About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Advances in Preventive Medicine
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 269123, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/269123
Review Article

Developing Effective Health Interventions for Women Who Inject Drugs: Key Areas and Recommendations for Program Development and Policy

1Department of Slavic Languages, Columbia University, 1130 Amsterdam Avenue, Mail Code 2839, New York, NY 10027, USA
2Public Health Policy, Harm Reduction International, Unit 2D12 South Bank Technopark, 90 London Road, London SE1 6LN, UK
3Department of Social Policy and Intervention, University of Oxford, Barnett House, 32 Wellington Square, Oxford OX1 2ER, UK
4Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council, P.O. Box 19070, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
5Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Faculty of Health Sciences Private Bag, Observatory, Cape Town 7935, South Africa

Received 6 August 2012; Accepted 14 September 2012

Academic Editor: Thomas F. Kresina

Copyright © 2012 Sophie Pinkham et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. Roberts, B. Mathers, and Degenhardt on Behalf of the Reference Group to the United Nations on HIV and Injecting Drug Use, Women Who Inject Drugs: A Review of Their Risks, Experiences and Needs, National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre (NDARC), University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia, 2010.
  2. D. C. Des Jarlais, J. P. Feelemyer, S. N. Modi, K. Arasteh, and H. Hagan, “Are females who inject drugs at higher risk for HIV infection than males who inject drugs: an international systematic review of high seroprevalence areas,” Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 124, no. 1-2, pp. 95–107, 2012.
  3. European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, Annual Report 2006: The State of the Drugs Problem in Europe, European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, Lisbon, Portugal, 2012.
  4. R. H. Needle and L. Zhao, HIV Prevention Among Injecting Drug Users: Strengthening U.S. Support for Core Interventions, CSIS Global Health Policy Center, Washington, DC, USA, 2010.
  5. C. Stoicescu, Ed., The Global State of Harm Reduction 2012: Towards an Integrated Response, Harm Reduction International, London, UK, 2012.
  6. Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse, “Injection drug users overview”.
  7. Harm Reduction International, What is Harm Reduction: a position statement, Harm Reduction International, London, UK, 2012, http://www.ihra.net/what-is-harm-reduction.
  8. WHO, UNODC, and UNAIDS, Technical Guide for Countries to Set Targets for Universal Access to HIV Prevention, Treatment and Care for Injecting Drug Users, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2009.
  9. H. I. V. International /AIDS Alliance, Good Practice Guide: HIV and Drug Use: Community Responses to Injecting Drug Use and HIV, International HIV/AIDS Alliance, Hove, UK, 2010.
  10. A. Shapoval and S. Pinkham, “Women and harm reduction in central Asia,” Tech. Rep., Abt Associates, 2011, Quality Health Care Project in the Central Asian Republics.
  11. S. Pinkham and K. Malinowska-Sempruch, Women, Harm Reduction, and HIV, International Harm Reduction Development Program of the Open Society Institute, New York, NY, USA, 2007.
  12. H. Fair, “International review of women's prisons,” Prison Service Journal, no. 184, pp. 3–8, 2009.
  13. K. Burns, Women, Harm Reduction, and HIV: Key Findings from Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, and Ukraine, International Harm Reduction Development Program of the Open Society Institute, New York, NY, USA, 2009.
  14. European Collaborative Study in EuroCoord, H. Bailey, C. Townsend, M. Cortina-Borja, and C. Thorne, “Insufficient antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy: missed opportunities for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Europe,” Antiviral Therapy, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 895–903, 2011.
  15. R. MacRae and E. Aalto, “Gendered power dynamics and HIV risk in drug-using sexual relationships,” AIDS Care, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 505–515, 2000. View at Scopus
  16. M. C. Doherty, R. S. Garfein, E. Monterroso, D. Brown, and D. Vlahov, “Correlates of HIV infection among young adult short-term injection drug users,” AIDS, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 717–726, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. C. A. Latkin, W. Mandell, A. R. Knowlton et al., “Gender differences in injection-related behaviors among injection drug users in Baltimore, Maryland,” AIDS Education and Prevention, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 257–263, 1998. View at Scopus
  18. M. W. Tyndall, R. S. Hogg, M. T. Schechter, and E. Wood, “Requiring help injecting independently predicts incident HIV infection in a prospective cohort study of injection drug users,” in Proceedings of the 15th International AIDS Conference, Bangkok, Thailand, 2004.
