786759.fig.002a
(a)
786759.fig.002b
(b)
786759.fig.002c
(c)
Figure 2: Fermi levels and quasi-Fermi levels of electrons and holes for an n-type semiconductor: (a) at thermodynamic equilibrium (in the dark); (b) and (c) under illumination; (c) local excitation; x is the distance from the semiconductor surface (adapted from [128]).