- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
Advances in Preventive Medicine
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 172423, 8 pages
Changing Trends in the Prevalence and Disparities of Obesity and Other Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Three Racial/Ethnic Groups of USA Adults
1Preventive Medicine Residency Program, Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
2School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
3Departments of Public Health and Community Health Services, Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver, CO 80204, USA
4Department of Family Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
5Department of Biostatistics and Informatics, Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
6Department of Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
Received 26 July 2012; Accepted 1 October 2012
Academic Editor: Jim P. Buttery
Copyright © 2012 Camila X. Romero et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- S. Kanjilal, E. W. Gregg, Y. J. Cheng et al., “Socioeconomic status and trends in disparities in 4 major risk factors for cardiovascular disease among US adults, 1971–2002,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 166, no. 21, pp. 2348–2355, 2006.
- K. J. Greenlund, Z. J. Zheng, N. L. Keenan et al., “Trends in self-reported multiple cardiovascular disease risk factors among adults in the United States, 1991–1999,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 164, no. 2, pp. 181–188, 2004.
- E. W. Gregg, Y. J. Cheng, B. L. Cadwell et al., “Secular trends in cardiovascular desease risk factors according to body mass index in US adults,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 293, no. 15, pp. 1868–1874, 2005.
- M. A. Winkleby, H. C. Kraemer, D. K. Ahn, and A. N. Varady, “Ethnic and socioeconomic differences in cardiovascular disease risk factors: findings for women from the third national health and nutrition examination survey, 1988–1994,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 280, no. 4, pp. 356–362, 1998.
- R. P. Hertz, A. N. Unger, and C. M. Ferrario, “Diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia in Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 103–110, 2006.
- C. L. Ogden, M. D. Carroll, L. R. Curtin, M. A. McDowell, C. J. Tabak, and K. M. Flegal, “Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999–2004,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 295, no. 13, pp. 1549–1555, 2006.
- J. P. Burke, K. Williams, S. P. Gaskill, H. P. Hazuda, S. M. Haffner, and M. P. Stern, “Rapid rise in the incidence of type 2 diabetes from 1987 to 1996: results from the San Antonio Heart Study,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 159, no. 13, pp. 1450–1456, 1999.
- R. P. Hertz, A. N. Unger, J. A. Cornell, and E. Saunders, “Racial disparities in hypertension prevalence, awareness, and management,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 165, no. 18, pp. 2098–2104, 2005.
- J. Sundquist, M. A. Winkleby, and S. Pudaric, “Cardiovascular disease risk factors among older black, Mexican-American, and white women and men: an analysis of NHANES III, 1988–1994,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 109–116, 2001.
- G. A. Mensah, A. H. Mokdad, E. S. Ford, K. J. Greenlund, and J. B. Croft, “State of disparities in cardiovascular health in the United States,” Circulation, vol. 111, no. 10, pp. 1233–1241, 2005.
- NHANES III, (1988–1994), Plan and Operation Report, Hyattsville, Md, USA, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
- NHANES, 1999-2000 data files: data, docs, codebook, SAS code, http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/about/major/nhanes/nhanes99_00.htm.
- NHANES, 2001-2002 data files: data, docs, codebooks, SAS code, http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/about/major/nhanes/nhanes01-02.htm.
- “NHANES, 2003-2004 data files: data, documentation, codebook, and SAS code,” http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/about/major/nhanes/nhanes2003-2004/nhanes03_04.htm.
- G. L. Myers, G. R. Cooper, C. L. Winn, and S. J. Smith, “The Centers for Disease Control-National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute lipid standardization program. An approach to accurate and precise lipid measurements,” Clinics in Laboratory Medicine, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 105–135, 1989.
- “Sample 24985:%SREGSUB macro provides additional capabilities for PROC SURVEYREG,” 2008, http://support.sas.com/kb/24/985.html.
- A. H. Mokdad, E. S. Ford, B. A. Bowman et al., “Diabetes trends in the U.S.: 1990–1998,” Diabetes Care, vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 1278–1283, 2000.
- H. A. Beard, M. A. L. Ghatrif, R. Samper-Ternent, K. Gerst, and K. S. Markides, “Trends in diabetes prevalence and diabetes-related complications in older Mexican Americans from 1993-1994 to 2004-2005,” Diabetes Care, vol. 32, no. 12, pp. 2212–2217, 2009.