  19. W. M. Wechsberg, W. Luseno, K. Riehman, R. Karg, F. Browne, and C. Parry, “Substance use and sexual risk within the context of gender inequality in South Africa,” Substance Use & Misuse, vol. 43, no. 8-9, pp. 1186–1201, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. N. El-Bassel, L. Gilbert, S. Witte, E. Wu, and M. Chang, “Intimate partner violence and HIV among drug-involved women: contexts linking these two epidemics-challenges and implications for prevention and treatment,” Substance Use & Misuse, vol. 46, no. 2-3, pp. 295–306, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. Engstrom, N. El-Bassel, and L. Gilbert, “Childhood sexual abuse characteristics, intimate partner violence exposure, and psychological distress among women in methadone treatment,” Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 366–276, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. C. J. Boyd, “The antecedents of women's crack cocaine abuse: family substance abuse, sexual abuse, depression and illicit drug use,” Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 433–438, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. R. C. Freeman, K. Collier, and K. M. Parillo, “Early life sexual abuse as a risk factor for crack cocaine use in a sample of community-recruited women at high risk for illicit drug use,” American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 109–131, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. D. Kaysen, T. M. Dillworth, T. Simpson, A. Waldrop, M. E. Larimer, and P. A. Resick, “Domestic violence and alcohol use: trauma-related symptoms and motives for drinking,” Addictive Behaviors, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 1272–1283, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. R. D. Weiss, M. L. Griffin, and S. M. Mirin, “Drug abuse as self-medication for depression: an empirical study,” American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 121–129, 1992. View at Scopus
  26. D. E. Grice, K. T. Brady, L. R. Dustan, R. Malcolm, and D. G. Kilpatrick, “Sexual and physical assault history and posttraumatic stress disorder in substance-dependent individuals,” American Journal on Addictions, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 297–305, 1995. View at Scopus
  27. N. El-Bassel, L. Gilbert, R. Schilling, and T. Wada, “Drug abuse and partner violence among women in methadone treatment,” Journal of Family Violence, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 209–228, 2000. View at Scopus
  28. V. Frye, N. El-Bassel, L. Gilbert, V. Rajah, and N. Christie, “Intimate partner sexual abuse among women on methadone,” Violence and Victims, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 553–564, 2001. View at Scopus
  29. R. A. Sansone, J. Chu, and M. W. Wiederman, “Self-inflicted bodily harm among victims of intimate-partner violence,” Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 352–357, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. T. Matsumoto, K. Kosaka, A. Yamaguchi, et al., “Eating disorders in female substance use disorders: a preliminary research on the relationship of substances and eating behaviors,” Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 119–127, 2003.
  31. N. El-Bassel, L. Gilbert, E. Wu, H. Go, and J. Hill, “Relationship between drug abuse and intimate partner violence: a longitudinal study among women receiving methadone,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 95, no. 3, pp. 465–470, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. J. C. Campbell, M. L. Baty, R. M. Ghandour, J. K. Stockman, L. Francisco, and J. Wagman, “The intersection of intimate partner violence against women and HIV/AIDS: a review,” International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 221–231, 2008. View at Scopus
  33. A. Ordean, D. Midmer, L. Graves, S. Payne, and G. Hunt, PRIMA (Pregnancy-Related Issues in the Management of Addictions): A Reference for Care Providers, Department of Family & Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, 2008.
  34. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), Substance Abuse Treatment and Care for Women: Case Studies and Lessons Learned, UN, New York, NY, USA, 2004.
  35. A. H. Kral, J. Lorvick, R. N. Bluthenthal, and J. K. Watters, “HIV risk profile of drug-using women who have sex with women in 19 United States cities,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 211–217, 1997. View at Scopus
  36. J. Absalon, C. M. Fuller, D. C. Ompad et al., “Gender differences in sexual behaviors, sexual partnerships, and HIV among drug users in New York City,” AIDS and Behavior, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 707–715, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. R. M. Young, S. R. Friedman, and P. Case, “Exploring an HIV paradox: an ethnography of sexual minority women injectors,” Journal of Lesbian Studies, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 103–116, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. R. M. Young, S. R. Friedman, P. Case, M. W. Asencio, and M. Clatts, “Women injection drug users who have sex with women exhibit increased HIV infection and risk behaviors,” Journal of Drug Issues, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 499–524, 2000. View at Scopus
  39. M. E. Epele, “Gender, violence and HIV: women's survival in the streets,” Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 33–54, 2002. View at Scopus
  40. P. E. Estebanez, N. K. Russell, M. D. Aguilar et al., “Women, drugs and HIV/AIDS: results of a multicenter European study,” International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 734–743, 2000. View at Scopus
  41. UNAIDS, UNAIDS Guidance Note on HIV and Sex Work, UNAIDS, Geneva, Switzerland, 2009.
  42. K. I. Black, C. Stephens, P. S. Haber, and N. Lintzeris, “Unplanned pregnancy and contraceptive use in women attending drug treatment services,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 146–150, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  43. S. Pinkham and A. Shapoval, Making Harm Reduction Work for Women: The Ukrainian Experience, International Harm Reduction Development Program, Open Society Institute, New York, NY, USA, 2010.
