in patients with BTM, which is mainly caused by tissue injury due to overproduction of free radicals by secondary iron overload, but also due to alteration in serum trace elements and antioxidant enzymes. Not only using the appropriate antioxidants, essential trace elements, and minerals, but also regulating the advanced glycation end products, could probably reduce the extent of oxidative damage and related complications and retrieve BTM women’s infertility. Paraskevi Roussou, Nikolaos J. Tsagarakis, Dimitrios Kountouras, Sarantis Livadas, and Evanthia Diamanti-Kandarakis Copyright © 2013 Paraskevi Roussou et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Iron Deficiency on Cognitive Function in School Going Adolescent Females in Rural Area of Central India Tue, 10 Dec 2013 13:29:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/anemia/2013/819136/ Iron deficiency anemia is most common nutritional deficiency disorder in India and remains a formidable health challenge. Girls in the period of later school age and early adolescence are prone to develop iron deficiency. Iron deficiency leads to many non-hematological disturbances which include growth and development, depressed immune function in infants; reduces physical work capacity; decreases the cognitive function in both infants and adolescents. Present study was done to know the prevalence of iron deficiency in both the anemic and non anemic school going adolescent girls, to assess the effect of iron deficiency on cognitive functions in anemic iron deficient and non-anemic iron deficient school girls in a village school situated in central India. Methods. A secondary school having girl students in the age group of 12–15 years studying in sixth to ninth standard was selected. Serum ferritin concentration was estimated by ELISA. For assessing the cognitive function mathematics score, one multi-component test for memory, attention and verbal learning and Intelligent Quotient scores of the students were used. Results. Scholastic Performance, IQ and Scores of Mental balance, Attention & Concentration, Verbal Memory and Recognition were decreased in iron deficient girls, both anemic and non anemic as compared to the non iron deficient girls. Sarika More, V. B. Shivkumar, Nitin Gangane, and Sumeet Shende Copyright © 2013 Sarika More et al. All rights reserved. Diagnosis of Severe Fetal Anemia Based on Perinatal Outcomes: A Comparative Analysis of the Current Reference Values Wed, 20 Nov 2013 18:55:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/anemia/2013/351258/ Objectives. To compare current criteria for severe fetal anemia diagnosis. Methodology. A cohort study analyzed 105 alloimmunized fetuses that underwent cordocentesis due to risk of anemia. Concordance among the diagnostic criteria for severe fetal anemia, hemoglobin deficit >7 g/dL, hemoglobin deficit ≥5 g/dL, and hemoglobin concentration <0.55 MoM, was analyzed using Cohen’s Kappa index. Perinatal mortality, fetal hydrops, and fetal acidosis were used to discuss discordances. Results. There was fair concordance among the three criteria analyzed: 0.80 (Kappa index, IC 95%: 0.67 to 0.93) when comparing hemoglobin deficit >7.0 g/dL and hemoglobin concentration <0.55 MoM criteria, 0.63 (Kappa index, IC 95%: 0.47 to 0.69) when comparing hemoglobin deficit ≥5.0 g/dL and hemoglobin deficit >7.0 g/dL reference, and 0.77 (Kappa index, IC 95%: 0.64 to 0.90) when comparing hemoglobin deficit≥5.0 g/dL and hemoglobin concentration <0.55 MoM standards. Eighteen cases were classified differently depending on the criteria used. The cut-off point of hemoglobin deficit ≥5 g/dL was the best criterion to discriminate fetuses with poor perinatal outcome in our study. Conclusions. Relevant discordances in classification of severe fetal anemia were pointed out. Some criteria may underestimate the real gravity of fetal anemia. Zilma Silveira Nogueira Reis, Gabriel Costa Osanan, Tiago Lanfernini Ricardo Coelho, Cezar Alencar De Lima Rezende, Henrique Vitor Leite, and Antônio Carlos Vieira Cabral Copyright © 2013 Zilma Silveira Nogueira Reis et al. All rights reserved. Chelation Therapy with Oral Solution of Deferiprone in Transfusional Iron-Overloaded Children with Hemoglobinopathies Mon, 04 Nov 2013 16:19:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/anemia/2013/121762/ Iron overload in hemoglobinopathies is secondary to blood transfusions, chronic hemolysis, and increased iron absorption and leads to tissue