About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Active and Passive Electronic Components
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 472306, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/472306
Research Article

Design Optimization of Transistors Used for Neural Recording

Electrical Engineering Department, San Jose State University, San Jose, CA 95192-0084, USA

Received 16 July 2011; Revised 5 October 2011; Accepted 18 October 2011

Academic Editor: Mingxiang Wang

Copyright © 2012 Eric Basham and David Parent. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. P. Jespers, The GM/ID Methodology, A Sizing Tool for Low-Voltage Analog Cmos Circuits, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2009.
  2. D. Foty, D. Binkley, M. Bucher, et al., “Starting over: gm/ID-based MOSFET modeling as a basis for modernized analog design methodologies,” in Proceedings of the Technical International Conference on Modeling and Simulation of Microsystems (Nanotech '02), pp. 682–685, 2002.
  3. D. M. Binkley, Tradeoffs and Optimization in Analog CMOS Design, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK, 2007.
  4. K. K. Ng, Complete Guide to Semiconductor Devices, IEEE Press, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 2002.
  5. M. J. Madou and S. R. Morrison, Chemical Sensing with Solid State Devices, Academic Press, Boston, Mass, USA, 1989.
  6. P. Bergveld, “Thirty years of ISFETOLOGY: what happened in the past 30 years and what may happen in the next 30 years,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 1–20, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. P. Bergveld, “Development, operation, and application of the ion-sensitive field-effect transistor as a tool for electrophysiology,” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 342–351, 1972.
  8. P. Bergveld, J. Wiersma, and H. Meertens, “Extracellular potential recordings by means of a field effect transistor without gate metal, called OSFET,” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 136–144, 1976.
  9. P. Fromherz, A. Offenhäusser, T. Vetter, and J. Weis, “A neuron-silicon junction: a retzius cell of the leech on an insulated-gate field-effect transistor,” Science, vol. 252, no. 5010, pp. 1290–1293, 1991.
  10. M. J. Schöning and A. Poghossian, “Recent advances in biologically sensitive field-effect transistors (BioFETs),” Analyst, vol. 127, no. 9, pp. 1137–1151, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. C. S. Lee, S. Kyu Kim, and M. Kim, “Ion-sensitive field-effect transistor for biological sensing,” Sensors, vol. 9, no. 9, pp. 7111–7131, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. Poghossian, S. Ingebrandt, A. Offenhäusser, and M. J. Schöning, “Field-effect devices for detecting cellular signals,” Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 41–48, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  13. P. Fromherz, “Semiconductor chips with ion channels, nerve cells and brain,” Physica E, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 24–34, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. Merz and P. Fromherz, “Silicon chip interfaced with a geometrically defined net of snail neurons,” Advanced Functional Materials, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 739–744, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. D. A. Stenger and T. M. McKenna, Enabling Technologies for Cultured Neural Networks, Academic Press, San Diego, Calif, USA, 1994.
  16. J.-C. Chou and C.-N. Hsiao, “Drift behavior of ISFETs with a-Si:H-SiO2 gate insulator,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 270–273, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. M. Klein, “Time effects of ion-sensitive field-effect transistors,” Sensors and Actuators, vol. 17, no. 1-2, pp. 203–208, 1989.
  18. C. Jakobson, M. Feinsod, and Y. Nemirovsky, “Low frequency noise and drift in Ion sensitive field effect transistors,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 134–139, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. T. Prodromakis, P. Georgiou, K. Michelakis, and C. Toumazou, “Effect of mobile ionic-charge on CMOS based Ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs),” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS '09), pp. 2165–2168, May 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. S. Martinoia and P. Massobrio, “ISFET-neuron junction: circuit models and extracellular signal simulations,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 1487–1496, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  21. A. Morgenshtein, Design and methodology of ISFET (Ion sensitive field effect transistor) microsystems for bio-telemetry, M.S. thesis, Senate of The Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel, 2003.