  44. S. Murphy and M. Rosenbaum, Pregnant Women on Drugs: Combating Stereotypes and Stigma, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJ, USA, 1999.
  45. L. A. Paltrow, “Punishment and prejudice: judging drug-using pregnant women,” in Mother Troubles, J. E. Hanigsberg and S. Riddick, Eds., Beacon Press, 1999.
  46. Eurasian Harm Reduction Network and Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network and E.V.A., “Violations of the rights to reproductive health and of women who use drugs in Russian Federation,” Communication to the UN Commission on the Status of Women, 2012.
  47. Eurasian Harm Reduction Network, “Violation of the right to health and reproductive choice in Ukraine,” Communication to the UN Commission on the Status of Women, 2012.
  48. A. Sarang and Andrei Rylkov Foundation, “I v glazakh ya byla konchennyi chelovek,” 2011, http://rylkov-fond.org/blog/lichnye-svidetelstva/kaliningrad-hiv-story/.
  49. WHO and UNODC, UNAIDS Technical Guide for Countries to Set Targets for Universal Access to HIV Prevention, Treatment and Care for Injecting Drug Users, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2009.
  50. American Civil Liberties Union and The Brennan Center, and Break the Chains, Caught in the Net: The Impact of Drug Policies on Women and Families, 2012.
  51. Eurasian Harm Reduction Network, Women and Drug Policy in Eurasia, EHRN, Vilnius, Lithuania, 2010.
  52. WHO-Euro and UNODC, Women's Health in Prison: Correcting Gender Inequity in Prison Health, WHO-Euro, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2009.
  53. UNODC and UNAIDS, Women and HIV in Prison Settings, UNODC, Vienna, Austria.
  54. Columbia Human Rights Law Review, “Special issues of women prisoners,” in A Jailhouse Lawyer's Manual, 2011.
  55. K. Willis and C. Rushforth, “The female criminal: an overview of women's drug use and offending behavior,” in Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra, Australia, 2003.
  56. E. Iakobishvili, Cause for Alarm: The Incarceration of Women for Drug Offences in Europe and Central Asia, and the Need for Legislative and Sentencing Reform, International Harm Reduction Association/Harm Reduction International, London, UK, 2012.
  57. Quaker Council for European Affairs, Women in Prison, 2007, http://www.qcea.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/rprt-wip1-main-en-feb-2007.pdf.
  58. WHO, UNODC, and UNAIDS, “Interventions to address HIV in Prisons: comprehensive review,” Evidence for Action Technical Paper, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland, 2007.
  59. D. J. Javakhishvili, N. Balanchivadze, I. Kirtadze, et al., “Overview of the drug situation in Georgia, 2012,” Georgian Country Situation Summary, 2012.
  60. R. J. Wolitski, D. P. Kidder, and K. A. Fenton, “HIV, homelessness, and public health: critical issues and a call for increased action,” AIDS and Behavior, vol. 11, supplement 2, pp. 167–171, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. L. Maher, Sexed Work: Gender, Race, and Resistance in a Brooklyn Drug Market, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 1997.
  62. A. Taylor, Women Drug Users: An Ethnography of a Female Injecting Community, Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK, 1993.
  63. D. German and C. A. Latkin, “Social stability and HIV risk behavior: evaluating the role of accumulated vulnerability,” AIDS and Behavior, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 168–178, 2012.
  64. E. L. Gollub, “A neglected population: drug-using women and women's methods of HIV/STI prevention,” AIDS Education and Prevention, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 107–120, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. N. Palmateer, J. Kimber, M. Hickman, S. Hutchinson, T. Rhodes, and D. Goldberg, “Evidence for the effectiveness of sterile injecting equipment provision in preventing hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus transmission among injecting drug users: a review of reviews,” Addiction, vol. 105, no. 5, pp. 844–859, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. WHO, UNODC, and UNAIDS, Technical Guide for Countries to Set Targets for Universal Access to HIV Prevention, Treatment and Care for Injecting Drug Users: Updated 2012, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2012.