injury requiring the early use of chelating agents. The available agents are parenteral deferoxamine and oral deferiprone and deferasirox. There are limited data on the safety and efficacy of deferiprone at a very young age. The aim of our study was the presentation of data regarding the use of oral solution of deferiprone in 9 children (mean age 6.5, range 2–10) with transfusion dependent hemoglobinopathies (6 beta thalassemia major, 1 thalassemia intermedia, and 2 sickle cell beta thalassemia). The mean duration of treatment was 21.5 months (range 15–31). All children received the oral solution without any problems of compliance. Adverse reactions were temporary abdominal discomfort and diarrhea (1 child), mild neutropenia (1 child) that resolved with no need of discontinuation of treatment, and transient arthralgia (1 child) that resolved spontaneously. The mean ferritin levels were significantly reduced at the end of 12 months (initial 2440 versus final 1420 μg/L, ). This small study shows that oral solution of deferiprone was well tolerated by young children and its use was not associated with major safety concerns. Furthermore, it was effective in decreasing serum ferritin. Alexandros Makis, Nikolaos Chaliasos, Sapfo Alfantaki, Paraskevi Karagouni, and Antigone Siamopoulou Copyright © 2013 Alexandros Makis et al. All rights reserved. Serum Iron Status of Under-Five Children with Sickle Cell Anaemia in Lagos, Nigeria Thu, 31 Oct 2013 08:49:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/anemia/2013/254765/ Background. Iron status in patients with sickle cell anaemia is a matter of continuing investigation. Objective. This paper aims to determine the serum iron status of under-five, sickle cell anaemia patients. Methods. The study spanned from December 2009 to February 2010 at the Consultant Outpatient Clinics involving 97 HbSS subjects and 97 age- and sex-matched HbAA controls. Biochemical iron status was assayed in subjects and controls. Results. Age range of the children was seven months to five years, with a mean of 30.6 (±15.97) months. Irrespective of gender, mean serum iron values were higher in HbAA controls than their HbSS counterparts but the observed difference was not significant ( and 0.111, resp.). The mean total iron binding capacity values of males and females were also not significantly different for sickle cell anaemia subjects and controls (). Males and females with HbAA had significantly lower serum ferritin when compared with their HbSS counterparts. Irrespective of gender, mean transferrin saturation was lower in HbSS subjects but the difference was not statistically significant (). Conclusion. Children with sickle cell anaemia have higher serum ferritin than controls, implying relatively higher iron content in the reticuloendothelial cells. S. O. Akodu, I. N. Diaku-Akinwumi, O. A. Kehinde, and O. F. Njokanma Copyright © 2013 S. O. Akodu et al. All rights reserved. Multivariable Discriminant Analysis for the Differential Diagnosis of Microcytic Anemia Wed, 04 Sep 2013 15:20:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/anemia/2013/457834/ Introduction. Iron deficiency anemia and thalassemia are the most common causes of microcytic anemia. Powerful statistical computer programming enables sensitive discriminant analyses to aid in the diagnosis. We aimed at investigating the performance of the multiple discriminant analysis (MDA) to the differential diagnosis of microcytic anemia. Methods. The training group was composed of 200 β-thalassemia carriers, 65 α-thalassemia carriers, 170 iron deficiency anemia (IDA), and 45 mixed cases of thalassemia and acute phase response or iron deficiency. A set of potential predictor parameters that could detect differences among groups were selected: Red Blood Cells (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell hemoglobin (MCH), and RBC distribution width (RDW). The functions obtained with MDA analysis were applied to a set of 628 consecutive patients with microcytic anemia. Results. For classifying patients into two groups (genetic anemia and acquired anemia), only one function was needed; 87.9% β-thalassemia carriers, and 83.3% α-thalassemia carriers, and 72.1% in the mixed group were correctly classified. Conclusion. Linear discriminant functions based on hemogram data can aid in differentiating between IDA and thalassemia, so samples can be efficiently selected for further analysis to confirm the presence of genetic anemia. Eloísa Urrechaga, Urko Aguirre, and Silvia Izquierdo Copyright © 2013 Eloísa Urrechaga et al. All rights reserved. Direct Comparison of the Safety and Efficacy of Ferric Carboxymaltose versus Iron Dextran in Patients with Iron Deficiency Anemia Thu, 29 Aug 2013 14:09:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/anemia/2013/169107/ Several intravenous iron complexes are available for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Iron dextran (DEX) is associated with an elevated risk of potentially serious anaphylactic reactions, whereas others must be administered in several small infusions to avoid labile iron reactions. Ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) is a nondextran intravenous iron which can be administered in high single doses. A randomized, open label, and multicenter comparison of FCM to DEX in adults with IDA and baseline hemoglobin of ≤11.0 g/dL was conducted. A total of 160 patients were in the safety population (FCM ; DEX ). Adverse events, including immune system disorders (0% in FCM versus 10.3% in DEX, ) and skin disorders (7.3% in FCM versus 24.4% in DEX, ), were less frequently observed in the FCM group. A greater portion of patients in the FCM group experienced a transient, asymptomatic decrease in phosphate compared to patients in the DEX group (8.5% in FCM versus 0% in DEX, ). In the FCM arm, the change in hemoglobin from baseline to the highest observed level was 2.8 g/dL, whereas the DEX arm displayed a change of 2.4 g/dL (). Treatment of IDA with FCM resulted in fewer hypersensitivity-related reactions than DEX. Iftikhar Hussain, Jessica Bhoyroo, Angelia Butcher, Todd A. Koch, Andy He, and David B. Bregman Copyright © 2013 Iftikhar Hussain et al. All rights reserved. Rapid Assessment for Coexistence of Vitamin B12 and Iron Deficiency Anemia among Adolescent Males and Females in Northern Himalayan State of India Mon, 22 Jul 2013 13:31:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/anemia/2013/959605/ Coexistence of folic acid and vitamin B12 deficiency has been observed among adolescents with iron deficiency anemia, but limited evidence is available from India. So, a rapid assessment was done to study the prevalence of iron, folic acid, and vitamin B12 deficiency among adolescent males and females in northern Himalayan state in India. Methods. Total 885 (female: 60.9%) adolescents (11 to 19 completed years) were surveyed from 30-cluster village from two community development blocks of Himachal Pradesh. Serum ferritin, folic acid, and vitamin B12 were estimated among randomly selected 100 male and 100 female adolescents. Results. Under-nutrition (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) was observed among 68.9% of adolescents (male: 67.1%; female: 70.7; ). Anemia was observed to be prevalent among 87.2% males and 96.7% females (). Mild form of anemia was observed to be the most common (53.9%) form followed by moderate (29.7%) anemia. Strikingly, it was found that all the adolescents were deficient in vitamin B12 and none of the adolescents was observed to be deficient in folic acid. Conclusion. Among both male and female adolescents anemia with vitamin B12 deficiency was observed to be a significant public health problem. Folic acid deficiency was not observed as a problem among surveyed adolescents. Ashok Bhardwaj, Dinesh Kumar, Sunil Kumar Raina, Pardeep Bansal, Satya Bhushan, and Vishav Chander Copyright © 2013 Ashok Bhardwaj et al. All rights reserved. Preoperative Hematocrit Concentration and the Risk of Stroke in Patients Undergoing Isolated Coronary-Artery Bypass Grafting Tue, 30 Apr 2013 15:29:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/anemia/2013/206829/ Background. Identification and management of risk factors for stroke following isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) could potentially lower the risk of such serious morbidity. Methods. We retrieved data for 30-day stroke incidence and perioperative variables for patients undergoing isolated CABG and used multivariate logistic regression to assess the adjusted effect of preoperative hematocrit concentration on stroke incidence. Results. In 2,313 patients (mean age 65.9 years, 73.6% men), 43 (1.9%, 95% CI: 1.4–2.5) developed stroke within 30 days following CABG (74.4% within 6 days). After adjustment for a priori defined potential confounders, each 1% drop in preoperative hematocrit concentration was associated with 1.07 (95% CI: 1.01–1.13) increased