Advances in Optical Technologies http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. A Potential Candidate for Lamp Phosphor: Eu3+ Activated K2Y2B2O7 Thu, 10 Apr 2014 17:53:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aot/2014/706459/ The novel phosphor K2Y2B2O7 doped with europium is studied for its photoluminescence properties. The studies show that the phosphor gives strong red emission (PL) at 613 nm related to 5D0-7F2 transition of Eu3+ under the 260 nm excitation (PLE) related to the charge transfer (CT) from the 2p orbital of the O2− ions to the 4f orbital of Eu3+ ions with CIE coordinates (; ). The results of PL and PLE spectra indicate the applicability of K2Y2B2O7:Eu as a red component in lamp phosphor. The phosphor is characterized through XRD pattern analysis, and morphology is explained on the basis of SEM image. Optimum concentration of Eu3+ required for the highest intensity of emission is also studied. K. A. Koparkar, N. S. Bajaj, and S. K. Omanwar Copyright © 2014 K. A. Koparkar et al. All rights reserved. Electromagnetic Imaging of Two-Dimensional Geometries by Multipulse Interference Using the Inverse FDTD Method Mon, 31 Mar 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aot/2014/529563/ The size, shape, and location of unknown objects in the ground and in the body can be estimated by an electromagnetic imaging technique. An imaging approach to clear detection of two-dimensional geometries is proposed in this paper. Based on the inverse finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, a phase interference technique using multidirectional pulses is employed. The advantage of the proposed method is that it can clearly reconstruct the geometry in a simple calculation. Sample imaging results are demonstrated. The analysis of the FDTD results shows that the detectable object size is limited by the incident wavelength and the measurement spacing and illustrates the detectability of multiple objects. Naoki Okada and James B. Cole Copyright © 2014 Naoki Okada and James B. Cole. All rights reserved. Role of Density Profiles for the Nonlinear Propagation of Intense Laser Beam through Plasma Channel Sun, 23 Mar 2014 14:01:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aot/2014/472740/ In this work role of density profiles for the nonlinear propagation of intense laser beam through plasma channel is analyzed. By employing the expression for the dielectric function of different density profile plasma, a differential equation for beamwidth parameter is derived under WKB and paraxial approximation. The laser induces modifications of the dielectric function through nonlinearities. It is found that density profiles play vital role in laser-plasma interaction studies. To have numerical appreciation of the results the propagation equation for plasma is solved using the fourth order Runge-Kutta method for the initial plane wave front of the beam, using boundary conditions. The spot size of the laser beam decreases as the beam penetrates into the plasma and significantly adds self-focusing in plasma. This causes the laser beam to become more focused by reduction of diffraction effect, which is an important phenomenon in inertial confinement fusion and also for the understanding of self-focusing of laser pulses. Numerical computations are presented and discussed in the form of graphs for typical parameters of laser-plasma interaction. Sonu Sen, Meenu Asthana Varshney, and Dinesh Varshney Copyright © 2014 Sonu Sen et al. All rights reserved. All-Optical Logic Gates: Designs, Classification, and Comparison Wed, 19 Mar 2014 16:45:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aot/2014/275083/ The paper reviews the current status and designs of all-optical gates. Various schemes with and without semiconductor optical amplifiers are discussed and compared. The optical gates are classified according to their design structures. It is divided into two major divisions that is, nonsemiconductor optical amplifier based gates and semiconductor optical amplifier based gates. In nonsemiconductor optical amplifier based gates, different schemes have been proposed to create non-linearity which is discussed. The semiconductor optical amplifier based gates of different design structures are discussed to show the probe pulse that is modulated in different ways to obtain results. Pallavi Singh, Devendra Kr. Tripathi, Shikha Jaiswal, and H. K. Dixit Copyright © 2014 Pallavi Singh et al. All rights reserved. Dynamic Range Analysis of the Phase Generated Carrier Demodulation Technique Mon, 17 Mar 2014 08:15:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aot/2014/815108/ The dependence of the dynamic range of the phase generated carrier (PGC) technique on