About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Advances in Physical Chemistry
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 821916, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/821916
Review Article

Nanoporous PdCo Catalyst for Microfuel Cells: Electrodeposition and Dealloying

1International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics, National Institute for Materials Science, Ibaraki 305-0044, Japan
2Nano-Science and Engineering, Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555, Japan

Received 5 May 2011; Accepted 17 June 2011

Academic Editor: Milan M. Jaksic

Copyright © 2011 Satoshi Tominaka and Tetsuya Osaka. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. Tominaka, S. Ohta, H. Obata, T. Momma, and T. Osaka, “On-chip fuel cell: micro direct methanol fuel cell of an air-breathing, membraneless, and monolithic design,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 130, no. 32, pp. 10456–10457, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  2. S. Motokawa, M. Mohamedi, T. Momma, S. Shoji, and T. Osaka, “MEMS-based design and fabrication of a new concept micro direct methanol fuel cell (μ-DMFC),” Electrochemistry Communications, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 562–565, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. Tominaka, H. Nishizeko, S. Ohta, and T. Osaka, “On-chip fuel cells for safe and high-power operation: investigation of alcohol fuel solutions,” Energy and Environmental Science, vol. 2, no. 8, pp. 849–852, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. S. Tominaka, H. Obata, and T. Osaka, “On-chip direct methanol fuel cells of a monolithic design: consideration on validity of active-type system,” Energy and Environmental Science, vol. 2, no. 8, pp. 845–848, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. Tominaka, S. Ohta, T. Osaka, and R. Alkire, “Prospects of on-chip fuel cell performance: improvement based on numerical simulation,” Energy and Environmental Science, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 162–171, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S. Tominaka, H. Nishizeko, J. Mizuno, and T. Osaka, “Bendable fuel cells: on-chip fuel cell on a flexible polymer substrate,” Energy and Environmental Science, vol. 2, no. 10, pp. 1074–1077, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. H. Nakano, K. Dokko, J. I. Sugaya, T. Yasukawa, T. Matsue, and K. Kanamura, “All-solid-state micro lithium-ion batteries fabricated by using dry polymer electrolyte with micro-phase separation structure,” Electrochemistry Communications, vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 2013–2017, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. D. Golodnitsky, V. Yufit, M. Nathan et al., “Advanced materials for the 3D microbattery,” Journal of Power Sources, vol. 153, no. 2, pp. 281–287, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. D. Niwa, K. Omichi, N. Motohashi, T. Homma, and T. Osaka, “Organosilane self-assembled monolayer-modified field effect transistors for on-chip ion and biomolecule sensing,” Sensors and Actuators, vol. 108, no. 1-2, pp. 721–726, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. R. Popovtzer, T. Neufeld, D. Biran, E. Z. Ron, J. Rishpon, and Y. Shacham-Diamand, “Novel integrated electrochemical nano-biochip for toxicity detection in water,” Nano Letters, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 1023–1027, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  11. S. Tominaka, T. Momma, and T. Osaka, “Electrodeposited Pd-Co catalyst for direct methanol fuel cell electrodes: preparation and characterization,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 53, no. 14, pp. 4679–4686, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. T. Osaka, H. Ilda, S. Tominaka, and T. Hachisu, “New trends in nanoparticles: syntheses and their applications to fuel cells, health care, and magnetic storage,” Israel Journal of Chemistry, vol. 48, no. 3-4, pp. 333–347, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. Paunovic and M. Schlesinger, Fundamentals of Electrochemical Deposition, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2006.
  14. R. M. Penner, “Hybrid electrochemical/chemical synthesis of quantum dots,” Accounts of Chemical Research, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 78–86, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. Tominaka, S. Ohta, T. Momma, and T. Osaka, “An electrodeposited Pd-Co cathode catalyst for a microfabricated direct methanol fuel cell,” in Proceedings of the 212th ECS Meeting, vol. 11, pp. 1369–1377, Washington, DC, USA, October 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. Y. Yamauchi, H. Kitoh, T. Momma, T. Osaka, and K. Kuroda, “Development of microfabrication process of mesoporous Pt via "Solvent-Evaporation-Mediated Direct Physical Casting": selective deposition into sloped microchannels,” Science and Technology of Advanced Materials, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 438–445, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. G. S. Attard, P. N. Bartlett, N. R. B. Coleman, J. M. Elliott, J. R. Owen, and J. H. Wang, “Mesoporous platinum films from lyotropic liquid crystalline phases,” Science, vol. 278, no. 5339, pp. 838–840, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. S. Tominaka, C. W. Wu, T. Momma, K. Kuroda, and T. Osaka, “Perpendicular mesoporous Pt thin films: electrodeposition from titania nanopillars and their