odds for stroke (men, OR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.01–1.16; women, OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 0.91–1.16). The predicted probability of stroke for descending preoperative hematocrit concentration exceeded 2% for values <37% (<37% for men (adjusted OR: 2.39, 95% CI: 1.08–5.26) and <38% for women (adjusted OR: 2.52, 95% CI: 0.53–11.98), with a steeper probability increase noted in men). The association between lower preoperative hematocrit concentration and stroke was evident irrespective of intraoperative transfusion use. Conclusion. Screening and management of patients with low preoperative hematocrit concentration may alter postoperative stroke risk in patients undergoing isolated CABG. Khaled M. Musallam, Faek R. Jamali, Frits R. Rosendaal, Toby Richards, Donat R. Spahn, Kaivan Khavandi, Iskandar Barakat, Benjamin Demoss, Luca A. Lotta, Flora Peyvandi, and Pier M. Sfeir Copyright © 2013 Khaled M. Musallam et al. All rights reserved. The Validation of a New Visual Anaemia Evaluation Tool HemoHue HH1 in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease Mon, 08 Apr 2013 18:48:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/anemia/2013/424076/ In chronic haemodialysis patients, anaemia is a frequent finding associated with high therapeutic costs and further expenses resulting from serial laboratory measurements. HemoHue HH1, HemoHue Ltd, is a novel tool consisting of a visual scale for the noninvasive assessment of anaemia by matching the coloration of the conjunctiva with a calibrated hue scale. The aim of the study was to investigate the usefulness of HemoHue in estimating individual haemoglobin concentrations and binary treatment outcomes in haemodialysis patients. A prospective blinded study with 80 hemodialysis patients comparing the visual haemoglobin assessment with the standard laboratory measurement was performed. Each patient’s haemoglobin concentration was estimated by seven different medical and nonmedical observers with variable degrees of clinical experience on two different occasions. The estimated population mean was close to the measured one (11.06 ± 1.67 versus 11.32 ± 1.23 g/dL, ). A learning effect could be detected. Relative errors in individual estimates reached, however, up to 50%. Insufficient performance in predicting binary outcomes (ROC AUC: 0.72 to 0.78) and poor interrater reliability (Kappa < 0.6) further characterised this method. Robert M. Kalicki, Stefan Farese, and Dominik E. Uehlinger Copyright © 2013 Robert M. Kalicki et al. All rights reserved. The Impact of an Algorithm-Guided Management of Preoperative Anemia in Perioperative Hemoglobin Level and Transfusion of Major Orthopedic Surgery Patients Wed, 27 Mar 2013 16:16:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/anemia/2013/641876/ The aim of this study was to evaluate a laboratory-guided therapeutic algorithm of preoperative anemia. 335 patients with elective hip or knee arthroplasty were included in this retrospective before-after study. Group I () underwent conventional preoperative procedures before algorithm implementation. Group II () underwent algorithm-guided preoperative anemia management. A hemoglobin-level of 13 g/dL was the therapeutic cut-off for men and women. Reticulocyte hemoglobin content (CHr) and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR)/log ferritin ratio were used in the form of the Thomas plot. Iron deficiency (ID) was substituted with 1000 mg iron intravenous (i.v.) and 10000 international units (I.U.) of erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) subcutaneous (s.c.) or i.v., anemia of chronic disease (ACD) (without functional ID) with 40000 I.U. ESA s.c. or i.v and additionally 200 mg iron i.v. Substituted anemic patients in Group II () showed a distinctly higher preoperative (Hb-median 13 versus 11.95 g/dL) () and postoperative (Hb-median 9.75 versus 9.0 g/dL) () Hb level compared with untreated anemic patients in Group I (). In Group II red blood cell (RBC) units (35 units/234 patients) were reduced by 44% compared with Group I (27 units/101 patients). Algorithm-guided preoperative anemia management raises perioperative Hb-level and reduces blood use. Dietmar Enko, Franz Wallner, Achim von-Goedecke, Christa Hirschmugl, Vinzenz Auersperg, and Gabriele Halwachs-Baumann Copyright © 2013 Dietmar Enko et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Anemia among Children 6–59 Months Old in Haiti Sun, 10 Mar 2013 10:37:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/anemia/2013/502968/ Anemia has serious consequences on child growth, development, and survival. This study was conducted in Fond des Blancs and Villa, Haiti, to assess the prevalence of childhood anemia and its risk factors in order to inform program design. Children 6–59 months old () were selected using a cross-sectional multistage sampling methodology. Hemoglobin was measured using the HemoCue technique. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were performed to determine prevalence and factors associated with anemia. The prevalence of childhood anemia was 38.8% (23.9% mild, 14.7% moderate, and 0.2% severe). Mean hemoglobin was  g/dL. Variables associated with child anemia were age less than 24 months (; ), stunting (; ), and mother’s low hemoglobin level (; ). Anemia among young children in Fond des Blancs and Villa is a public health problem. Predictors of child anemia in this region include child’s age, stunting, and mother’s anemia. Interventions and strategies aimed at addressing effectively anemia in this population must therefore target mothers and children under two years of age. Mohamed Ag Ayoya, Ismael Ngnie-Teta, Marie Nancy Séraphin, Aissa Mamadoultaibou, Ellen Boldon, Jean Ernst Saint-Fleur, Leslie Koo, and Samuel Bernard Copyright © 2013 Mohamed Ag Ayoya et al. All rights reserved. Traditional Herbal Management of Sickle Cell Anemia: Lessons from Nigeria Thu, 08 Nov 2012 10:16:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/anemia/2012/607436/ Background. Patients in West Africa where sickle cell anemia (SCA) is endemic have for ages been treated with natural products, especially herbs, as, is still the case in rural communities. Objective. In this paper we look closely at some of these herbs to see if there are any lessons to be learnt or clues to be found for optimizing the treatments based on them, as had been done in the case of NIPRISAN, which was developed from herbs in Nigeria based on Yoruba Medicine. Methods. Select publications on SCA, its molecular biology and pathology, and actual and experimental cases of herbal treatment were perused in search of molecular clues that can be linked to chemical constituents of the herbs involved. Results. The study revealed that during the last 2-3 decades, much progress was made in several aspects of SCA pharmacology, especially the approval of hydroxyurea. As for SCA herbalism, this paper revealed that antisickling herbs abound in West Africa and that the most promising may yet be found. Three new antisickling herbs (Entandrophragma utile, Chenopodium ambrosioides, and Petiveria alliacea) were reported in May 2011. At NIPRD, where NIPRISAN was developed, three other recipes are currently awaiting development. Conclusion. The study raised the hope that the search in the Tropics for more effective herbal recipes for managing sickle cell anaemia will be more fruitful with time and effort. Sunday J. Ameh, Florence D. Tarfa, and Benjamin U. Ebeshi Copyright © 2012 Sunday J. Ameh et al. All rights reserved. Relationship between Plasma Ferritin Level and Siderocyte Number in Splenectomized β-Thalassemia/HbE Patients Wed, 24 Oct 2012 19:09:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/anemia/2012/890471/ Introduction. In iron overload status, excess iron deposits in reticuloendothelial cells and tissues and can be detected using Prussian blue staining. The aim of this paper was to investigate the relationship between siderocyte numbers and plasma ferritin levels (a practically standard marker of iron overload) in the blood of the splenectomized and nonsplenectomized -thalassemia/HbE patients, who are at risk of iron overload. Methods. EDTA blood samples from 64 patients with 35 splenectomized and 29 nonsplenectomized -thalassemia/HbE patients, who received regular blood transfusions, and 20 normal individuals were investigated for siderocyte numbers, plasma ferritin levels, and complete blood counts. Results. The average percent siderocytes in splenectomized and nonsplenectomized -thalassemia/HbE patients were 11.5% and 0.08%, respectively, and plasma ferritin levels of 2,332 g/L and 1,279 g/L, respectively. Percent siderocytes showed a good correlation with plasma ferritin levels only in splenectomized patients (, ). A receiver operating curve analysis from splenectomized patients’ data indicated that siderocytes at 3% cut-off are the best predictor for plasma ferritin