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Active and Passive Electronic Components
Volume 18 (1995), Issue 1, Pages 69-72
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/1995/86802

Mechanisms of the Reversible Electrochemical Insertion of Lithium Occurring with NCIMs (Nano–Crystallite Insertion–Materials)

1Laboratoire de Chimie du Solide du CNRS , 351 cours de la Libération, Talence 33405, France
2Laboratoire de Spectroscopie Moléculaire et Cristalline du CNRS , 351 cours de la Libération, Talence 33405, France
3Department of Mining-Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineering , University of Alberta-Edmonton-Alberta, T6G-2G6, Canada
4Institut de Chemie de la Matièra Condensée de Bordeaux, CNRS, Université Bordeaux I, Chateau Brivazac, Ave du Dr. A. Schweitzer, Pessac 33600, France

Received 20 November 1994; Accepted 30 November 1994

Copyright © 1995 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

A new family of insertion-compound electrodes, so called NCIMs (Nano-Crystallite-Insertion-Materials) has been proposed: the major requirement is that the electrode materials have to be polycrystalline with a crystallite and particle size as small as possible (the accepted definition being that many crystallites make a particle). Indeed, by minimizing the size of the crystallites, the formation of defects is favored, particularly at the crystallite surface, acting as reversible (de)grafting sites of Li+. Also, the cation-anion bonding is weakened not only in the grain boundary region but also within the crystallite close to its surface: then the electrochemical insertion of Li+ takes place through easy bonding rearrangements.