  22. A. K. Covington and P. D. Whalley, “Recent advances in microelectronic ion-sensitive devices (ISFETs). The operational transducer,” Journal of the Chemical Society, Faraday Transactions, vol. 82, no. 4, pp. 1209–1215, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. C. Wang and Y. Zhao, “A novel current-mode readout circuit for ISFET sensor,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Asia Pacific Conference on Circuits and Systems, pp. 407–410, December 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. L. Shepherd and C. Toumazou, “Towards direct biochemical analysis with weak inversion ISFETS,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Workshop on Biomedical Circuits and Systems, pp. S1.5–S1.5, December 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. L. Shepherd and C. Toumazou, “A biochemical translinear principle with weak inversion ISFETs,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I, vol. 52, no. 12, pp. 2614–2619, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. P. Georgiou, I. F. Triantis, T. G. Constandinou, and C. Toumazou, “Spiking chemical sensor (SCS): a new platform for neuro-chemical sensing,” in Proceedings of the 3rd International IEEE EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering (CNE '07), pp. 126–129, May 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. D. W. Parent and E. J. Basham, “Hafnium transistor process design for neural interfacing,” in Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society: Engineering the Future of Biomedicine (EMBC '09), pp. 5875–5878, September 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  28. C. Jakobson and Y. Nemirovsky, “I/f noise in ion sensitive field effect transistors from subthreshold to saturation,” IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 259–261, 1999. View at Scopus
  29. M. Voelker and P. Fromherz, “Nyquist noise of cell adhesion detected in a neuron-silicon transistor,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 96, no. 22, Article ID 228102, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. M. Dagtekin, A chopper modulated amplifier system design for in vitro neural recording, Ph.D.dissertation, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, 2006.
  31. D. Parent and E. Basham, “Hafnium transistor design for neural interfacing,” in Proceedings of the 30th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBS '08), pp. 3356–3359, August 2008.
  32. D. Parent and E. Basham, “A course for designing transistors for high gain analog applications,” in Proceedings of the 17th Biennial University/Government/Industry Micro-Nano Symposium—UGIM, pp. 75–78, July 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. D. W. Parent and E. J. Basham, “Hafnium transistor process design for neural interfacing,” in Proceedings of the Annual Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC '09), pp. 5875–5878, Minneapolis, Minn, USA, September 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  34. D. W. Parent, J. Davis, and E. J. Basham, “High-k dielectric fabrication process to minimize mobile ionic penetration,” in Proceedings of the Annual Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society Conference (EMBC '10), Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2010.
  35. F. Wallrapp and P. Fromherz, “TiO2 and HfO2 in electrolyte-oxide-silicon configuration for applications in bioelectronics,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 99, no. 11, Article ID 114103, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. H. Hara and T. Ohta, “Dynamic response of a Ta2O5-gate pH-sensitive field-effect transistor,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 115–119, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. S. Meyburg, M. Goryll, J. Moers et al., “N-Channel field-effect transistors with floating gates for extracellular recordings,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 1037–1044, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  38. S. Meyburg, G. Wrobel, R. Stockmann, J. Moers, S. Ingebrandt, and A. Offenhäusser, “Single cell recordings with pairs of complementary transistors,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 89, no. 1, Article ID 013901, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. A. Cohen, M. Spira, S. Yitshaik, G. Borghs, O. Shwartzglass, and J. Shappir, “Depletion type floating gate p-channel MOS transistor for recording action potentials generated by cultured neurons,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 1703–1709, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  40. A. Cohen, J. Shappir, S. Yitzchaik, and M. E. Spira, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of neuron-transistor hybrid electrical coupling: the relationships between the electro-anatomy of cultured Aplysia neurons and the recorded field potentials,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 656–663, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  41. S. Meyburg, R. Stockmann, J. Moers, A. Offenhäusser, and S. Ingebrandt, “Advanced CMOS process for floating gate field-effect transistors in bioelectronic applications,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 128, no. 1, pp. 208–217, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. M. Schindler, S. Ingebrandt, S. Meyburg, and A. Offenhäusser, “Design and function principle of a large scale sensor array for the bi-directional coupling to electrogenic cells,” in Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems, pp. 1243–1246, June 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  43. A. Cohen, J. Shappir, S. Yitzchaik, and M. E. Spira, “Reversible transition of extracellular field potential recordings to intracellular recordings of action potentials generated by neurons grown on transistors,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 811–819, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus