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Active and Passive Electronic Components
Volume 18 (1995), Issue 1, Pages 23-30
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/1995/74892

Nanocrystalline TiO2 Electrodes Exhibiting High Storage Capacity and Stability in Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

1Institute of Physical Chemistry, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne CH-1015, Switzerland
2Renata SA, Itingen CH-4452, Switzerland

Received 20 November 1994; Accepted 30 November 1994

Copyright © 1995 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Nanocrystalline TiO2 films were explored for the first time as electrode material for a rechargeable lithium intercalation cell, i.e., Li/LiCF3SO3 + PC/TiO2. Two kinds of nanocrystalline films, TiO2 F387 (Degussa) and TiO2 colloid-240, were investigated. These films exhibited excellent performance renderings them a promising choice for secondary battery applications. At a current density of 0.01 mA/cm2, two voltage plateaus at 1.78 and 1.89 V were observed for TiO2 F387 films during charge and discharge, respectively. The TiO2 electrode charge capacity per unit weight rose with decreasing current density. The highest capacity, obtained at a current density of 0.005 mA/cm2 and a final discharge voltage of 1.4 V, was 265 mAh/g corresponding to a lithium insertion ratio of x = 0.8. Nanocrystalline TiO2 colloid-240 films showed a similar performance. The cycle life of a TiO2 colloid-240 cell at a high current density was found to be excellent; a capacity loss lower than 14% has been observed over 100 charge/discharge cycles.