  67. M. Latka, “Drug-using women need comprehensive sexual risk reduction interventions,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 37, supplement 5, pp. S445–S450, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. S. Semaan, D. C. Des Jarlais, and R. Malow, “Behavior change and health-related interventions for heterosexual risk reduction among drug users,” Substance Use and Misuse, vol. 41, no. 10—12, pp. 1349–1378, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. J. Gay, K. Hardee, M. Croce-Galis, et al., What Works for Women and Girls: Evidence for HIV/AIDS Interventions, Open Society Institute, New York, NY, USA, 2010.
  70. W. M. Wechsberg, E. Krupitsky, T. Romanova, et al., “Double jeopardy—drug and sex risks among Russian women who inject drugs: initial feasibility and efficacy results of a small randomized controlled trial,” Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 2012.
  71. S. G. Sherman, D. German, Y. Cheng, M. Marks, and M. Bailey-Kloche, “The evaluation of the JEWEL project: an innovative economic enhancement and HIV prevention intervention study targeting drug using women involved in prostitution,” AIDS Care, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. M. S. Kumar and M. Sharma, “Women and substance use in India and Bangladesh,” Substance Use & Misuse, vol. 43, no. 8-9, pp. 1062–1077, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. O. S. Ashley, M. E. Marsden, and T. M. Brady, “Effectiveness of substance abuse treatment programming for women: a review,” American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 19–53, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. W. Sword, S. Jack, A. Niccols, K. Milligan, J. Henderson, and L. Thabane, “Integrated programs for women with substance use issues and their children: a qualitative meta-synthesis of processes and outcomes,” Harm Reduction Journal, vol. 6, article 32, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. Open Society Foundations, “By women, for women: new approaches to harm reduction in Russia,” Fact Sheet, Open Society Institute, 2011.
  76. B. Morse, S. Gehshan, and E. Hutchins, Screening for Substance Abuse During Pregnancy: Improving Care, Improving Health, National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Arlington, Va, USA, 2000.
  77. D. Wolfe, M. P. Carrieri, and D. Shepard, “Treatment and care for injecting drug users with HIV infection: a review of barriers and ways forward,” The Lancet, vol. 376, no. 9738, pp. 355–366, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. M. Thumath, “Creating the village for women who use drugs and their families: lessons from the pregnancy outreach project sheway,” in Developing Services for Women Who Use Drugs (Training Module), Eurasian Harm Reduction Network, Ed., 2009.
  79. R. Jurgens, “Nothing About Us Without Us”: Greater, Meaningful Involvement of People Who Use Illegal Drugs: A Public Health, Ethical, and Human Rights Imperative, Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network, International HIV/AIDS Alliance, Open Society Institute, 2008.
  80. Global Coalition on Women and AIDS, Women Who Use Drugs, Harm Reduction and HIV, GCWA, Geneva, Switzerland, 2011.
  81. J. Fellner and P. Vinck, “Targeting blacks: drug law enforcement and race in the United States,” 2008, http://www.hrw.org/en/node/62236/section/1.
  82. R. N. Bluthenthal, J. Lorvick, A. H. Kral, E. A. Erringer, and J. G. Kahn, “Collateral damage in the war on drugs: HIV risk behaviors among injection drug users,” International Journal of Drug Policy, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 25–38, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. L. Degenhardt, W. T. Chiu, N. Sampson et al., “Toward a global view of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and cocaine use: findings from the WHO world mental health surveys,” PLoS Medicine, vol. 5, no. 7, pp. 1053–1067, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. R. Jürgens, A. Ball, and A. Verster, “Interventions to reduce HIV transmission related to injecting drug use in prison,” The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 57–66, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. P. Reuter, “Ten years after the United Nations general assembly special session (UNGASS): assessing drug problems, policies and reform proposals,” Addiction, vol. 104, no. 4, pp. 510–517, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. S. A. Strathdee, T. B. Hallett, N. Bobrova et al., “HIV and risk environment for injecting drug users: the past, present, and future,” The Lancet, vol. 376, no. 9737, pp. 268–284, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. T. Rhodes, M. Singer, P. Bourgois, S. R. Friedman, and S. A. Strathdee, “The social structural production of HIV risk among injecting drug users,” Social Science & Medicine, vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 1026–1044, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus