- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Advance Access ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Active and Passive Electronic Components
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 101432, 8 pages
Realization of New Electronically Controllable Grounded and Floating Simulated Inductance Circuits Using Voltage Differencing Differential Input Buffered Amplifiers
1Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025, India
2Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Maharaja Agrasen Institute of Technology, PSP Area Plot no.1, Sector 22, Rohini, New Delhi-110086, India
Received 13 January 2011; Revised 24 March 2011; Accepted 5 April 2011
Academic Editor: Daisaburo Takashima
Copyright © 2011 Dinesh Prasad et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
A new active circuit is proposed for the realisation of lossless grounded and floating inductance employing Voltage Differencing Differential Input Buffered Amplifiers (VD-DIBAs). The proposed grounded simulated inductance circuit employs two VD-DIBAs and a single-grounded capacitor whereas the floating simulated inductance circuit employs three VD-DIBAs and a grounded capacitor. The circuit for grounded inductance does not require any realization conditions whereas in case of floating inductance, only equality of two transconductances is needed. Some sample results demonstrating the applications of the new simulated inductors using VD-DIBAs have been given to confirm the workability of the new circuits.
Several synthetic grounded and floating inductance circuits using different active elements such as operational amplifiers (op-amps) [1–5], current conveyors (CCs) [6–13], current controlled conveyors (CCCIIs) [14, 15], current feedback operational amplifiers (CFOAs) , operational mirrored amplifiers (OMAs) , differential voltage current conveyors (DVCCIIs) , current differencing buffered amplifiers (CDBAs) [19–21], current differencing transconductance amplifiers (CDTAs) [22, 23], and operational transconductance amplifier (OTA)  are reported in the literature. Recently, various active building blocks have been introduced in , VD-DIBA is one of them. Although some applications of VD-DIBAs have been reported in the literature such as in the realization of all pass section , to the best knowledge and belief of the authors, no grounded/ floating inductance simulation circuits using VD-DIBAs have yet been reported in the open literature so far. The purpose of this paper is, therefore, to propose new VD-DIBA-based lossless grounded and floating inductance simulation circuits.
2. The Proposed New Configurations
The schematic symbol and equivalent model of the VD-DIBA are shown in Figures 1(a) and 1(b) . The model includes two controlled sources: the current source controlled by differential voltage (-), with the transconductance , and the voltage source controlled by differential voltage (-), with the unity voltage gain. The VD-DIBA can be described by the following set of equations: The proposed configurations are shown in Figures 2 and 3, respectively.
A routine analysis of the circuit shown in Figure 2 results in the following expression for the input impedance The circuit, thus, simulates a grounded inductance with resulting value given by On the other hand, an analysis of the circuit shown in Figure 3 yields which proves that the circuit simulates a floating lossless inductance with resulting inductance value given by Note that ensuring requires only the equality of the two DC bias currents of the VD-DIBAs which can be easily implemented in practice
3. Nonideal Analysis and Sensitivity Performance
Let and denote the parasitic resistance and parasitic capacitance of the terminal. Taking into account the nonidealities of the VD-DIBA, namely, ), where and are voltage tracking errors of the VD-DIBA.
For the circuit shown in Figure 2, the input impedance will becomeThe non-ideal equivalent circuit of the grounded inductor is shown in Figure 4The sensitivities of with respect to active and passive elements are For the circuit shown in Figure 3 the input-output currents and voltages relationship is given by:.
The non-ideal equivalent circuit of floating inductor is shown in Figure 5: The sensitivities of with respect to active and passive elements are Assuming uA/V, , , pF, and . These sensitivities are found to be (1, 0, 0, 1, 1, −1) and (1, 0, −1, −1, 1) for (8) and (11), respectively. Thus, all the passive and active sensitivities of both the proposed circuits are low.
4. Verification of the Workability of the New Proposed Grounded/Floating Inductance Configurations
The workability of the proposed simulated inductors has been verified by realizing a band pass filter (BPF) and band reject filter (BRF), respectively.
Figure 6 shows the schematics for the realization of a BPF, using the new simulated grounded inductor.
The transfer function realized by this configuration is given by Figure 7 shows the schematics for the realization of a BRF, using the proposed floating inductor circuit.
The transfer function realized by this configuration is given by The performance of the new simulated inductors was evaluated by PSPICE simulations. Since VD-DIBA is not a commercially available IC, a possible implementation of VD-DIBA using commercially available devices is shown in Figure 8. A CMOS-based OTA as shown in Figure 17 and CFOA SPICE macromodel of AD844 to realise VD-DIBAs as per the schematic of Figure 8 were used to determine the frequency response of the grounded and floating simulated inductors. The following values were used for grounded inductor pF, 1 uA/V, for floating inductor pF, uA/V. From the frequency response of the simulated grounded inductor (Figure 9) it has been observed that the inductance value remains constant up to 1 MHz. From the frequency response of the simulated floating inductor (Figure 10) it has been observed that the inductance value remains constant up to 1 MHz.
To verify the theoretical analysis, the application circuits shown in Figures 6 and 7 have been simulated using CMOS-based OTA as shown in Figure 17 and CFOA SPICE macromodel of AD844 to realise VD-DIBAs as per the schematic of Figure 8. The component values used were for Figure 6, pF, pF, kΩ, and for Figure 7, pF, pF and kΩ, the VD-DIBA was biased with ±1 volts D.C. power supplies with μA. , and are the biasing currents for transconductances. Figures 11 and 12 show the simulated filter responses of the BP and BR filters, respectively. Figures 13 and 14 show the phase responses of BP and BR filters, respectively. Figure 15 shows the step response of the filter of Figure 6 which confirms the stability of the implemented filter. Figure 16 shows the simulated spectrum of the output signal Vo in Figure 6, where the total harmonic distortion (THD) is found to be 2.98%. The comparison of performance characteristics of VD-DIBA with OTA (CA3080) and CMOS OTA (as shown in Figure 17) has been given in Table 1. These results, thus, confirm the validity of the application of the proposed grounded/floating simulated inductance circuits.