low-pass filters passbands is investigated using a simulation model. A nonlinear character of this dependence, which could lead to dynamic range limitations or measurement uncertainty, is presented for the first time. A detailed theoretical analysis is provided to verify the simulation results and these results are consistent with performed calculations. The method for the calculation of low-pass filters passbands according to the required dynamic range upper limit is proposed. M. J. Plotnikov, A. V. Kulikov, V. E. Strigalev, and I. K. Meshkovsky Copyright © 2014 M. J. Plotnikov et al. All rights reserved. Optical Response to Submicron Digital Elements Simulated by FDTD Wavelets with Refractive Impulse Tue, 04 Mar 2014 16:23:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aot/2014/682614/ Accurate simulation from digital, submicron, optical elements is obtained by finite difference time domain (FDTD) results that are phase analyzed as sources for Huygens wavelets on fine scales much shorter than the wavelength used. Results, from the MIT electromagnetic evaluation program, are renormalized by a method here called “refractive impulse.” This is valid for polarized responses from digital diffractive and focusing optics. The method is employed with plane wave incidence at any angle or with diverging or converging beams. It is more systematic, more versatile, and more accurate than commercial substitutes. Antony J. Bourdillon Copyright © 2014 Antony J. Bourdillon. All rights reserved. Low-Frequency Raman Spectroscopic Monitoring of Supramolecular Structure in H-Bonded Liquids Tue, 04 Mar 2014 09:57:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aot/2014/798632/ Effective density of vibrational states in H-bonded liquids was measured by Raman scattering method. Actuality of a low-frequency part of the spectrum of the intermediate (fracton) region, which obeys a power law, indicates the correct application of the percolation model. The dependence of exponent on binary solutions concentration has been studied. Existence of correlation of the fractal structure parameter and dynamic viscosity has been noted. Nataliia Kuzkova, Andrey Yakunov, and Mykola Bilyi Copyright © 2014 Nataliia Kuzkova et al. All rights reserved. Polarization Division Multiplexing of OFDM Radio-over-Fiber Signals in Passive Optical Networks Thu, 27 Feb 2014 14:16:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aot/2014/269524/ This paper describes the state-of-the-art of polarization multiplexing for optical networks transmission. The use of polarization division multiplexing (PDM) permits to multiply the user capacity and increase the spectral efficiency. Combining PDM and orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (OFDM) modulation allows maximizing the optical transmission capacity. The experimental demonstration of transmitting OFDM signals following ECMA-368 ultrawide band (UWB) standard in radio-over-fiber using PDM in passive optical networks is herein reported. The impact of cross-polarization and cochannel crosstalk is evaluated experimentally in a three-user OFDM-UWB subcarrier multiplexed (SCM) configuration per polarization. Each SCM uses up to three OFDM-UWB channels of 200 Mbit/s each, achieving an aggregated bitrate of 1.2 Gbit/s with 0.76 bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency when using PDM transmission. The experimental results for the polarization-multiplexed SCM indicate that a 4 dB additional polarization crosstalk interference can be expected compared to a nonpolarization-multiplexed transmission system which translates to 2.4 dB EVM penalty in the UWB signals. The successful PDM transmission of SCM multiuser OFDM-UWB over a passive optical network of 25 km standard-single mode fiber (SSMF) reach is demonstrated. Maria Morant, Joaquin Pérez, and Roberto Llorente Copyright © 2014 Maria Morant et al. All rights reserved. Properties of the Band Gaps in 1D Ternary Lossy Photonic Crystal Containing Double-Negative Materials Thu, 13 Feb 2014 11:11:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aot/2014/129568/ Theoretically, the characteristics matrix method is employed to investigate and compare the properties of the band gaps of the one-dimensional ternary and binary lossy photonic crystals which are composed of double-negative and double-positive materials. This study shows that by varying the angle of incidence, the band gaps for TM and TE waves behave differently in both ternary and binary lossy structures. The results demonstrate that, by increasing the angle of incidence for the TE wave, the width and the depth of zero-, zero-, and Bragg gap increase in both ternary and binary structures. On the other hand, the enhancement of the angle of incidence