About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Advances in Physical Chemistry
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 813987, 18 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/813987
Review Article

Transient Exciplex Formation Electron Transfer Mechanism

Department of Chemistry, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992, Russia

Received 27 May 2011; Accepted 13 September 2011

Academic Editor: James McCusker

Copyright © 2011 Michael G. Kuzmin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. A. Marcus, “Electron transfer reactions in chemistry. Theory and experiment,” Pure and Applied Chemistry, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 13–29, 1997. View at Scopus
  2. R. A. Marcus and N. Sutin, “Electron transfers in chemistry and biology,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 811, no. 3, pp. 265–322, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. A. V. Barzykin, P. A. Frantsuzov, K. Seki, and M. Tachiya, “Solvent effects in nonadiabatic electron-transfer reactions: theoretical aspects,” in Advances in Chemical Physics, S. A. Rice, Ed., vol. 123, pp. 511–616, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 2002.
  4. A. I. Burshtein, “Non-Markovian theories of transfer reactions in luminescence chemiluminescence and photo- and electrochemistry,” in Advances in Chemical Physics, S. A. Rice, Ed., vol. 129, pp. 105–418, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 2004.
  5. R. A. Marcus, “On the theory of oxidation-reduction reactions involving electron transfer,” Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 966–978, 1956. View at Scopus
  6. R. Bolton and M. D. Archer, “Basic electron transfer theory,” in Electron Transfer in Inorganic, Organic and Biological Systems, J. R. Bolton, N. Mataga, and G. McLendon, Eds., vol. 228 of Advances in Chemistry, pp. 7–23, 1991.
  7. V. G. Levich and R. R. Dogonadze, “Theory of radiationless electron transitions between ions in solution,” Doklady Academii Nauk SSSR, vol. 124, no. 1, pp. 123–126, 1959, (English translation: Academia Nauk SSSR. Proceedings Physical Chemistry Section, vol. 124, no. 1, pp. 9–11, 1959).
  8. J. J. Hopfield, “Electron transfer between biological molecules by thermally activated tunneling,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 71, no. 9, pp. 3640–3644, 1974. View at Scopus
  9. N. R. Kestner, J. Logan, and J. Jortner, “Thermal electron transfer reactions in polar solvents,” Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol. 78, no. 21, pp. 2148–2166, 1974. View at Scopus
  10. M. G. Kuzmin, “Exciplex mechanism of fluorescence quenching in polar media,” Pure and Applied Chemistry, vol. 65, no. 8, pp. 1653–1658, 1993.
  11. M. G. Kuzmin, “Exciplex mechanism of excited state electron transfer reactions in polar media,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 51–57, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. V. N. Grosso, C. A. Chesta, and C. M. Previtali, “Evidence for nonemissive exciplexes in the singlet quenching of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by polychlorobenzenes in cyclohexane,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A, vol. 118, no. 3, pp. 157–163, 1998. View at Scopus
  13. P. Jacques, X. Allonas, M. von Raumer, P. Suppan, and E. Haselbach, “Quenching of triplet benzophenone by methyl and methoxy benzenes: are triplet exciplexes involved?” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A, vol. 111, no. 1–3, pp. 41–45, 1997. View at Scopus
  14. S. M. Hubig and J. K. Kochi, “Electron-transfer mechanisms with photoactivated quinones. The encounter complex versus the Rehm-Weller paradigm,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 121, no. 8, pp. 1688–1694, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. G. Kuzmin, I. V. Soboleva, E. V. Dolotova, and D. N. Dogadkin, “Evidence for diffusion-controlled electron transfer in exciplex formation reactions. Medium reorganisation stimulated by strong electronic coupling,” Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences, vol. 2, no. 9, pp. 967–974, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. G. Kuzmin, I. V. Soboleva, and E. V. Dolotova, “Competition of concatenated and thermally activated medium reorganization in photoinduced electron transfer reactions,” High Energy Chemistry, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 234–247, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. Murata and M. Tachiya, “Unified interpretation of exciplex formation and Marcus electron transfer on the basis of two-dimensional free energy surfaces,” Journal of Physical Chemistry A, vol. 111, no. 38, pp. 9240–9248, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  18. H. Knibbe, D. Rehm, and A. Weller, “Bildung von Molekulkomlexen im angeregten Zustand—Zusammanhang zwischen Emissionsmaximum und Reduktionspotential des Elektronakzeptors,” Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 95–98, 1967.