electrochemical properties,” Chemical Communications, no. 25, pp. 2888–2890, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  19. Y. Yamauchi and K. Kuroda, “Rational design of mesoporous metals and related nanomaterials by a soft-template approach,” Chemistry, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 664–676, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  20. J. Erlebacher, M. J. Aziz, A. Karma, N. Dimitrov, and K. Sieradzki, “Evolution of nanoporosity in dealloying,” Nature, vol. 410, no. 6827, pp. 450–453, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  21. J. Rugolo, J. Erlebacher, and K. Sieradzki, “Length scales in alloy dissolution and measurement of absolute interfacial free energy,” Nature Materials, vol. 5, no. 12, pp. 946–949, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  22. K. Wagner, S. R. Brankovic, N. Dimitrov, and K. Sieradzki, “Dealloying below the critical potential,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 144, no. 10, pp. 3545–3555, 1997. View at Scopus
  23. K. Sieradzki, N. Dimitrov, D. Movrin, C. McCall, N. Vasiljevic, and J. Erlebacher, “The dealloying critical potential,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 149, no. 8, pp. B370–B377, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. Erlebacher, “An atomistic description of dealloying porosity evolution, the critical potential, and rate-limiting behavior,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 151, no. 10, pp. C614–C626, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. Y. Ding, M. Chen, and J. Erlebacher, “Metallic mesoporous nanocomposites for electrocatalysis,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 126, no. 22, pp. 6876–6877, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  26. S. Tominaka, T. Hayashi, Y. Nakamura, and T. Osaka, “Mesoporous PdCo sponge-like nanostructure synthesized by electrodeposition and dealloying for oxygen reduction reaction,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 20, no. 34, pp. 7175–7182, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. Tominaka, “Facile synthesis of nanostructured gold for microsystems by the combination of electrodeposition and dealloying,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 21, pp. 9725–9730, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. S. Tominaka, M. Shigeto, H. Nishizeko, and T. Osaka, “Synthesis of mesoporous PtCu film modified with Ru submonolayer as catalyst for methanol electrooxidation,” Chemical Communications, vol. 46, no. 47, pp. 8989–8991, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  29. S. Tominaka, Y. Nakamura, and T. Osaka, “Nanostructured catalyst with hierarchical porosity and large surface area for on-chip fuel cells,” Journal of Power Sources, vol. 195, no. 4, pp. 1054–1058, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. L. Fernández, V. Raghuveer, A. Manthiram, and A. J. Bard, “Pd-Ti and Pd-Co-Au electrocatalysts as a replacement for platinum for oxygen reduction in proton exchange membrane fuel cells,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 127, no. 38, pp. 13100–13101, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  31. K. Lee, O. Savadogo, A. Ishihara, S. Mitsushima, N. Kamiya, and K. I. Ota, “Methanol-tolerant oxygen reduction electrocatalysts based on Pd-3D transition metal alloys for direct methanol fuel cells,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 153, no. 1, pp. A20–A24, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. W. E. Mustain, K. Kepler, and J. Prakash, “Investigations of carbon-supported CoPd3 catalysts as oxygen cathodes in PEM fuel cells,” Electrochemistry Communications, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 406–410, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. W. E. Mustain, K. Kepler, and J. Prakash, “CoPdx oxygen reduction electrocatalysts for polymer electrolyte membrane and direct methanol fuel cells,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 2102–2108, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. V. Raghuveer, A. Manthiram, and A. J. Bard, “Pd-Co-Mo electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction in proton exchange membrane fuel cells,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 109, no. 48, pp. 22909–22912, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  35. O. Savadogo, K. Lee, K. Oishi, S. Mitsushima, N. Kamiya, and K. -I. Ota, “New palladium alloys catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction in an acid medium,” Electrochemistry Communications, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 105–109, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. M. Grden, M. Lukaszewski, G. Jerkiewicz, and A. Czerwinski, “Electrochemical behaviour of palladium electrode: oxidation, electrodissolution and ionic absorption,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 53, pp. 7583–7598, 2008.
  37. J. L. Fernández, D. A. Walsh, and A. J. Bard, “Thermodynamic guidelines for the design of bimetallic catalysts for oxygen electroreduction and rapid screening by scanning electrochemical microscopy. M-Co (M: Pd, Ag, Au),” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 127, no. 1, pp. 357–365, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  38. V. Raghuveer, P. J. Ferreira, and A. Manthiram, “Comparison of Pd-Co-Au electrocatalysts prepared by conventional borohydride and microemulsion methods for oxygen reduction in fuel cells,” Electrochemistry Communications, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 807–814, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. M. H. Shao, T. Huang, P. Liu et al., “Palladium monolayer and palladium alloy electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction,” Langmuir, vol. 22, no. 25, pp. 10409–10415, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  40. Y. Wang and P. B. Balbuena, “Design of oxygen reduction bimetallic catalysts: ab-initio-derived thermodynamic guidelines,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 109, no. 40, pp. 18902–18906, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  41. L. Zhang, K. Lee, and J. Zhang, “The effect of heat treatment on nanoparticle size and ORR activity for carbon-supported Pd-Co alloy electrocatalysts,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 52, no. 9, pp. 3088–3094, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. T. Mallát, J. Petró, S. Szabó, and L. Marczis, “Investigation of Pd + Co alloys by the linear potential sweep method,” Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, vol. 208, no. 1, pp. 169–173, 1986.
  43. Y. Matsuo, “Ordered alloys in the cobalt-palladium system,” Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 972–978, 1972.
  44. F. L. Williams and D. Nason, “Binary alloy surface compositions from bulk alloy thermodynamic data,” Surface Science, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 377–408, 1974. View at Scopus
  45. J. A. Abys, I. Boguslavsky, and H. K. Straschil, “Composition for electroplating plladium alloys and electroplating process using that composition,” in US Patent, 1999.
  46. Y. Q. Zheng and H. Z. Xie, “Two malonato coordination polymers: syntheses and crystal structures of M(H2O)2(C3H2O4) with M = Co and Ni, C3H4O4 = malonic acid,” Journal of Coordination Chemistry, vol. 57, no. 17-18, pp. 1537–1543, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. J. F. Moulder, W. F. Stickle, P. E. Sobol, and K. D. Bomben, Handbook of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Physical Electronics, Eden Prairie, Minn, USA, 1992.
  48. T. Toda, H. Igarashi, and M. Watanabe, “Role of electronic property of Pt and Pt alloys on electrocatalytic reduction of oxygen,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 145, no. 12, pp. 4185–4188, 1998. View at Scopus
  49. T. Toda, H. Igarashi, and M. Watanabe, “Enhancement of the electrocatalytic O2 reduction on Pt-Fe alloys,” Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, vol. 460, no. 1-2, pp. 258–262, 1999. View at Scopus
  50. J. P. Chevillot, J. Farcy, C. Hinnen, and A. Rousseau, “Electrochemical study of hydrogen interaction with palladium and platinum,” Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 39–62, 1975. View at Scopus
  51. J. F. Drillet, A. Ee, J. Friedemann, R. Kötz, B. Schnyder, and V. M. Schmidt, “Oxygen reduction at Pt and Pt70Ni30 in H2SO4/CH3OH solution,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 47, no. 12, pp. 1983–1988, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. R. K. Raman, G. Murgia, and A. K. Shukla, “A solid-polymer electrolyte direct methanol fuel cell with a methanol-tolerant cathode and its mathematical modelling,” Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, vol. 34, no. 10, pp. 1029–1038, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. Y. Suo, L. Zhuang, and J. Lu, “First-principles considerations in the design of Pd-alloy catalysts for oxygen reduction,” Angewandte Chemie, vol. 46, no. 16, pp. 2862–2864, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  54. T. Biegler, D. A. J. Rand, and R. Woods, “Limiting oxygen coverage on platinized platinum; relevance to determination of real platinum area by hydrogen adsorption,” Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 269–277, 1971. View at Scopus
  55. S. Trasatti and A. Petrii, “Real surface area measurements in electrochemistry,” Pure and Applied Chemistry, vol. 63, no. 5, pp. 711–734, 1991.
  56. H. Angerstein-Kozlowska, B. E. Conway, A. Hamelin, and L. Stoicoviciu, “Elementary steps of electrochemical oxidation of single-crystal planes of Au Part II. A chemical and structural basis of oxidation of the (111) plane,” Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, vol. 228, no. 1-2, pp. 429–453, 1987. View at Scopus
  57. M. Baldauf and D. M. Kolb, “A hydrogen adsorption and absorption study with ultrathin Pd overlayers on Au(111) and Au(100),” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 38, no. 15, pp. 2145–2153, 1993. View at Scopus
  58. L. J. Wan, T. Suzuki, K. Sashikata, J. Okada, J. Inukai, and K. Itaya, “In situ scanning tunneling microscopy of adsorbed sulfate on well-defined Pd(111) in sulfuric acid solution,” Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, vol. 484, no. 2, pp. 189–193, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. N. Hoshi, M. Kuroda, O. Koga, and Y. Hori, “Infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy of the sulfuric acid anion on low and high index planes of palladium,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 106, no. 35, pp. 9107–9113, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. S. Tominaka, T. Hayashi, Y. Nakamura, and T. Osaka, “Mesoporous PdCo sponge-like nanostructure synthesized by electrodeposition and dealloying for oxygen reduction reaction,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 20, no. 34, pp. 7175–7182, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus