Table 4: Questionnaire-based childhood data. Odds ratios (OR) for the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and binge drinking and drunkenness in the KIHD study ( 𝑛 = 2 3 1 1 ).

OR (95% CI)
Spirits ≥ 31 cL/sessionBeer ≥ 6 bottles/sessionWine ≥ 51 cL/sessionFortified wine ≥ 38 cL/sessionBingeing with any beverage/sessionBeing drunk ≥ 1 times/week

Category of adverse childhood experiences (ACE), adjusted for
Model 1
 Parents alcohol problem
  No (referent)1.01.01.01.01.01.0
  Yes1.49 (1.05–2.12)2. 23 (1.20–4.16)2.46 (1.29–4.69)1.53 (0.87–2.70)1.54 (1.11–2.13)1.29 (0.78–2.13)
 Parental death
  No (referent)1.01.01.01.01.01.0
  Yes1.07 (0.79–1.46)0.75 (0.35–1.58)1.12 (0.56–2.23)1.32 (0.80–2.18)1.05 (0.80–1.40)0.80 (0.49–1.30)
 Parent’s divorce
  No (referent)1.01.01.01.01.01.0
  Yes1.10 (0.50–2.42)0.67 (0.09–4.99)1.25 (0.29–5.46)1.07 (0.36–3.15)1.27 (0.63–2.56)2.04 (0.84–4.93)
 Poor parenting
  No (referent)1.01.01.01.01.01.0
  Yes1.46 (1.13–1.88)1.40 (0.83–2.35)1.48 (0.86–2.52)1.04 (0.66–1.64)1.48 (1.17–1.87)1.38 (0.96–1.97)
 Quarrelsome home
  No (referent)1.01.01.01.01.01.0
  Yes1.76 (1.24–2.49)1.12 (0.50–2.48)1.98 (0.98–4.02)1.34 (0.73–2.45)1.64 (1.18–2.28)1.19 (0.70–2.01)
 Unhappy childhood
  No (referent)1.01.01.01.01.01.0
  Yes1.73 (1.21–2.49)1.47 (0.66–3.28)1.43 (0.60–3.44)1.13 (0.56–2.27)1.65 (1.17–2.33)1.22 (0.70–2.13)
 ACE score
  0 (referent)1.01.01.01.01.01.0
  11.56 (1.06–2.29)3.24 (1.15–9.11)1.92 (0.79–4.67)1.89 (0.97–3.68)1.56 (1.10–2.20)1.38 (0.82–2.34)
  21.79 (1.19–2.68)2.00 (0.65–6.15)1.86 (0.72–4.83)2.47 (1.24–4.92)1.77 (1.23–2.54)1.35 (0.76–2.38)
  32.57 (1.65–3.98)4.02 (1.30–12.42)4.35 (1.67–11.31)2.24 (1.02–4.91)2.49 (1.68–3.71)1.81 (0.98–3.36)
𝑃 < 0 . 0 0 1 * 𝑃 = 0 . 0 3 0 𝑃 = 0 . 0 0 2 𝑃 = 0 . 0 2 0 𝑃 < 0 . 0 0 1 𝑃 = 0 . 0 6 8
Model 2
 Parents alcohol problem
  No (referent)1.01.01.01.01.01.0
  Yes1.52 (1.06–2.16)2.21 (1.18–4.11)2.18 (1.14–4.16)1.56 (0.87–2.78)1.57 (1.13–2.19)1.31 (0.79–2.18)
 Parental death
  No (referent)1.01.01.01.01.01.0
  Yes1.02 (0.75–1.39)0.74 (0.35–1.56)1.13 (0.56–2.26)1.13 (0.68–1.90)1.02 (0.78–1.36)0.78 (0.48–1.26)
 Parent’s divorce
  No (referent)1.01.01.01.01.01.0
  Yes1.28 (0.57–2.85)0.73 (0.10–5.45)1.33 (0.30–5.87)1.21 (0.40–3.71)1.46 (0.71–3.00)2.35 (0.96–5.76)
 Poor parenting
  No (referent)1.01.01.01.01.01.0
  Yes1.46 (1.13–1.89)1.38 (0.82–2.34)1.44 (0.84–2.47)1.03 (0.65–1.66)1.50 (1.18–1.91)1.38 (0.65–1.01)
 Quarrelsome home
  No (referent)1.01.01.01.01.01.0
  Yes1.65 (1.15–2.35)1.10 (0.49–2.44)1.88 (0.92–3.86)1.17 (0.63–2.19)1.56 (1.11–2.18)1.13 (0.66–1.91)
 Unhappy childhood
