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Active and Passive Electronic Components
Volume 16 (1994), Issue 2, Pages 113-117
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/1994/13913

Mechanisms of the Reversible Electrochemical Insertion of Lithium Occurring With NCIMs (Nano-Crystallite-Insertion-Materials)

1Laboratoire de Chimie du Solide du CNRS, 351 cours de la Libération, Talence 33405, France
2Laboratoire de Spectroscopie Moléculaire et Cristalline du CNRS, 351 cours de la Libération, Talence 33405, France
3Department of Mining—Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Alberta—Edmonton—Alberta, T6G-2G6, Canada

Received 7 September 1993; Accepted 8 November 1993

Copyright © 1994 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

A new family of insertion-compound electrodes, so called NCIMs (Nano-Crystallite-Insertion-Materials), has been proposed: the major requirement is that the electrode materials have to be polycrystalline with a crystallite and particle size as small as possible (the accepted definition being that many crystallites make a particle). Indeed, by minimizing the size of the crystallites, the formation of defects bonds is favored, particularly at the.crystallite surface, acting as reversible (de)grafting sites of Li+. Also, the cation-anion bonding is weakened not only in the grain boundary region but also within the crystallite close to its surface: then the electrochemical insertion of Li+ takes place through easy bonding rearrangements.