for the TM wave contributes to reduction of the width and the depth of the zero- and Bragg gaps, and they finally disappear for incidence angles greater than 50° and 60° for the binary structure and 40° and 45° for the ternary structures, respectively. In addition, the details of the edges of the band gaps variations as a function of incidence angle for both structures are studied. Alireza Aghajamali, Maryam Akbarimoosavi, and Mahmood Barati Copyright © 2014 Alireza Aghajamali et al. All rights reserved. Total Internal Reflection-Based High Efficiency Grating Design for a Metal-Free Polarizing Filter Applications Using Hybrid Optimization Procedure Mon, 10 Feb 2014 15:55:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aot/2014/393010/ This paper presents a fast and rigorous design method for grating-based metal-free polarizing filter applications using two-step hybrid optimization techniques. Grating structures utilizing the total internal reflection in a lamellar configuration were used to achieve metal-free solution, which is a key technology in the chirped pulse amplification for high power laser system. Here two polarizing filters were designed: polarization sensitive and polarization insensitive. Those polarization performances were characterized by the rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA), and the design parameters of grating structures, pitch, depth, and filling factor were optimized by two-step hybrid optimization procedure because the diffraction characteristics of grating-based polarizing filters are highly sensitive to small changes in design parameters. The Taguchi method is incorporated into selection process in the genetic algorithm, which indicates that the Taguchi method optimizes the design parameters in a coarse manner, and then, coarsely optimized parameters are finely optimized using the genetic algorithm. Therefore the proposed method could solve global numerical optimization problems with continuous variables. The proposed two-step hybrid optimization algorithm could effectively optimize the grating structures for the purpose of polarization filter applications, and the optimized grating structures could selectively filter the incident light up to 99.8% as to TE or TM waves. ChaBum Lee Copyright © 2014 ChaBum Lee. All rights reserved. Application of the Expansion Method in Ultrashort Pulses in Nonlinear Optical Fibers Wed, 11 Dec 2013 10:07:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aot/2013/636472/ With the increasing input power in optical fibers, the dispersion problem is becoming a severe restriction on wavelength division multiplexing (WDM). With the aid of solitons, in which the shape and speed can remain constant during propagation, it is expected that the transmission of nonlinear ultrashort pulses in optical fibers can effectively control the dispersion. The propagation of a nonlinear ultrashort laser pulse in an optical fiber, which fits the high-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE), has been solved using the expansion method. Group velocity dispersion, self-phase modulation, the fourth-order dispersion, and the fifth-order nonlinearity of the high-order NLSE were taken into consideration. A series of solutions has been obtained such as the solitary wave solutions of kink, inverse kink, the tangent trigonometric function, and the cotangent trigonometric function. The results have shown that the expansion method is an effective way to obtain the exact solutions for the high-order NLSE, and it provides a theoretical basis for the transmission of ultrashort pulses in nonlinear optical fibers. Jiang Xing-Fang, Wang Jun, Wei Jian-Ping, and Hua Ping Copyright © 2013 Jiang Xing-Fang et al. All rights reserved. Neural Network Modeling for Prediction of Weld Bead Geometry in Laser Microwelding Mon, 09 Dec 2013 16:40:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aot/2013/415837/ Laser microwelding has been an essential tool with a reputation of rapidity and precision for joining miniaturized metal parts. In industrial applications, an accurate prediction of weld bead geometry is required in automation systems to enhance productivity of laser microwelding. The present work was conducted to establish an intelligent algorithm to build a simplified relationship between process parameters and weld bead geometry that can be easily used to predict the weld bead geometry with a wide range of process parameters through an artificial neural network (ANN) in laser microwelding of thin steel sheet. The backpropagation with the Levenberg-Marquardt training algorithm was used to train the neural network model. The accuracy of neural network model has been tested by comparing the simulated data with actual data from the laser microwelding experiments. The predictions of the neural network model showed excellent agreement with the experimental results, indicating that the neural network model is a viable means for predicting weld bead geometry. Furthermore, a comparison was made between the neural network and mathematical model. It was found that the developed neural network model has better prediction capability compared to the regression analysis model. Mohd Idris Shah Ismail, Yasuhiro Okamoto, and Akira Okada Copyright © 2013 Mohd Idris Shah Ismail et al. All rights reserved. Photonic Processing for Wideband Cancellation and Spectral Discrimination of RF Signals Thu, 05 Dec 2013 09:59:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aot/2013/738427/ Photonic signal processing is used to implement common mode signal cancellation across a very wide bandwidth utilising phase modulation of radio frequency (RF) signals onto a narrow linewidth laser carrier. RF spectra were observed using narrow-band, tunable optical filtering using a scanning Fabry Perot etalon. Thus functions conventionally performed using digital signal processing techniques in the electronic domain have been replaced by analog techniques in the photonic domain. This technique was able to observe simultaneous cancellation of signals across a bandwidth of 1400 MHz, limited only by the free spectral range of the etalon. David M. Benton Copyright © 2013 David M. Benton. All rights reserved. Minimizing the Bright/Shadow Focal Spot Size with Controlled Side-Lobe Increase in High-Numerical-Aperture Focusing Systems Wed, 20 Nov 2013 14:29:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aot/2013/267684/ Minimizing the bright/shadow focal spot size for differently polarized incident waves through the additional apodization of the focusing system output pupil by use of an optical element with the vortex phase dependence on angle and the polynomial amplitude dependence on radius is studied. The coefficients of the radial polynomial were optimized with the aim of fulfilling certain conditions such as the energy efficiency preservation and keeping the side lobes under control. The coefficients were chosen so as to minimize the functional using Brent’s method. S. N. Khonina and S. G. Volotovskiy Copyright © 2013 S. N. Khonina and S. G. Volotovskiy. All rights reserved. Modeling and Simulation of Piecewise Regular Multimode Fiber Links Operating in a Few-Mode Regime Tue, 12 Nov 2013 10:36:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aot/2013/469389/ This work presents an alternative model of multimode fiber links with conventional silica weakly-guiding graded-index irregular multimode fibers under a few-mode optical signal propagation generated by laser source. The proposed model is based on the piecewise regular representation. It takes into account launch conditions, differential mode delay, both lower- and higher-order mode chromatic dispersion, differential mode attenuation, and mode mixing and power diffusion occurring due to real fiber irregularity and micro- and macrobends. We present some results of introduced model approbation with following pulse propagation simulations. A close matching with measured pulse responses at the output of test fibers is noticed. Anton Bourdine Copyright © 2013 Anton Bourdine. All rights reserved. Automatic Characterization of the Visual Appearance of Industrial Materials through Colour and Texture Analysis: An Overview of Methods and Applications Wed, 30 Oct 2013 14:55:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aot/2013/503541/ We present an overview of methods and applications of automatic characterization of the appearance of materials through colour and texture analysis. We propose a taxonomy based on three classes of methods (spectral, spatial, and hybrid) and discuss their general advantages and disadvantages. For each class we present a set of methods that are computationally cheap and easy to implement and that was proved to be reliable in many applications. We put these methods in the context of typical industrial environments and provide examples of their application in the following tasks: surface grading, surface inspection, and content-based image retrieval. We emphasize the potential benefits that would come from a wide implementation of these methods, such as better product quality, new services, and higher customer satisfaction. Elena González, Francesco Bianconi, Marcos X. Álvarez, and Stefano A. Saetta Copyright © 2013 Elena González et al. All rights reserved. 