  No (referent)1.01.01.01.01.01.0
  Yes1.58 (1.09–2.29)1.48 (0.66–3.31)1.35 (0.56–3.27)1.05 (0.51–2.15)1.53 (1.08–2.18)1.13 (0.65–1.98)
 ACE score
  0 (referent)1.01.01.01.01.01.0
  11.32 (0.89–1.96)3.13 (1.11–8.83)1.70 (0.70–4.16)1.48 (0.75–2.95)1.35 (0.95–1.92)1.21 (0.72–2.06)
  21.44 (0.95–2.20)1.84 (0.60–5.70)1.68 (0.64–4.39)1.81 (0.88–3.72)1.50 (1.03–2.18)1.17 (0.66–2.88)
  32.17 (1.38–3.42)4.04 (1.30–12.55)4.14 (1.57–10.95)1.84 (0.80–4.22)2.26 (1.50–3.42)1.56 (0.83–2.91)
𝑃 = 0 . 0 0 1 𝑃 = 0 . 0 3 8 𝑃 = 0 . 0 0 5 𝑃 = 0 . 1 1 6 𝑃 < 0 . 0 0 1 𝑃 = 0 . 1 8 6
Model 3
 Parents alcohol problem
  No (referent)1.01.01.01.01.01.0
  Yes1.52 (1.06–2.18)2.14 (1.14–4.00)2.24 (1.17–4.26)1.45 (0.81–2.60)1.56 (1.12–2.18)1.26 (0.76–2.09)
 Parental death
  No (referent)1.01.01.01.01.01.0
  Yes1.03 (0.76–1.40)0.72 (0.34–1.51)1.08 (0.54–2.16)1.23 (0.74–2.06)1.03 (0.77–1.37)0.78 (0.48–1.26)
 Parent’s divorce
  No (referent)1.01.01.01.01.01.0
  Yes1.14 (0.49–2.67)0.77 (0.10–5.81)1.39 (0.31–6.13)1.30 (0.43–4.02)1.36 (0.64–2.87)2.33 (0.95–5.72)
 Poor parenting
  No (referent)1.01.01.01.01.01.0
  Yes1.49 (1.15–1.94)1.40 (0.83–2.37)1.46 (0.85–2.51)1.05 (0.66–1.68)1.52 (1.20–1.94)1.40 (0.98–2.01)
 Quarrelsome home
  No (referent)1.01.01.01.01.01.0
  Yes1.76 (1.23–2.53)1.10 (0.49–2.45)1.86 (0.91–3.81)1.33 (0.72–2.48)1.65 (1.17–2.32)1.19 (0.70–2.02)
 Unhappy childhood
  No (referent)1.01.01.01.01.01.0
  Yes1.67 (1.16–2.42)1.36 (0.61–3.05)1.29 (0.54–3.11)1.02 (0.50–2.08)1.57 (1.11–2.23)1.14 (0.65–2.08)
 ACE score
  0 (referent)1.01.01.01.01.01.0
  11.35 (0.91–2.00)3.05 (1.08–8.60)1.70 (0.70–4.15)1.81 (0.89–3.67)1.42 (1.00–2.02)1.30 (0.77–2.20)
  21.48 (0.97–2.25)1.82 (0.59–5.63)1.73 (0.66–4.50)2.39 (1.14–5.00)1.57 (1.08–2.30)1.28 (0.72–2.26)
  32.32 (1.48–3.66)3.80 (1.23–11.79)3.94 (1.50–10.33)2.27 (0.98–5.24)2.43 (1.60–3.67)1.68 (0.90–3.13)
𝑃 < 0 . 0 0 1 𝑃 = 0 . 0 4 7 𝑃 = 0 . 0 0 6 𝑃 = 0 . 0 3 5 𝑃 < 0 . 0 0 1 𝑃 = 0 . 1 1 2
Model 4
 Parents alcohol problem
  No (referent)1.01.01.01.01.01.0
  Yes1.37 (0.89–2.10)2.06 (1.04–4.09)2.30 (1.11–4.77)1.31 (0.68–2.55)1.51 (1.00–2.26)0.88 (0.44–1.75)
 Parental death
  No (referent)1.01.01.01.01.01.0
  Yes1.09 (0.76–1.57)0.73 (0.33–1.63)1.20 (0.56–2.64)1.28 (0.72–2.29)1.09 (0.78–1.54)0.68 (0.35–1.31)
 Parent’s divorce
  No (referent)1.01.01.01.01.01.0
  Yes0.91 (0.32–2.59)0.85 (0.11–6.68)0.68 (0.08–5.51)0.67 (0.15–2.89)0.97 (0.37–2.51)2.52 (0.81–7.86)
 Poor parenting
  No (referent)1.01.01.01.01.01.0
  Yes1.34 (0.98–1.82)1.27 (0.72–2.26)1.65 (0.91–2.99)1.04 (0.62–1.76)1.46 (1.09–1.94)1.13 (0.70–1.83)
 Quarrelsome home
  No (referent)1.01.01.01.01.01.0