  19. H. Beens, H. Knibbe, and A. Weller, “Dipolar nature of molecular complexes formed in the excited state,” Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 1183–1184, 1967. View at Scopus
  20. N. Mataga, T. Okada, and N. Yamamoto, “Electronic processes in hetero-excimers and the mechanism of fluorescence quenching,” Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 119–121, 1967. View at Scopus
  21. M. G. Kuzmin and L. N. Guseva, “Donor-acceptor complexes of singlet excited states of aromatic hydrocarbons with aliphatic amines,” Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 71–72, 1969. View at Scopus
  22. M. Gordon and W. R. Ware, Eds., The Exciplex, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1975.
  23. M. G. Kuzmin and L. N. Guseva, “Radiationless deactivation in electron transfer reactions,” Academia Nauk SSSR. Proceedings Physical Chemistry Section, vol. 200, no. 2, pp. 779–782, 1971.
  24. A. Weller, “Mechanisms of electron-transfer reactions with excited molecules,” in Fast Reactions and Primary Processes in Chemical Kinetics, Proceedings of the 5th Nobel Symposium, pp. 413–436, Interscience, 1967.
  25. A. Weller, “Electron-transfer and complex formation in the excited state,” Pure and Applied Chemistry, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 115–124, 1968.
  26. N. Mataga, T. Okada, and K. Ezumi, “Fluorescence of pyrene—N,N-dimethylaniline complex in non-polar solvent,” Molecular Physics, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 203–204, 1966.
  27. B. R. Arnold, D. Noukakis, S. Farid, J. L. Goodman, and I. R. Gould, “Dynamics of interconversion of contact and solvent-separated radical-ion pairs,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 117, no. 15, pp. 4399–4400, 1995. View at Scopus
  28. B. R. Arnold, S. Farid, J. L. Goodman, and I. R. Gould, “Absolute energies of interconverting contact and solvent-separated radical-ion pairs,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 118, no. 23, pp. 5482–5483, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. G. Kuzmin, I. V. Soboleva, E. V. Dolotova, and D. N. Dogadkin, “The nature of internal conversion and intersystem crossing in exciplexes,” High Energy Chemistry, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 86–96, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. R. Miller, “Puzzles of electron transfer,” in Electron Transfer in Inorganic, Organic and Biological Systems, J. R. Bolton, N. Mataga, and G. McLendon, Eds., vol. 228 of Advances in Chemistry, pp. 265–276, 1991.
  31. D. Rehm and A. Weller, “Kinetics of fluoresecence quenching by electron and H-atom transfer,” Israel Journal of Chemistry, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 259–271, 1970.
  32. M. G. Kuzmin, I. V. Soboleva, and E. V. Dolotova, “The behavior of exciplex decay processes and interplay of radiationless transition and preliminary reorganization mechanisms of electron transfer in loose and tight pairs of reactants,” Journal of Physical Chemistry A, vol. 111, no. 2, pp. 206–215, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  33. J. Gersdorf, J. Mattay, and H. Görner, “Radical cations. 3. Photoreactions of biacetyl, benzophenone, and benzil with electron-rich alkenes,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 109, no. 4, pp. 1203–1209, 1987.
  34. M. G. Kuz'min, “Medium polarity effects on the electronic structure emission spectra of exciplexes,” Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry A, vol. 73, no. 10, pp. 1625–1632, 1999.
  35. D. N. Dogadkin, I. V. Soboleva, and M. G. Kuzmin, “Effect of solvent polarity on the electronic structure and emission frequencies of exciplexes of aromatic hydrocarbons with methoxybenzenes and methylnaphthalenes,” High Energy Chemistry, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 107–114, 2001.
  36. D. N. Dogadkin, I. V. Soboleva, and M. G. Kuz'min, “Formation enthalpy and entropy of exciplexes with variable extent of charge transfer in solvents of different polarity,” High Energy Chemistry, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 251–257, 2001.
  37. M. G. Kuz'min, E. V. Dolotova, and I. V. Soboleva, “The influence of solvation on the electronic structure, emission spectra, and thermodynamic characteristics of formation of exciplexes,” Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry A, vol. 76, no. 7, pp. 1109–1118, 2002.