340 nm Bandwidth Automatic Dynamic Optical Equalizer for CWDM Networks Wed, 23 Oct 2013 13:39:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aot/2013/420140/ This paper presents an automatic optical equalizer based on a pair of in-house developed high efficiency, acousto-optic variable optical attenuators (AO-VOAs). The system is polarization insensitive and presents a wide bandwidth compatible with coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM) requirements: 340 nm. The system operation is automatic and bidirectional and equalization is obtained in one single iteration of algorithm loop. Samuel H. Dupont, Jean-Claude Kastelik, and Joseph Gazalet Copyright © 2013 Samuel H. Dupont et al. All rights reserved. Amplification Properties of Femtosecond Laser-Written Er3+/Yb3+ Doped Waveguides in a Tellurium-Zinc Glass Thu, 12 Sep 2013 10:31:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aot/2013/621018/ We report on the fabrication and characterization of active waveguides in a TeO2-ZnO glass sample doped with Er3+/Yb3+ fabricated by direct laser writing with a femtosecond laser delivering 150 fs pulses at 1 kHz repetition rate. The waveguides exhibit an internal gain of 0.6 dB/cm at 1535 nm, thus demonstrating the feasibility of active photonics lightwave circuits and lossless components in such a glass composition. Massimo Olivero, Davinson Mariano da Silva, Luciana Reyes Pires Kassab, and Anderson S. L. Gomes Copyright © 2013 Massimo Olivero et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Temperature on Photonic Band Gaps in Semiconductor-Based One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Thu, 29 Aug 2013 11:03:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aot/2013/798087/ The effect of the temperature and angle of incidence on the photonic band gap (PBG) for semiconductor-based photonic crystals has been investigated. The refractive index of semiconductor layers is taken as a function of temperature and wavelength. Three structures have been analyzed by choosing a semiconductor material for one of the two materials in a bilayer structure. The semiconductor material is taken to be ZnS, Si, and Ge with air in first, second, and third structures respectively. The shifting of band gaps with temperature is more pronounced in the third structure than in the first two structures because the change in the refractive index of Ge layers with temperature is more than the change of refractive index of both ZnS and Si layers with temperature. The propagation characteristics of the proposed structures are analyzed by transfer matrix method. J. V. Malik, K. D. Jindal, Vinay Kumar, Vipin Kumar, Arun Kumar, Kh. S. Singh, and T. P. Singh Copyright © 2013 J. V. Malik et al. All rights reserved. Far-field Diffraction Properties of Annular Walsh Filters Wed, 24 Jul 2013 11:40:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aot/2013/360450/ Annular Walsh filters are derived from the rotationally symmetric annular Walsh functions which form a complete set of orthogonal functions that take on values either +1 or −1 over the domain specified by the inner and outer radii of the annulus. The value of any annular Walsh function is taken as zero from the centre of the circular aperture to the inner radius of the annulus. The three values 0, +1, and −1 in an annular Walsh function can be realized in a corresponding annular Walsh filter by using transmission values of zero amplitude (i.e., an obscuration), unity amplitude and zero phase, and unity amplitude and phase, respectively. Not only the order of the Walsh filter but also the size of the inner radius of the annulus provides an additional degree of freedom in tailoring of point spread function by using these filters for pupil plane filtering in imaging systems. In this report, we present the far-field amplitude characteristics of some of these filters to underscore their potential for effective use in several demanding applications like high-resolution microscopy, optical data storage, microlithography, optical encryption, and optical micromanipulation. Pubali Mukherjee and Lakshminarayan Hazra Copyright © 2013 Pubali Mukherjee and Lakshminarayan Hazra. All rights reserved. A Resource Reservation Protocol with Linear Traffic Prediction for OBS Networks Mon, 15 Jul 2013 10:32:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aot/2013/425372/ This paper addresses the issue of providing resource reservation mechanism for OBS networks. We propose a linear prediction mechanism based on least mean square (LMS) method to reduce the burst delay at edge nodes. A reservation method is proposed to increase the reservation probability and to improve the delay reduction performance. Ioannis Karamitsos and Chris Bowerman Copyright © 2013 Ioannis Karamitsos and Chris Bowerman. All rights reserved. Splice Loss of Graded-Index Fibers: Accurate Semianalytical Descriptions Using Nelder-Mead Nonlinear Unconstrained