409671.fig.0012a
(a)
409671.fig.0012b
(b)
Figure 12: Real-time simulation results, obtained with DTC algorithm and the IM emulator: (a) steady-state stator flux vector locus, (b) estimated torque response to a step control from 0 N·m to 4 N·m. = 100  s,  rpm and = 1.15 wb.