  38. D. N. Dogadkin, I. V. Soboleva, and M. G. Kuz'min, “Formation enthalpy of exciplexes with partial charge transfer as a function of the electron-transfer driving force,” High Energy Chemistry, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 383–390, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. P. Jacques, X. Allonas, P. Suppan, and M. von Raumer, “The interplay between steric hindrance and exergonicity in the rates of excited state quenching,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A, vol. 101, no. 2-3, pp. 183–184, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. M. Dossot, D. Burget, X. Allonas, and P. Jacques, “From Rehm-Weller to exciplex mechanisms by a structural effect: fluorescence quenching of a thioxanthone derivative by methoxy- and methyl-substituted benzenes in acetonitrile,” New Journal of Chemistry, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 194–196, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. M. Dossot, X. Allonas, and P. Jacques, “Singlet exciplexes between a thioxanthone derivative and substituted aromatic quenchers: role of the resonance integral,” Chemistry A, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 1763–1770, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  42. J. Mattay, J. Gersdorf, and K. Buchkremer, “Photoreactions of biacetyl with electron-rich olefins. An extended mechanism,” Chemische Berichte, vol. 120, no. 3, pp. 307–318, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  43. R. E. Föll, H. E. A. Kramer, and U. E. Steiner, “Role of charge transfer and spin-orbit coupling in fluorescence quenching. A case study with oxonine and substituted benzenes,” Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol. 94, no. 6, pp. 2476–2487, 1990.
  44. E. V. Dolotova, I. V. Soboleva, and M. G. Kuz'min, “Activation enthalpy and entropy for the decay of 9-cyanophenanthrene exciplexes,” High Energy Chemistry, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 231–240, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. D. N. Dogadkin, I. V. Soboleva, and M. G. Kuz'min, “Activation parameters for the formation and decay of partial-charge- transfer exciplexes of 9-cyanoanthracene, 1,12-benzperylene, and pyrene,” High Energy Chemistry, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 108–114, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. D. N. Dogadkin, E. V. Dolotova, I. V. Soboleva et al., “Mechanism of exciplex decay: the quantum yields and the rate constants of triplet formation from 9-cyanophenanthrene exciplexes,” High Energy Chemistry, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 386–391, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  47. D. N. Dogadkin, E. V. Dolotova, I. V. Soboleva et al., “Mechanism of exciplex decay: the quantum yields and the rate constants of radical ion formation from exciplexes with partial charge transfer,” High Energy Chemistry, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 392–400, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  48. Y. Wang, O. Haze, J. P. Dinnocenzo, S. Farid, R. S. Farid, and I. R. Gould, “Bonded exciplexes. A new concept in photochemical reactions,” Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol. 72, no. 18, pp. 6970–6981, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  49. M. G. Kuzmin and N. A. Sadovskii, “Study of the kinetics of fast reactions of excited molecules by nanosecond-pulse fluorometry,” High Energy Chemistry, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 255–270, 1975.
  50. H. Miyasaka, A. Tabata, K. Kamada, and N. Mataga, “Femtosecond-picosecond laser photolysis studies on the mechanisms of electron transfer induced by hydrogen-bonding interactions in nonpolar solutions: 1-aminopyrene-pyridine systems,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 115, no. 16, pp. 7335–7342, 1993.
  51. N. Mataga and H. Miyasaka, “Photoinduced charge transfer phenomena: femtosecond-picosecond laser photolysis studies,” Progress in Reaction Kinetics, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 317–430, 1994.
  52. N. Mataga, “Development of exciplex chemistry: some fundamental aspects,” Pure and Applied Chemistry, vol. 69, no. 4, pp. 729–734, 1997.
  53. E. Teller, “The crossing of potential surfaces,” Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 109–116, 1937.
  54. A. Bjerre and E. E. Nikitin, “Energy transfer in collisions of an excited sodium atom with a nitrogen molecule,” Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 1, no. 5, pp. 179–181, 1967.
  55. E. E. Nikitin, “Non-adiabatic energy transfer in gases,” in Fast Reactions and Primary Processes in Chemical Kinetics, S. Claesson, Ed., Proceedings of 5th Nobel Symposium, pp. 165–183, Interscience, New York, YN, USA, 1967.
  56. J. Michl, “Energy barriers in photochemical reactions. A case for the relevance of Woodward-Hoffmann-type correlations,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 93, no. 2, pp. 523–524, 1971.