Optimization with Three-Parameter Fundamental Modal Field Mon, 08 Jul 2013 08:12:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aot/2013/168923/ A faster and accurate semianalytical formulation with a robust optimization solution for estimating the splice loss of graded-index fibers has been proposed. The semianalytical optimization of modal parameters has been carried out by Nelder-Mead method of nonlinear unconstrained minimization suitable for functions which are uncertain, noisy, or even discontinuous. Instead of normally used Gaussian function, as the trial field for the fundamental mode of graded-index optical fiber a novel sinc function with exponentially and ( is the normalized radius of the optical fiber) decaying trailing edge has been used. Due to inclusion of three parameters in the optimization of fundamental modal solution and application of an efficient optimization technique with simple analytical expressions for various modal parameters, the results are found to be accurate and computationally easier to find than the standard numerical method solution. Raja Roy Choudhury, Arundhati Roy Choudhury, and Mrinal Kanti Ghose Copyright © 2013 Raja Roy Choudhury et al. All rights reserved. Experiments on the Porch Swing Bearing of Michelson Interferometer for Low Resolution FTIR Thu, 30 May 2013 08:10:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aot/2013/948638/ Porch swing bearing for the linear motion of the mirror in Michelson interferometer for mid-infrared low resolution Fourier transform spectrometer was studied experimentally using the modulation depth of the collimated laser beam. The mirror tilting was measured to be lower than 5 μrad over 3 mm mirror travel using two different bearings assemblies. Additionally, the manufacturing tolerances of the bearing type were proved to be loose enough not to limit the interferometer application. These demonstrate that the porch swing without any adjustment mechanisms provides the sufficient motion linearity. Tuomas Välikylä and Jyrki Kauppinen Copyright © 2013 Tuomas Välikylä and Jyrki Kauppinen. All rights reserved. Detection of Nitroaromatic and Peroxide Explosives in Air Using Infrared Spectroscopy: QCL and FTIR Tue, 07 May 2013 08:52:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aot/2013/532670/ A methodology for processing spectroscopic information using a chemometrics-based analysis was designed and implemented in the detection of highly energetic materials (HEMs) in the gas phase at trace levels. The presence of the nitroaromatic HEM 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) and the cyclic organic peroxide triacetone triperoxide (TATP) in air was detected by chemometrics-enhanced vibrational spectroscopy. Several infrared experimental setups were tested using traditional heated sources (globar), modulated and nonmodulated FT-IR, and quantum cascade laser- (QCL-) based dispersive IR spectroscopy. The data obtained from the gas phase absorption experiments in the midinfrared (MIR) region were used for building the chemometrics models. Partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to generate pattern recognition schemes for trace amounts of explosives in air. The QCL-based methodology exhibited a better capacity of discrimination for the detected presence of HEM in air compared to other methodologies. Leonardo C. Pacheco-Londoño, John R. Castro-Suarez, and Samuel P. Hernández-Rivera Copyright © 2013 Leonardo C. Pacheco-Londoño et al. All rights reserved. Advanced Infrared Technology and Applications Wed, 13 Mar 2013 11:54:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aot/2013/459074/ Ovidio Salvetti, Laura Abbozzo Ronchi, Carlo Corsi, Antoni Rogalski, and Marija Strojnik Copyright © 2013 Ovidio Salvetti et al. All rights reserved. Optical System for Bispectral Imaging in Mid-IR at 1000 Frames per Second Wed, 13 Mar 2013 09:15:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aot/2013/905870/ We propose, evaluate, and demonstrate the performance of an IR/optical double-image experimental setup where we capture two simultaneous images of a single object, in two different spectral bands, using a single detector array. With this arrangement, we may observe rapidly changing phenomena, at a rate of more than 1000 frames per second, without the loss of the spatial information about the test subject. We describe the optical system to perform simultaneous imaging in IR for slightly inclined optical axes. We verify the actual performance by applying the experimental method to flame analysis in the mid-IR to determine the combustion efficiency. Marija Strojnik and Gonzalo Paez Copyright © 2013 Marija Strojnik and Gonzalo Paez. All rights reserved. In Search of Early Time: An Original Approach in the Thermographic Identification of Thermophysical Properties and Defects Sun, 17 Feb 2013 15:12:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aot/2013/314906/ Active thermography gives the possibility to characterize thermophysical properties and defects in complex structures presenting heterogeneities. The produced thermal fields can be rapidly 3D. On the other hand, due to the size of modern thermographic images, pixel-wise data processing based on 1D models is the only reasonable approach for a rapid image processing. The only way to conciliate these two constraints when dealing with time-resolved experiments lies in the earlier possible detection/characterization. This approach is illustrated by several different applications and compared to more classical methods, demonstrating that simplicity of models and calculations is compatible with efficient and accurate identifications. Daniel L. Balageas Copyright © 2013 Daniel L. Balageas. All rights reserved. Nonlocal Mean Image Denoising Using Anisotropic Structure Tensor Tue, 12 Feb 2013 15:28:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aot/2013/794728/ We present a novel nonlocal mean (NLM) algorithm using an anisotropic structure tensor to achieve higher accuracy of imaging denoising and better preservation of fine image details. Instead of using the intensity to identify the pixel, the proposed algorithm uses the structure tensor to characterize the boundary information around the pixel more comprehensively. Meanwhile, similarity of the structure tensor is computed in a Riemannian space for more rigorous comparison, and the similarity weight of the pixel (or patch) is determined by the intensity and structure tensor simultaneously. The proposed algorithm is compared with the original NLM algorithm and a modified NLM algorithm that is based on the principle component analysis. Quantitative and qualitative comparisons of the three NLM algorithms are presented as well. Xi Wu, Mingyuan Xie, Wei Wu, and Jiliu Zhou Copyright © 2013 Xi Wu et al. All rights reserved. Experimental Investigation of an Index-Mismatched Multiphase Flow Using Optical Techniques Tue, 12 Feb 2013 12:01:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aot/2013/487121/ An experimental investigation of multiphase flow involving a liquid (water) and a gas (air) is performed. The results for three different scenarios are presented: fixed bubble, ascending bubble, and dispersed-bubble turbulent pipe flow. This study involves a comparison of statistical data collected using two sensing systems, a wavefront sensor and a high-speed video camera. A signal analysis technique based on signal attenuation is developed for data collected using the wavefront sensor. The three experiments performed provide experimental evidence that the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, operating on signal attenuation, is a viable method for the study of multiphase bubble flows. H. Coronado Diaz and Ronald J. Hugo Copyright © 2013 H. Coronado Diaz and Ronald J. Hugo. All rights reserved. End-to-End Image Simulator for Optical Imaging Systems: Equations and Simulation Examples Tue, 15 Jan 2013 11:10:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aot/2013/295950/ The theoretical description of a simplified end-to-end software tool for simulation of data produced by optical instruments, starting from either synthetic or airborne hyperspectral data, is described and some simulation examples of hyperspectral and panchromatic images for existing and future design instruments are also reported. High spatial/spectral resolution images with low intrinsic noise and the sensor/mission specifications are used as inputs for the simulations. The examples reported in this paper show the capabilities of the tool for simulating target detection scenarios, data quality assessment with respect to classification performance and class discrimination, impact of optical design on image quality, and 3D modelling of optical performances. The simulator is conceived as a tool (during phase 0/A) for the specification and early development of new Earth observation optical instruments, whose compliance to user’s requirements is achieved through a process of cost/performance trade-off. The Selex Galileo simulator, as compared with other existing image simulators for phase C/D projects of space-borne instruments, implements all modules necessary for a complete panchromatic and hyper spectral image simulation, and it allows excellent flexibility and expandability for new integrated functions because of the adopted IDL-ENVI software environment. Peter Coppo, Leandro Chiarantini, and Luciano Alparone Copyright © 2013 Peter Coppo et al. All rights reserved.