786759.fig.003
Figure 3: Schematic energy model of the n-type semiconductor/electrolyte interface before (a) and after (b) the establishment of equilibrium. The presence of surface states in the semiconductor is neglected. 𝐷 r e d and 𝐷 o x correspond to the distribution functions of the density of states for reduced and oxidized species, respectively, of the redox system (the energy distribution of reduced and oxidized species is different due to different solvation; 𝜆 is the reorganization energy). Φ , 𝜒 , and IE are the work function, electron affinity, and ionization energy, respectively, of the semiconductor (index S) and of the electrolyte (index E).