Advances in Pharmaceutics http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Lipid Based Vesicular Drug Delivery Systems Tue, 02 Sep 2014 12:31:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ap/2014/574673/ Vesicular drug delivery system can be defined as highly ordered assemblies consisting of one or more concentric bilayers formed as a result of self-assembling of amphiphilic building blocks in presence of water. Vesicular drug delivery systems are particularly important for targeted delivery of drugs because of their ability to localize the activity of drug at the site or organ of action thereby lowering its concentration at the other sites in body. Vesicular drug delivery system sustains drug action at a predetermined rate, relatively constant (zero order kinetics), efficient drug level in the body, and simultaneously minimizes the undesirable side effects. It can also localize drug action in the diseased tissue or organ by targeted drug delivery using carriers or chemical derivatization. Different types of pharmaceutical carriers such as polymeric micelles, particulate systems, and macro- and micromolecules are presented in the form of novel drug delivery system for targeted delivery of drugs. Particulate type carrier also known as colloidal carrier system, includes lipid particles, micro- and nanoparticles, micro- and nanospheres, polymeric micelles and vesicular systems like liposomes, sphingosomes, niosomes, transfersomes, aquasomes, ufasomes, and so forth. Shikha Jain, Vikas Jain, and S. C. Mahajan Copyright © 2014 Shikha Jain et al. All rights reserved. Prophylactic Effects of Ethanolic Extract of Irvingia gabonensis Stem Bark against Cadmium-Induced Toxicity in Albino Rats Mon, 01 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ap/2014/894610/ The prophylactic effect of ethanolic extract of Irvingia gabonensis stem bark on cadmium-induced oxidative damage in male albino rats’ liver was investigated. Male Wistar rats were divided into control, cadmium, and treatment groups. In the prophylactic experiment, Irvingia gabonensis (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) was administered by oral gavage for 21 days before exposure to cadmium. Antioxidant marker enzymes such as reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were determined in the liver and heart alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were monitored and histological examination was carried out. Results indicate that cadmium-induced rats had significantly increased relative weight of liver and heart when compared to controls. Treatment with Irvingia gabonensis at 200 and 400 mg/kg caused a significant decrease in relative weight of the organs. In cadmium-induced rats, serum ALT and AST activities and levels of LPO were increased whereas hepatic and cardiac marker enzymes significantly decreased. Furthermore, histological alteration in liver and aorta was observed in cadmium untreated rats and was ameliorated in cadmium rats treated with Irvingia gabonensis. In conclusion, the extract indicates antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties that eliminate the deleterious effects of toxic metabolites of cadmium. Oluwafemi Adeleke Ojo, Basiru Olaitan Ajiboye, Babatunji Emmanuel Oyinloye, and Adebola Busola Ojo Copyright © 2014 Oluwafemi Adeleke Ojo et al. All rights reserved. Evaluating the Effect of Gamma Radiation on the Total Phenolic Content, Flavonoids, and Antioxidant Activity of Dried Pleurotus ostreatus ((Jacq. ex. Fr) Kummer) Stored in Packaging Materials Sun, 24 Aug 2014 07:20:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ap/2014/262807/ Dried Pleurotus ostreatus mushrooms stored in polythene and polypropylene packs were exposed to gamma radiation from a cobalt-60 source at doses of 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 kGy at a dose rate of 1.7 kGy/hr and stored for a period of 1 month. Total phenolic contents, flavonoids, and free radical scavenging activity DPPH (2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) were determined using aqueous, ethanol, and methanol extracts by Folin-Ciocaultaeu method as a source of potential natural antioxidants. Total phenol content ranged 0.56 ± 0.01–10.96 ± 1.7 mg/GAE, flavonoids ranged 1.64 ± 0.05–8.92 ± 0.6 mg/QE, DPPH radical scavenging activity also ranged 7.02 ± 0.10–13.03 ± 0.04%, and IC50 values also ranged 0.08–0.16 mg/mL. Statistical differences (P < 0.05) were recorded for the extracts and the treatment doses of mushrooms stored in polythene and polypropylene packs. A significant linear correlation was confirmed between values for the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of mushroom extracts. The high contents of phenolic compounds indicated that these compounds contribute to high antioxidant activity. Pleurotus ostreatus can be