  Yes2.17 (1.44–3.27)1.26 (1.44–3.27)2.97 (1.39–6.34)1.93 (0.99–3.75)1.99 (1.34–2.96)1.42 (0.73–2.77)
 Unhappy childhood
  No (referent)1.01.01.01.01.01.0
  Yes2.00 (1.32–3.05)1.56 (0.66–3.69)1.55 (0.59–4.06)0.98 (0.43–2.22)1.78 (1.18–2.67)1.42 (0.70–2.86)
 ACE score
  0 (referent)1.01.01.01.01.01.0
  11.80 (1.14–2.86)2.85 (0.98–8.27)2.84 (0.94–8.60)1.80 (0.87–3.70)1.93 (1.26–2.96)1.18 (0.63–2.20)
  21.70 (1.04–2.80)1.62 (0.51–5.21)2.45 (0.75–7.94)2.15 (1.00–4.61)1.87 (1.18–2.96)0.82 (0.40–1.66)
  33.43 (2.02–5.83)3.85 (1.19–12.46)7.91 (2.42–25.82)2.31 (0.94–5.67)3.72 (2.27–6.12)1.70 (0.80–3.63)
𝑃 < 0 . 0 0 1 𝑃 = 0 . 0 6 2 𝑃 = 0 . 0 0 1 𝑃 = 0 . 0 6 2 𝑃 < 0 . 0 0 1 𝑃 = 0 . 3 0 3
Model 5
 Parents alcohol problem
  No (referent)1.01.01.01.01.01.0
  Yes1.36 (0.87–2.11)2.04 (1.03–4.03)2.12 (1.03–4.36)1.32 (0.67–2.60)1.50 (1.00–2.28)0.87 (0.43–1.75)
 Parental death
  No (referent)1.01.01.01.01.01.0
  Yes1.02 (0.70–1.49)0.72 (0.32–1.60)1.13 (0.52–2.44)1.10 (0.60–1.99)1.05 (0.74–1.48)0.64 (0.34–1.23)
 Parent’s divorce
  No (referent)1.01.01.01.01.01.0
  Yes1.16 (0.37–3.65)0.87 (0.11–6.92)0.70 (0.08–6.11)0.70 (0.15–3.54)1.30 (0.47–3.59)2.57 (0.77–8.54)
 Poor parenting
  No (referent)1.01.01.01.01.01.0
  Yes1.36 (0.99–1.88)1.28 (0.72–2.28)1.62 (0.89–2.95)1.03 (0.60–1.77)1.51 (1.12–2.03)1.11 (0.68–1.80)
 Quarrelsome home
  No (referent)1.01.01.01.01.01.0
  Yes1.99 (1.29–3.07)1.26 (0.54–2.93)2.61 (1.20–5.69)1.66 (0.83–3.34)1.88 (1.24–2.85)1.28 (0.65–2.52)
 Unhappy childhood
  No (referent)1.01.01.01.01.01.0
  Yes1.80 (1.17–2.77)1.51 (0.64–3.61)1.40 (0.53–3.72)0.84 (0.36–1.95)1.60 (1.05–2.43)1.27 (0.62–2.58)
 ACE score
  0 (referent)1.01.01.01.01.01.0
  11.36 (0.85–2.18)2.74 (0.95–7.93)2.30 (0.77–6.93)1.61 (0.74–3.49)1.64 (1.05–2.55)1.02 (0.55–1.92)
  21.18 (0.71–1.98)1.48 (0.46–4.78)1.93 (0.59–6.29)1.66 (0.73–3.78)1.49 (0.92–2.41)0.65 (0.31–1.33)
  32.57 (1.49–4.43)3.62 (1.12–11.73)5.98 (1.83–19.50)1.83 (0.71–4.71)3.14 (1.88–5.26)1.35 (0.62–2.92)
𝑃 = 0 . 0 0 2 𝑃 = 0 . 0 7 7 𝑃 = 0 . 0 0 5 𝑃 = 0 . 2 1 2 𝑃 < 0 . 0 0 1 𝑃 = 0 . 7 2 1

*Test for trend for ACE score categories (0, 1, 2, 3).
Model 1: adjusted for age, examination year.
Model 2: the same as model 1 and childhood socioeconomic position, education.
Model 3: the same as model 1 and adulthood socioeconomic position (income level, occupation).
Model 4: the same as model 1 and behavioural factors in adulthood (body mass index, leisure time physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption).
Model 5: the same as model 2 and adulthood socioeconomic position, and behavioural factors in adulthood.