level ≥1,000 μg/L with 92.9% sensitivity and 42.9% specificity. Conclusion. Circulating siderocyte numbers can be used as a screening test for the assessment of the iron overload in splenectomized -thalassemia/HbE patients in the place where serum ferritin is not available. A. Tripatara, N. Srichana, P. Lamool, S. Amnuaykan, P. Hongart, and A. Jetsrisuparb Copyright © 2012 A. Tripatara et al. All rights reserved. Management of Anemia of Inflammation in the Elderly Wed, 03 Oct 2012 14:16:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/anemia/2012/563251/ Anemia of any degree is recognized as a significant independent contributor to morbidity, mortality, and frailty in elderly patients. Among the broad types of anemia in the elderly a peculiar role seems to be played by the anemia associated with chronic inflammation, which remains the most complex form of anemia to treat. The origin of this nonspecific inflammation in the elderly has not yet been clarified. It seems more plausible that the oxidative stress that accompanies ageing is the real cause of chronic inflammation of the elderly and that the same oxidative stress is actually a major cause of this anemia. The erythropoietic agents have the potential to play a therapeutic role in this patient population. Despite some promising results, rHuEPO does not have a specific indication for the treatment of anemia in the elderly. Moreover, concerns about their side effects have spurred the search for alternatives. Considering the etiopathogenetic mechanisms of anemia of inflammation in the elderly population, an integrated nutritional/dietetic approach with nutraceuticals that can manipulate oxidative stress and related inflammation may prevent the onset of this anemia and its negative impact on patients’ performance and quality of life. Antonio Macciò and Clelia Madeddu Copyright © 2012 Antonio Macciò and Clelia Madeddu. All rights reserved. A Molecular, Genetic, and Diagnostic Spotlight on Fanconi Anemia Tue, 02 Oct 2012 08:45:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/anemia/2012/650730/ Laura E. Hays, Stefan Meyer, and Henri J. van de Vrugt Copyright © 2012 Laura E. Hays et al. All rights reserved. β-Thalassemia: New Therapeutic Modalities, Genetics, Complications, and Quality of Life Tue, 18 Sep 2012 10:42:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/anemia/2012/902067/ Mehran Karimi, Sezaneh Haghpanah, Ali T. Taher, and Maria Domenica Cappellini Copyright © 2012 Mehran Karimi et al. All rights reserved. Safety and Efficacy of Intravenous Ferric Carboxymaltose (750 mg) in the Treatment of Iron Deficiency Anemia: Two Randomized, Controlled Trials Mon, 10 Sep 2012 14:07:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/anemia/2012/172104/ Background. Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a common hematological complication with potentially serious clinical consequences that may require intravenous iron therapy. Ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) is a stable, nondextran iron formulation administered intravenously in large single doses to treat IDA. Objective. Two open-label, randomized, placebo-controlled trials evaluated safety of multiple or single 750 mg FCM doses compared to standard medical care (SMC) in IDA patients. Secondary endpoints were improvements in hemoglobin and iron indices. Design and Patients. Adults with hemoglobin ≤12 g/dL, ferritin ≤100 or ≤300 ng/mL with transferrin saturation ≤30% were randomized to receive single (n=366) or weekly (n=343) FCM or SMC (n=360 and n=366). Results. Significantly greater (P≤0.001) increases in hemoglobin and iron indices occurred in FCM groups versus SMC. In the multidose study, up to two infusions of FCM were needed to reach target iron levels versus 3–5 of intravenous iron comparators. FCM and SMC groups had similar incidences and types of adverse events and serious adverse events. Transient hypophosphatemia not associated with adverse events or clinical sequelae occurred in the FCM groups. Conclusion. Intravenous FCM is safe, well tolerated, and associated with improvements in hemoglobin and iron indices comparable to SMC when administered in single doses of up to 750 mg at a rate of 100 mg/min. Fewer FCM infusions were required to reach target iron levels compared to other intravenous iron preparations. Charles F. Barish, Todd Koch, Angelia Butcher, David Morris, and David B. Bregman Copyright © 2012 Charles F. Barish et al. All rights reserved.