regarded as a promising candidate for natural mushroom sources of antioxidants with high value. The use of low dose gamma radiation by the local food industry could improve the hygienic quality, extend shelf-life, and preserve nutrients and antinutrients. Nii Korley Kortei, George Tawia Odamtten, Mary Obodai, Victoria Appiah, Felicia Akuamoa, Afua Kobi Adu-Bobi, Sylvester Nana Yao Annan, Jonathan Nii Okai Armah, and Stanley Akwesi Acquah Copyright © 2014 Nii Korley Kortei et al. All rights reserved. A Rapid, Isocratic HPLC Method for Determination of Insulin and Its Degradation Product Wed, 23 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ap/2014/749823/ This paper aimed to develop a simple, sensitive, and rapid chromatographic procedure for the simultaneous analysis of human insulin and its main decomposition product using isocratic RP-HPLC/UV. A column type RP-C18 (100 × 4.6 mm, 3 μm particle size, and pore size 130 Å) was used. o-Nitrophenol was used as internal standard. The eluent consists of 62% KH2PO4 buffer (0.1 M), 26% ACN, and 12% MeOH. The final pH was adjusted to 3.1. The eluent was pumped at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and the effluent was monitored using DAD detector at 214 nm. The method produces a linear response over the concentration range of 0.0106 to 0.6810 mg/mL with detection limit of 0.0029 mg/mL. Considering the specifications of this method, the system was found to be suitable for rapid, direct routine analysis and stability studies of insulin. Ahmad Najjar, Mahmoud Alawi, Najiah AbuHeshmeh, and Alsayed Sallam Copyright © 2014 Ahmad Najjar et al. All rights reserved. In Vitro Characterization of Six Month Dosage Forms for a GnRH Antagonist Tue, 15 Jul 2014 06:51:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ap/2014/435963/ The objective of this study was to develop long-acting injectable dosage forms of Orntide, a peptide GnRH antagonist, to provide tailored release for 6-month duration. Using a polylactide homopolymer and the solvent extraction/evaporation method, three microsphere formulations (Formulations A, B, and C) were prepared at various drug loadings (11.85–15.79%). The microspheres were characterized for particle size by laser diffractometry, surface morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and bulk density by tapping, as well as long-term in vitro drug release, mass loss and hydration at 37°C, and short-term in vitro drug release at elevated temperatures (51–59°C). Experiments at 37°C revealed that drug release was triphasic and occurred due to slow degradation of the polylactide polymer. Short-term in vitro release results indicated that drug release was diffusional. Application of the Higuchi equation to short-term release confirmed the temperature dependency of the diffusional rate constant. Using the rate constant and the Arrhenius equation, an value of 45 kcal/mol (Formulation A) and approximately 25 kcal/mol (Formulations B and C) was obtained for diffusional release. Study results suggest that by selection of an appropriate biodegradable polymer, injectable dosing forms that release drug for 6 months or longer can be developed. Susan D’Souza, Santos Murty, Jabar A. Faraj, and Patrick P. DeLuca Copyright © 2014 Susan D’Souza et al. All rights reserved. Rejuvenating of Kidney Tissues on Alloxan Induced Diabetic Mice under the Effect of Momordica charantia Sun, 15 Jun 2014 12:59:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ap/2014/439158/ Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder in human and responsible for different complications and also causes mortality and morbidity. A wide number of herbal products are employed in the treatment of diabetes for their better efficacy and safety compared to synthetic medicine. The present studies have established the antidiabetic potential and rejuvenating capacity of kidney tissues under the effect of extract. Diabetes was induced in the Swiss albino mice by injecting alloxan at the dose of 150 mg/kg body weight and aqueous extract of Momordica charantia fruits at doses of 100 mg/kg body weight and 250 mg/kg body weight was administered orally for three weeks. After 21 days of treatment of the aqueous extracts of Momordica charantia significantly reduces serum glucose level, kidney function tests, lipid peroxidation as well as histopathological study also did show adverse alternation in the morphological architecture of the kidney tissue. Thus, from this study we concluded that Momordica charantia exhibited significant antihyperglycemic and rejuvenating capacity of kidney tissues activities in alloxan induced diabetic mice. Bhaskar Sharma, Mohd. Sufiyan Siddiqui, Gurudayal Ram, Ranjeet Kumar Yadav, Arti Kumari, Gaurav Sharma, and Nakuleshwar Dut Jasuja Copyright © 2014 Bhaskar Sharma et al. All rights reserved.