- A. Must, J. Spadano, E. H. Coakley, A. E. Field, G. Colditz, and W. H. Dietz, “The disease burden associated with overweight and obesity,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 282, no. 16, pp. 1523–1529, 1999.
- K. M. Flegal, M. D. Carroll, R. J. Kuczmarski, and C. L. Johnson, “Overweight and obesity in the United States: prevalence and trends, 1960–1994,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 39–47, 1998.
- K. M. Flegal, M. D. Carroll, C. L. Ogden, and L. R. Curtin, “Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999–2008,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 303, no. 3, pp. 235–241, 2010.
- M. Al Ghatrif, Y. F. Kuo, S. Al Snih, M. A. Raji, L. A. Ray, and K. S. Markides, “Trends in hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment and control in older Mexican Americans, 1993–2005,” Annals of Epidemiology, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 15–25, 2011.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Vital signs: prevalence, treatment, and control of hypertension—United States, 1999–2002 and 2005–2008,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 103–108, 2011.
- T. Pickering, “Cardiovascular pathways: socioeconomic status and stress effects on hypertension and cardiovascular function,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 896, pp. 262–277, 1999.
- M. A. Albert, R. J. Glynn, J. Buring, and P. M. Ridker, “Impact of traditional and novel risk factors on the relationship between socioeconomic status and incident cardiovascular events,” Circulation, vol. 114, no. 24, pp. 2619–2626, 2006.
- E. Koch, T. Romero, C. X. Romero et al., “Early life and adult socioeconomic influences on mortality risk: preliminary Report of a “Pauper Rich” Paradox in a Chilean Adult Cohort,” Annals of Epidemiology, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 487–492, 2010.
- M. A. Papas, A. J. Alberg, R. Ewing, K. J. Helzlsouer, T. L. Gary, and A. C. Klassen, “The built environment and obesity,” Epidemiologic Reviews, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 129–143, 2007.
- M. Franco, A. V. Diez Roux, T. A. Glass, B. Caballero, and F. L. Brancati, “Neighborhood characteristics and availability of healthy foods in baltimore,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 561–567, 2008.
- J. Ludwig, L. Sanbonmatsu, L. Gennetian, et al., “Neighborhoods, obesity, and Diabetes—a randomized Social Experiment,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 365, pp. 1509–1519, 2011.
- K. M. Flegal, B. I. Graubard, D. F. Williamson, and M. H. Gail, “Excess deaths associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 293, no. 15, pp. 1861–1867, 2005.
- C. M. Y. Lee, R. R. Huxley, R. P. Wildman, and M. Woodward, “Indices of abdominal obesity are better discriminators of cardiovascular risk factors than BMI: a meta-analysis,” Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, vol. 61, no. 7, pp. 646–653, 2008.
- I. Lofgren, K. Herron, T. Zern et al., “Waist circumference is a better predictor than body mass index of coronary heart disease risk in overweight premenopausal women,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 134, no. 5, pp. 1071–1076, 2004.
- D. S. Freedman, H. S. Kahn, Z. Mei et al., “Relation of body mass index and waist-to-height ratio to cardiovascular disease risk factors in children and adolescents: the Bogalusa Heart Study,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 33–40, 2007.
- Office of Management and Budget, “Revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity,” Federal Register, vol. 62, pp. 58782–58790, 1997.
- D. R. Williams, R. Lavizzo-Mourey, and R. C. Warren, “The concept of race and health status in America,” Public Health Reports, vol. 109, pp. 26–41, 1994.
- P. A. Senior and R. Bhopal, “Ethnicity as a variable in epidemiological research,” British Medical Journal, vol. 309, no. 6950, pp. 327–330, 1994.
- E. Vartiainen, T. Seppälä, P. Lillsunde, and P. Puska, “Validation of self reported smoking by serum cotinine measurement in a community-based study,” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 167–170, 2002.
- E. S. Ford and S. Capewell, “Coronary heart disease mortality among young adults in the U.S. from 1980 through 2002. Concealed leveling of mortality rates,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 50, no. 22, pp. 2128–2132, 2007.
- M. O'Flaherty, J. Bishop, A. Redpath et al., “Coronary heart disease mortality among young adults in Scotland in relation to social inequalities: time trend study,” British Medical Journal, vol. 339, p. b2613, 2009.