786759.fig.0013a
(a)
786759.fig.0013b
(b)
Figure 13: Schematic view of the principle of the determination of 𝐸 F n . Upon increasing the pH of the solution, the band edges of a semiconductor shift to more negative potentials. At pH = pH0, the value of 𝐸 F n matches the reduction potential of a pH-independent redox species in the electrolyte ( M V 2 + ).