5. Concluding Remarks
Among various modern active building blocks, VD-DIBA is emerging as quite flexible and versatile building block for analog circuit design. However, the use of VD-DIBA in the realization of grounded/ floating inductor had not been known earlier. This paper has filled this void by introducing new VD-DIBA- based grounded and floating inductor configurations. This paper, thus, has added a new application circuits to the existing repertoire of VD-DIBA-based application circuits. The workability of new propositions has been confirmed by SPICE simulations.
The authors gratefully acknowledge Professor Dr. R. Senani, Director and Head, Division of Electronics and Communication Engineering, NSIT, Sector-3, Dwarka, New Delhi, India, for useful discussions/suggestions and his help in the preparation of this paper. The authors also like to acknowledge Dr. R. K. Sharma for his help in SPICE simulation.
- A. Antoniou, “Gyrators using operational amplifiers,” Electronics Letters, vol. 3, no. 8, pp. 350–352, 1967.
- A. Antoniou, “Realisation of gyrators using op-amps and their use in RC active network synthesis,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 116, no. 11, pp. 1838–1850, 1969.
- R. Senani, “Realization of single resistance-controlled lossless floating inductance,” Electronics Letters, vol. 14, no. 25, pp. 828–829, 1978.
- T. S. Rathore and B. M. Singhi, “Active RC synthesis of floating immittances,” International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 184–188, 1980.
- R. Senani, “Three op-amp floating immittance simulators: a retrospection,” IEEE Transactions on circuits and systems II, vol. 36, no. 11, pp. 1463–1465, 1989.
- R. Senani, “New tunable synthetic floating inductors,” Electronics Letters, vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 382–383, 1980.
- K. Pal, “Novel floating inductance using current conveyors,” Electronics Letters, vol. 17, no. 18, p. 638, 1981.
- V. Singh, “Active RC single-resistance-controlled lossless floating inductance simulation using single grounded capacitor,” Electronics Letters, vol. 17, no. 24, pp. 920–921, 1981.
- R. Senani, “Novel lossless synthetic floating inductor employing a grounded capacitor,” Electronics Letters, vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 413–414, 1982.
- W. Kiranon and P. Pawarangkoon, “Floating inductance simulation based on current conveyors,” Electronics Letters, vol. 33, no. 21, pp. 1748–1749, 1997.
- P. V. A. Mohan, “Grounded capacitor based grounded and floating inductance simulation using current conveyors,” Electronics Letters, vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 1037–1038, 1998.
- H. Sedef and C. Acar, “A new floating inductor circuit using differential voltage current conveyors,” Frequenz, vol. 54, no. 5-6, pp. 123–125, 2000.
- E. Yuce, “Grounded inductor simulators with improved low-frequency performances,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 1079–1084, 2008.
- E. Yuce, “On the realization of the floating simulators using only grounded passive components,” Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 161–166, 2006.
- T. Parveen and M. T. Ahmed, “Simulation of ideal grounded tunable inductor and its application in high quality multifunctional filter,” Microelectronics, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 9–13, 2006.
- A. Fabre, “Gyrator implementation from commercially available transimpedance operational amplifiers,” Electronics Letters, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 263–264, 1992.
- R. Senani and J. Malhotra, “Minimal realisations of a class of operational-mirrored-amplifier-based floating impedances,” Electronics Letters, vol. 30, no. 14, pp. 1113–1114, 1994.
- K. Pal and M. J. Nigam, “Novel active impedances using current conveyors,” Journal of Active and Passive Electronic Devices, vol. 3, pp. 29–34, 2008.
- A. U. Keskin and H. Erhan, “CDBA-based synthetic floating inductance circuits with electronic tuning properties,” ETRI Journal, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 239–242, 2005.
- E. Yuce, S. Minaei, and O. Cicekoglu, “A novel grounded inductor realization using a minimum number of active and passive components,” ETRI Journal, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 427–431, 2005.
- W. Tangsrirat and W. Surakampontorn, “Electronically tunable floating inductance simulation based on current-controlled current differencing buffered amplifiers,” Thammasat International Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 60–65, 2006.
- D. Biolek and V. Biolkova, “Tunable ladder CDTA-based filters,” in Proceedings of the 4th WSEAS International Conference on Automation & Information (ICAI'03), pp. 1–3, Tenerife, Spain, 2003.
- D. Prasad, D. R. Bhaskar, and A. K. Singh, “New grounded and floating simulated inductance circuits using current differencing transconductance amplifiers,” Radioengineering, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 194–198, 2010.
- R. Nandi, “Lossless inductor simulation: novel configurations using DVCCs,” Electronics Letters, vol. 16, no. 17, pp. 666–667, 1980.
- D. Biolek, R. Senani, V. Biolkova, and Z. Kolka, “Active elements for analog signal processing: classification, review, and new proposals,” Radioengineering, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 15–32, 2008.
- D. Biolek and V. Biolkova, “First-order voltage-mode all-pass filter employing one active element and one grounded capacitor,” Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 123–129, 2010.