  57. J. Michl, “Photochemical reactions of large molecules. I. A simple physical model of photochemical reactivity,” Molecular Photochemistry, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 243–255, 1972.
  58. J. Michl, “Photochemical reactions of large molecules. II. application of the model to organic photochemistry,” Molecular Photochemistry, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 257–286, 1972.
  59. J. Michl, “Photochemical reactions of large molecules. III. Use of correlation diagrams for prediction of energy barriers,” Molecular Photochemistry, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 287–314, 1972.
  60. J. Michl, “Model calculations of photochemical reactivity,” Pure and Applied Chemistry, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 507–534, 1975.
  61. M. Klessinger and J. Michl, Excited States and Photochemistry of Organic Molecules, Wiley-VCH, New York, NY, USA, 1995.
  62. M. A. Robb, F. Bernardi, and M. Olivucci, “Conical intersections as a mechanistic feature of organic photochemistry,” Pure and Applied Chemistry, vol. 67, no. 5, pp. 783–789, 1995.
  63. M. Z. Zgierski, T. Fujiwara, and E. C. Lim, “Conical intersections and ultrafast intramolecular excited-state dynamics in nucleic acid bases and electron donor-acceptor molecules,” Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 463, no. 4–6, pp. 289–299, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  64. K. Kikuchi, Y. Takahashi, T. Katagiri, T. Niwa, M. Hoshi, and T. Miyashi, “A critical consideration on the lack of inverted region in the Rehm-Weller plot for electron-transfer fluorescence quenching,” Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 180, no. 5, pp. 403–408, 1991.
  65. K. Kikuchi, Y. Takahashi, M. Hoshi, T. Niwa, T. Katagiri, and T. Miyashi, “Free enthalpy dependence of free-radical yield of photoinduced electron transfer in acetonitrile,” Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol. 93, no. 6, pp. 2378–2381, 1991.
  66. E. Dolotova, D. Dogadkin, I. Soboleva, M. Kuzmin, O. Nicolet, and E. Vauthey, “Lifetimes of partial charge transfer exciplexes of 9-cyanophenanthrene and 9-cyanoanthracene,” Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 380, no. 5-6, pp. 729–735, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  67. C. M. Previtali, “Solvent effects on intermolecular electron transfer processes,” Pure and Applied Chemistry, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 127–132, 1995.
  68. M. G. Kuzmin, N. A. Sadovskii, J. A. Weinstein, and O. M. Soloveychik, “Influence of exciplex formation in polar media on fluorescence quenching mechanisms,” High Energy Chemistry, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 416–421, 1992.
  69. Y. A. Weinstein, N. A. Sadovskii, and M. G. Kuzmin, “Fluorescence quenching of pyrene by weak electron donors and acceptors in polar media: the role of exciplexes in the formation of triplet states and radical ions,” High Energy Chemistry, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 211–218, 1994.
  70. N. A. Sadovskii, O. I. Kutsenok, Y. A. Weinstein, and M. G. Kuz'min, “Spectral properties and electronic structure of exciplexes of aromatic compounds in acetonitrile,” Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry A, vol. 70, no. 11, pp. 1861–1866, 1996.
  71. M. G. Kuzmin, I. V. Soboleva, and E. V. Dolotova, “Evolution of the reaction mechanism during ultrafast photoinduced electron transfer,” Journal of Physical Chemistry A, vol. 112, no. 23, pp. 5131–5137, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  72. I. R. Gould, R. H. Young, L. J. Mueller, A. C. Albrecbt, and S. Farid, “Electronic structures of exciplexes and excited charge-transfer complexes,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 116, no. 18, pp. 8188–8199, 1994.
  73. A. Weller, “Photoinduced electron-transfer in solution—exciplex and radical ion-pair formation free enthalpies and their solvent dependence,” Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie, vol. 133, no. 1, pp. 93–98, 1982.
  74. N. A. Sadovskii, R. D. Shilling, and M. G. Kuzmin, “Quenching of excimers by electron donors,” Journal of Photochemistry, vol. 31, no. 2-3, pp. 247–252, 1985.
  75. I. V. Soboleva, N. A. Sadovskii, and M. G. Kuzmin, “Effect of the nature of the donor on the intersystem crossing in 9,10-dicyanoanthracene exciplexes in heptane,” Academia Nauk SSSR. Proceedings. Physical Chemistry Section, vol. 238, no. 1, pp. 70–73, 1978.